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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129910

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The survival results of the PORTEC-3 trial showed a significant improvement in both overall and failure-free survival with chemoradiation therapy versus pelvic radiation therapy alone. The present analysis was performed to compare long-term adverse events (AE) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). METHODS AND MATERIALS: In the study, 660 women with high-risk endometrial cancer were randomly assigned to receive chemoradiation therapy (2 concurrent cycles of cisplatin followed by 4 cycles of carboplatin/paclitaxel) or radiation therapy alone. Toxicity was graded using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. HRQOL was measured using EORTC QLQ-C30 and CX24/OV28 subscales and compared with normative data. An as-treated analysis was performed. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 74.6 months; 574 (87%) patients were evaluable for HRQOL. At 5 years, grade ≥2 AE were scored for 78 (38%) patients who had received chemoradiation therapy versus 46 (24%) who had received radiation therapy alone (P = .008). Grade 3 AE did not differ significantly between the groups (8% vs 5%, P = .18) at 5 years, and only one new late grade 4 toxicity had been reported. At 3 and 5 years, sensory neuropathy toxicity grade ≥2 persisted after chemoradiation therapy in 6% (vs 0% after radiation therapy, P < .001) and more patients reported significant tingling or numbness at HRQOL (27% vs 8%, P < .001 at 3 years; 24% vs 9%, P = .002 at 5 years). Up to 3 years, more patients who had chemoradiation therapy reported limb weakness (21% vs 5%, P < .001) and lower physical (79 vs 87, P < .001) and role functioning (78 vs 88, P < .001) scores. Both treatment groups reported similar long-term global health/quality of life scores, which were better than those of the normative population. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows a long-lasting, clinically relevant, negative impact of chemoradiation therapy on toxicity and HRQOL, most importantly persistent peripheral sensory neuropathy. Physical and role functioning impairments were seen until 3 years. These long-term data are essential for patient information and shared decision-making regarding adjuvant chemotherapy for high-risk endometrial cancer.

2.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(29): 3388-3397, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749941

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The randomized Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy Versus Radiotherapy Alone in Women With High-Risk Endometrial Cancer (PORTEC-3) trial investigated the benefit of combined adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy (CTRT) versus radiotherapy alone (RT) for women with high-risk endometrial cancer (EC). Because The Cancer Genome Atlas defined an EC molecular classification with strong prognostic value, we investigated prognosis and impact of chemotherapy for each molecular subgroup using tissue samples from PORTEC-3 trial participants. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded tissues of 423 consenting patients were collected. Immunohistochemistry for p53 and mismatch repair (MMR) proteins, and DNA sequencing for POLE exonuclease domain were done to classify tumors as p53 abnormal (p53abn), POLE-ultramutated (POLEmut), MMR-deficient (MMRd), or no specific molecular profile (NSMP). The primary end point was recurrence-free survival (RFS). Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox model were used for analysis. RESULTS: Molecular analysis was successful in 410 high-risk EC (97%), identifying the 4 subgroups: p53abn EC (n = 93; 23%), POLEmut (n = 51; 12%), MMRd (n = 137; 33%), and NSMP (n = 129; 32%). Five-year RFS was 48% for patients with p53abn EC, 98% for POLEmut EC, 72% for MMRd EC, and 74% for NSMP EC (P < .001). The 5-year RFS with CTRT versus RT for p53abn EC was 59% versus 36% (P = .019); 100% versus 97% for patients with POLEmut EC (P = .637); 68% versus 76% (P = .428) for MMRd EC; and 80% versus 68% (P = .243) for NSMP EC. CONCLUSION: Molecular classification has strong prognostic value in high-risk EC, with significantly improved RFS with adjuvant CTRT for p53abn tumors, regardless of histologic type. Patients with POLEmut EC had an excellent RFS in both trial arms. EC molecular classification should be incorporated in the risk stratification of these patients as well as in future trials to target specific subgroups of patients.

3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3083, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576828

RESUMO

Short-term fasting protects tumor-bearing mice against the toxic effects of chemotherapy while enhancing therapeutic efficacy. We randomized 131 patients with HER2-negative stage II/III breast cancer, without diabetes and a BMI over 18 kg m-2, to receive either a fasting mimicking diet (FMD) or their regular diet for 3 days prior to and during neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Here we show that there was no difference in toxicity between both groups, despite the fact that dexamethasone was omitted in the FMD group. A radiologically complete or partial response occurs more often in patients using the FMD (OR 3.168, P = 0.039). Moreover, per-protocol analysis reveals that the Miller&Payne 4/5 pathological response, indicating 90-100% tumor-cell loss, is more likely to occur in patients using the FMD (OR 4.109, P = 0.016). Also, the FMD significantly curtails chemotherapy-induced DNA damage in T-lymphocytes. These positive findings encourage further exploration of the benefits of fasting/FMD in cancer therapy. Trial number: NCT02126449.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/dietoterapia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Dieta , Jejum , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Dano ao DNA , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Glucose/química , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Menopausa , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Países Baixos , Qualidade de Vida , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
4.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 181(2): 423-434, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three tools are currently available to predict the risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC). We aimed to compare the performance of the Manchester formula, CBCrisk, and PredictCBC in patients with invasive breast cancer (BC). METHODS: We analyzed data of 132,756 patients (4682 CBC) from 20 international studies with a median follow-up of 8.8 years. Prediction performance included discrimination, quantified as a time-dependent Area-Under-the-Curve (AUC) at 5 and 10 years after diagnosis of primary BC, and calibration, quantified as the expected-observed (E/O) ratio at 5 and 10 years and the calibration slope. RESULTS: The AUC at 10 years was: 0.58 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.57-0.59) for CBCrisk; 0.60 (95% CI 0.59-0.61) for the Manchester formula; 0.63 (95% CI 0.59-0.66) and 0.59 (95% CI 0.56-0.62) for PredictCBC-1A (for settings where BRCA1/2 mutation status is available) and PredictCBC-1B (for the general population), respectively. The E/O at 10 years: 0.82 (95% CI 0.51-1.32) for CBCrisk; 1.53 (95% CI 0.63-3.73) for the Manchester formula; 1.28 (95% CI 0.63-2.58) for PredictCBC-1A and 1.35 (95% CI 0.65-2.77) for PredictCBC-1B. The calibration slope was 1.26 (95% CI 1.01-1.50) for CBCrisk; 0.90 (95% CI 0.79-1.02) for PredictCBC-1A; 0.81 (95% CI 0.63-0.99) for PredictCBC-1B, and 0.39 (95% CI 0.34-0.43) for the Manchester formula. CONCLUSIONS: Current CBC risk prediction tools provide only moderate discrimination and the Manchester formula was poorly calibrated. Better predictors and re-calibration are needed to improve CBC prediction and to identify low- and high-CBC risk patients for clinical decision-making.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , Mastectomia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/metabolismo , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
5.
Int J Gynecol Pathol ; 39(5): 420-427, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460873

RESUMO

Surgical resection with free surgical margins is the cornerstone of successful primary treatment of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC). In general reexcision is recommended when the minimum peripheral surgical margin (MPSM) is <8 mm microscopically. Pathologists are, therefore, required to report the minimum distance from the tumor to the surgical margin. Currently, there are no guidelines on how to make this measurement, as this is often considered straightforward. However, during the 2018 Annual Meeting of the British Association of Gynaecological Pathologists (BAGP), a discussion on this topic revealed a variety of opinions with regard to reporting and method of measuring margin clearance in VSCC specimens. Given the need for uniformity and the lack of guidance in the literature, we initiated an online survey in order to deliver a consensus-based definition of peripheral surgical margins in VSCC resections. The survey included questions and representative diagrams of peripheral margin measurements. In total, 57 pathologists participated in this survey. On the basis of consensus results, we propose to define MPSM in VSCC as the minimum distance from the peripheral edge of the invasive tumor nests toward the inked peripheral surgical margin reported in millimeters. This MPSM measurement should run through tissue and preferably be measured in a straight line. Along with MPSM, other relevant measurements such as depth of invasion or tumor thickness and distance to deep margins should be reported. This manuscript provides guidance to the practicing pathologist in measuring MPSM in VSCC resection specimens, in order to promote uniformity in measuring and reporting.

6.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 144, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer survivors are at risk for contralateral breast cancer (CBC), with the consequent burden of further treatment and potentially less favorable prognosis. We aimed to develop and validate a CBC risk prediction model and evaluate its applicability for clinical decision-making. METHODS: We included data of 132,756 invasive non-metastatic breast cancer patients from 20 studies with 4682 CBC events and a median follow-up of 8.8 years. We developed a multivariable Fine and Gray prediction model (PredictCBC-1A) including patient, primary tumor, and treatment characteristics and BRCA1/2 germline mutation status, accounting for the competing risks of death and distant metastasis. We also developed a model without BRCA1/2 mutation status (PredictCBC-1B) since this information was available for only 6% of patients and is routinely unavailable in the general breast cancer population. Prediction performance was evaluated using calibration and discrimination, calculated by a time-dependent area under the curve (AUC) at 5 and 10 years after diagnosis of primary breast cancer, and an internal-external cross-validation procedure. Decision curve analysis was performed to evaluate the net benefit of the model to quantify clinical utility. RESULTS: In the multivariable model, BRCA1/2 germline mutation status, family history, and systemic adjuvant treatment showed the strongest associations with CBC risk. The AUC of PredictCBC-1A was 0.63 (95% prediction interval (PI) at 5 years, 0.52-0.74; at 10 years, 0.53-0.72). Calibration-in-the-large was -0.13 (95% PI: -1.62-1.37), and the calibration slope was 0.90 (95% PI: 0.73-1.08). The AUC of Predict-1B at 10 years was 0.59 (95% PI: 0.52-0.66); calibration was slightly lower. Decision curve analysis for preventive contralateral mastectomy showed potential clinical utility of PredictCBC-1A between thresholds of 4-10% 10-year CBC risk for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and non-carriers. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a reasonably calibrated model to predict the risk of CBC in women of European-descent; however, prediction accuracy was moderate. Our model shows potential for improved risk counseling, but decision-making regarding contralateral preventive mastectomy, especially in the general breast cancer population where limited information of the mutation status in BRCA1/2 is available, remains challenging.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/etiologia , Área Sob a Curva , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/prevenção & controle , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(24): 7517-7526, 2019 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492746

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Whether endometrial carcinoma (EC) should be considered part of the gBRCA1/2-associated hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome is topic of debate. We sought to assess whether ECs occurring in gBRCA carriers are enriched for clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics, thereby supporting a causal relationship. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Thirty-eight gBRCA carriers that developed EC were selected from the nationwide cohort study on hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in the Netherlands (HEBON), and these were supplemented with four institutional cases. Tumor tissue was retrieved via PALGA (Dutch Pathology Registry). Nineteen morphologic features were scored and histotype was determined by three expert gynecologic pathologists, blinded for molecular analyses (UCM-OncoPlus Assay including 1213 genes). ECs with LOH of the gBRCA-wild-type allele (gBRCA/LOHpos) were defined "gBRCA-associated," those without LOH (gBRCA/LOHneg) were defined "sporadic." RESULTS: LOH could be assessed for 40 ECs (30 gBRCA1, 10 gBRCA2), of which 60% were gBRCA/LOHpos. gBRCA/LOHpos ECs were more frequently of nonendometrioid (58%, P = 0.001) and grade 3 histology (79%, P < 0.001). All but two were in the TP53-mutated TCGA-subgroup (91.7%, P < 0.001). In contrast, gBRCA/LOHneg ECs were mainly grade 1 endometrioid EC (94%) and showed a more heterogeneous distribution of TCGA-molecular subgroups: POLE-mutated (6.3%), MSI-high (25%), NSMP (62.5%), and TP53-mutated (6.3%). CONCLUSIONS: We provide novel evidence in favor of EC being part of the gBRCA-associated HBOC-syndrome. gBRCA-associated ECs are enriched for EC subtypes associated with unfavorable clinical outcome. These findings have profound therapeutic consequences as these patients may benefit from treatment strategies such as PARP inhibitors. In addition, it should influence counseling and surveillance of gBRCA carriers.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias do Endométrio/classificação , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores
8.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 97, 2019 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adjuvant bisphosphonates are associated with improved breast cancer survival in postmenopausal patients. Addition of zoledronic acid (ZA) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy did not improve pathological complete response in the phase III NEOZOTAC trial. Here we report the results of the secondary endpoints, disease-free survival, (DFS) and overall survival (OS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with HER2-negative, stage II/III breast cancer were randomized to receive the standard 6 cycles of neoadjuvant TAC (docetaxel/doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide) chemotherapy with or without 4 mg intravenous (IV) ZA administered within 24 h of chemotherapy. This was repeated every 21 days for 6 cycles. Cox regression models were used to evaluate the effect of ZA and covariates on DFS and OS. Regression models were used to examine the association between insulin, glucose, insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels, and IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) expression with survival outcomes. RESULTS: Two hundred forty-six women were eligible for inclusion. After a median follow-up of 6.4 years, OS for all patients was significantly worse for those who received ZA (HR 0.468, 95% CI 0.226-0.967, P = 0.040). DFS was not significantly different between the treatment arms (HR 0.656, 95% CI 0.371-1.160, P = 0.147). In a subgroup analysis of postmenopausal women, no significant difference in DFS or OS was found for those who received ZA compared with the control group (HR 0.464, 95% CI 0.176-1.222, P = 0.120; HR 0.539, 95% CI 0.228-1.273, P = 0.159, respectively). The subgroup analysis of premenopausal patients was not significantly different for DFS and OS ((HR 0.798, 95% CI 0.369-1.725, P = 0.565; HR 0.456, 95% CI 0.156-1.336, P = 0.152, respectively). Baseline IGF-1R expression was not significantly associated with DFS or OS. In a predefined additional study, lower serum levels of insulin were associated with improved DFS (HR 1.025, 95% CI 1.005-1.045, P = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that ZA in combination with neoadjuvant chemotherapy was associated with a worse OS in breast cancer (both pre- and postmenopausal patients). However, in a subgroup analysis of postmenopausal patients, ZA treatment was not associated with DFS or OS. Also, DFS was not significantly different between both groups. IGF-1R expression in tumor tissue before and after neoadjuvant treatment did not predict survival. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01099436 , April 2010.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Ácido Zoledrônico/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida , Ácido Zoledrônico/administração & dosagem
9.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(9): 1273-1285, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The PORTEC-3 trial investigated the benefit of combined adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy versus pelvic radiotherapy alone for women with high-risk endometrial cancer. We updated the analysis to investigate patterns of recurrence and did a post-hoc survival analysis. METHODS: In the multicentre randomised phase 3 PORTEC-3 trial, women with high-risk endometrial cancer were eligible if they had International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) 2009 stage I, endometrioid grade 3 cancer with deep myometrial invasion or lymphovascular space invasion, or both; stage II or III disease; or stage I-III disease with serous or clear cell histology; were aged 18 years and older; and had a WHO performance status of 0-2. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive radiotherapy alone (48·6 Gy in 1·8 Gy fractions given on 5 days per week) or chemoradiotherapy (two cycles of cisplatin 50 mg/m2 given intravenously during radiotherapy, followed by four cycles of carboplatin AUC5 and paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 given intravenously), by use of a biased coin minimisation procedure with stratification for participating centre, lymphadenectomy, stage, and histological type. The co-primary endpoints were overall survival and failure-free survival. Secondary endpoints of vaginal, pelvic, and distant recurrence were analysed according to the first site of recurrence. Survival endpoints were analysed by intention-to-treat, and adjusted for stratification factors. Competing risk methods were used for failure-free survival and recurrence. We did a post-hoc analysis to analyse patterns of recurrence with 1 additional year of follow-up. The study was closed on Dec 20, 2013; follow-up is ongoing. This study is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN14387080, and ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00411138. FINDINGS: Between Nov 23, 2006, and Dec 20, 2013, 686 women were enrolled, of whom 660 were eligible and evaluable (330 in the chemoradiotherapy group, and 330 in the radiotherapy-alone group). At a median follow-up of 72·6 months (IQR 59·9-85·6), 5-year overall survival was 81·4% (95% CI 77·2-85·8) with chemoradiotherapy versus 76·1% (71·6-80·9) with radiotherapy alone (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0·70 [95% CI 0·51-0·97], p=0·034), and 5-year failure-free survival was 76·5% (95% CI 71·5-80·7) versus 69·1% (63·8-73·8; HR 0·70 [0·52-0·94], p=0·016). Distant metastases were the first site of recurrence in most patients with a relapse, occurring in 78 of 330 women (5-year probability 21·4%; 95% CI 17·3-26·3) in the chemoradiotherapy group versus 98 of 330 (5-year probability 29·1%; 24·4-34·3) in the radiotherapy-alone group (HR 0·74 [95% CI 0·55-0·99]; p=0·047). Isolated vaginal recurrence was the first site of recurrence in one patient (0·3%; 95% CI 0·0-2·1) in both groups (HR 0·99 [95% CI 0·06-15·90]; p=0·99), and isolated pelvic recurrence was the first site of recurrence in three women (0·9% [95% CI 0·3-2·8]) in the chemoradiotherapy group versus four (0·9% [95% CI 0·3-2·8]) in the radiotherapy-alone group (HR 0·75 [95% CI 0·17-3·33]; p=0·71). At 5 years, only one grade 4 adverse event (ileus or obstruction) was reported (in the chemoradiotherapy group). At 5 years, reported grade 3 adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups, occurring in 16 (8%) of 201 women in the chemoradiotherapy group versus ten (5%) of 187 in the radiotherapy-alone group (p=0·24). The most common grade 3 adverse event was hypertension (in four [2%] women in both groups). At 5 years, grade 2 or worse adverse events were reported in 76 (38%) of 201 women in the chemoradiotherapy group versus 43 (23%) of 187 in the radiotherapy-alone group (p=0·002). Sensory neuropathy persisted more often after chemoradiotherapy than after radiotherapy alone, with 5-year rates of grade 2 or worse neuropathy of 6% (13 of 201 women) versus 0% (0 of 187). No treatment-related deaths were reported. INTERPRETATION: This updated analysis shows significantly improved overall survival and failure-free survival with chemoradiotherapy versus radiotherapy alone. This treatment schedule should be discussed and recommended, especially for women with stage III or serous cancers, or both, as part of shared decision making between doctors and patients. Follow-up is ongoing to evaluate long-term survival. FUNDING: Dutch Cancer Society, Cancer Research UK, National Health and Medical Research Council, Project Grant, Cancer Australia Grant, Italian Medicines Agency, and the Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Endométrio/radioterapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Idoso , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Carboplatina/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 26(10): 779-794, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340200

RESUMO

Male breast cancer (MBC) is extremely rare and accounts for less than 1% of all breast malignancies. Therefore, clinical management of MBC is currently guided by research on the disease in females. In this study, DNA obtained from 45 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) MBCs with and 90 MBCs (52 FFPE and 38 fresh-frozen) without matched normal tissues was subjected to massively parallel sequencing targeting all exons of 1943 cancer-related genes. The landscape of mutations and copy number alterations was compared to that of publicly available estrogen receptor (ER)-positive female breast cancers (smFBCs) and correlated to prognosis. From the 135 MBCs, 90% showed ductal histology, 96% were ER-positive, 66% were progesterone receptor (PR)-positive, and 2% HER2-positive, resulting in 50, 46 and 4% luminal A-like, luminal B-like and basal-like cases, respectively. Five patients had Klinefelter syndrome (4%) and 11% of patients harbored pathogenic BRCA2 germline mutations. The genomic landscape of MBC to some extent recapitulated that of smFBC, with recurrent PIK3CA (36%) and GATA3 (15%) somatic mutations, and with 40% of the most frequently amplified genes overlapping between both sexes. TP53 (3%) somatic mutations were significantly less frequent in MBC compared to smFBC, whereas somatic mutations in genes regulating chromatin function and homologous recombination deficiency-related signatures were more prevalent. MDM2 amplifications were frequent (13%), correlated with protein overexpression (P = 0.001) and predicted poor outcome (P = 0.007). In conclusion, despite similarities in the genomic landscape between MBC and smFBC, MBC is a molecularly unique and heterogeneous disease requiring its own clinical trials and treatment guidelines.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/patologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Amplificação de Genes , Genoma Humano/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Oncogenes/genética , Prognóstico
11.
Histopathology ; 75(1): 128-136, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155736

RESUMO

AIMS: Lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) in endometrial cancer (EC) is an important prognostic variable impacting on a patient's individual recurrence risk and adjuvant treatment recommendations. Recent work has shown that grading the extent of LVSI further improves its prognostic strength in patients with stage I endometrioid EC. Despite this, there is little information on the reproducibility of LVSI assessment in EC. Therefore, we designed a study to evaluate interobserver agreement in discriminating true LVSI from LVSI mimics (Phase I) and reproducibility of grading extent of LVSI (Phase II). METHODS AND RESULTS: Scanned haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) slides of endometrioid EC (EEC) with a predefined possible LVSI focus were hosted on a website and assessed by a panel of six European gynaecological pathologists. In Phase I, 48 H&E slides were included for LVSI assessment and in Phase II, 42 H&E slides for LVSI grading. Each observer was instructed to apply the criteria for LVSI used in daily practice. The degree of agreement was measured using the two-way absolute agreement average-measures intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Reproducibility of LVSI assessment (ICC = 0.64, P < 0.001) and LVSI grading (ICC = 0.62, P < 0.001) in EEC was substantial among the observers. CONCLUSIONS: Given the good reproducibility of LVSI, this study further supports the important role of LVSI in decision algorithms for adjuvant treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Endometrioide/secundário , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Carcinoma Endometrioide/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Linfática/diagnóstico , Vasos Linfáticos/patologia , Gradação de Tumores/métodos , Invasividade Neoplásica/diagnóstico , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(3): 1087-1097, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413523

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The elevated levels of somatic copy-number alterations (SCNAs) in a subset of high-risk endometrial cancers are suggestive of defects in pathways governing genome integrity. We sought to assess the prevalence of homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) in endometrial cancers and its association with histopathologic and molecular characteristics. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Fresh tumor tissue was prospectively collected from 36 endometrial cancers, and functional HRD was examined by the ability of replicating tumor cells to accumulate RAD51 protein at DNA double-strand breaks (RAD51 foci) induced by ionizing radiation. Genomic alterations were determined by next-generation sequencing and array comparative genomic hybridization/SNP array. The prevalence of BRCA-associated genomic scars, a surrogate marker for HRD, was determined in the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) endometrial cancer cohort. RESULTS: Most endometrial cancers included in the final analysis (n = 25) were of non-endometrioid (52%), grade 3 (60%) histology, and FIGO stage I (72%). HRD was observed in 24% (n = 6) of cases and was restricted to non-endometrioid endometrial cancers (NEEC), with 46% of NEECs being HRD compared with none of the endometrioid endometrial cancers (EEC, P = 0.014). All but 1 of the HRD cases harbored either a pathogenic BRCA1 variant or high somatic copy-number (SCN) losses of HR genes. Analysis of TCGA cases supported these results, with BRCA-associated genomic scars present in up to 48% (63/132) of NEEC versus 12% (37/312) of EEC (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: HRD occurs in endometrial cancers and is largely restricted to non-endometrioid, TP53-mutant endometrial cancers. Evaluation of HRD may help select patients that could benefit from treatments targeting this defect, including platinum compounds and PARP inhibitors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Endométrio/metabolismo , Recombinação Homóloga/genética , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Idoso , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla/efeitos dos fármacos , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias do Endométrio/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Endométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Recombinação Homóloga/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo
13.
Ann Surg ; 270(2): 364-372, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29727326

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of different types of surgery on breast cancer prognosis in germline BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers compared with noncarriers. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although breast-conserving therapy (breast-conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy) has been associated with more local recurrences than mastectomy, no differences in overall survival have been found in randomized trials performed in the general breast cancer population. Whether breast-conservation can be safely offered to BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is debatable. METHODS: The study comprised a cohort of women with invasive breast cancer diagnosed <50 years and treated between 1970 and 2003 in 10 Dutch centers. Germline DNA for BRCA1/2 testing of most-prevalent mutations (covering ∼61%) was mainly derived from paraffin-blocks. Survival analyses were performed taking into account competing risks. RESULTS: In noncarriers (N = 5820), as well as in BRCA1 (N = 191) and BRCA2 (N = 70) mutation carriers, approximately half of the patients received breast-conserving therapy. Patients receiving mastectomy followed by radiotherapy had prognostically worse tumor characteristics and more often received systemic therapy. After adjustment for these potential confounders, patients who received breast-conserving therapy had a similar overall survival compared with patients who received mastectomy, both in noncarriers (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.95, confidence interval [CI] = 0.85-1.07, P = 0.41) and BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR = 0.80, CI = 0.42-1.51, P = 0.50). Numbers for BRCA2 were insufficient to draw conclusions. The rate of local recurrences after breast-conserving therapy did not differ between BRCA1 carriers (10-year risk = 7.3%) and noncarriers (10-year risk = 7.9%). CONCLUSION: Our results, together with the available literature, provide reassurance that breast-conserving therapy is a safe local treatment option to offer to BRCA1 mutation carriers with invasive breast cancer.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Mastectomia Radical/métodos , Mastectomia Segmentar/métodos , Mutação , Adulto , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
14.
J Mol Diagn ; 20(5): 600-611, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29936257

RESUMO

BRCA1/2 variant analysis in tumor tissue could streamline the referral of patients with epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer to genetic counselors and select patients who benefit most from targeted treatment. We investigated the sensitivity of BRCA1/2 variant analysis in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue using a combination of next-generation sequencing and copy number variant multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. After optimization using a training cohort of known BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, validation was performed in a prospective cohort in which screening of BRCA1/2 tumor DNA and leukocyte germline DNA was performed in parallel. BRCA1 promoter hypermethylation and pedigree analysis were also performed. In the training cohort, 45 of 46 germline BRCA1/2 variants were detected (sensitivity, 98%). In the prospective cohort (n = 62), all six germline variants were identified (sensitivity, 100%), together with five somatic BRCA1/2 variants and eight cases with BRCA1 promoter hypermethylation. In four BRCA1/2 variant-negative patients, surveillance or prophylactic management options were offered on the basis of positive family histories. We conclude that BRCA1/2 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue analysis reliably detects BRCA1/2 variants. When taking family history of BRCA1/2 variant-negative patients into account, tumor BRCA1/2 variant screening allows more efficient selection of epithelial ovarian cancer patients for genetic counseling and simultaneously selects patients who benefit most from targeted treatment.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Testes Genéticos , Variação Genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Metilação de DNA/genética , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
15.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 171(1): 65-74, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29766362

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have been shown to be prognostic for disease-free survival and predictive for the benefit of chemotherapy in patients with early breast cancer, but have not been studied for endocrine therapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The number of CD8-positive TILs was assessed in a subcohort of 236 patients in the Intergroup Exemestane Study. AQ After 2-3 years of adjuvant tamoxifen, AQpatients were randomized between the schemes of continuation for 5 years on tamoxifen and switching to exemestane. The numbers of CD8-positive TILs were analysed for correlations with disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). A similar analysis was performed on 2596 patients in the TEAM trial who were randomized between the sequential scheme and the exemestane monotherapy. RESULTS: In the first cohort, patients with low (below median) numbers of CD8-positive TILs had a univariate hazard ratio (HR) for DFS of 0.27 (95% CI 0.13-0.55) in favour of treatment with exemestane, whereas this benefit was not observed in patients with high numbers of CD8-positive TILs (HR 1.34, 95% CI 0.71-2.50, HR for interaction 5.02, p = 0.001). In the second cohort, patients with low numbers of CD8-positive TILs showed a benefit of exemestane treatment on recurrence-free survival (RFS HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.45-0.99), and not with above-median numbers of CD8-positive TILs (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.59-1.26, HR for interaction 1.29, p = 0.36). CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to propose the number of CD8-positive TILs as potential predictive markers for endocrine therapy, with the low presence of CD8-positive TILs associated to benefit for exemestane-inclusive therapy. However, treatment-by-marker interactions were only significant in one cohort, indicating the need for further validation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6574, 2018 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29700408

RESUMO

E-cadherin (CDH1) is a putative tumor suppressor gene implicated in breast carcinogenesis. Yet, whether risk factors or survival differ by E-cadherin tumor expression is unclear. We evaluated E-cadherin tumor immunohistochemistry expression using tissue microarrays of 5,933 female invasive breast cancers from 12 studies from the Breast Cancer Consortium. H-scores were calculated and case-case odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. Survival analyses were performed using Cox regression models. All analyses were stratified by estrogen receptor (ER) status and histologic subtype. E-cadherin low cases (N = 1191, 20%) were more frequently of lobular histology, low grade, >2 cm, and HER2-negative. Loss of E-cadherin expression (score < 100) was associated with menopausal hormone use among ER-positive tumors (ever compared to never users, OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.97-1.59), which was stronger when we evaluated complete loss of E-cadherin (i.e. H-score = 0), OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.06-2.33. Breast cancer specific mortality was unrelated to E-cadherin expression in multivariable models. E-cadherin low expression is associated with lobular histology, tumor characteristics and menopausal hormone use, with no evidence of an association with breast cancer specific survival. These data support loss of E-cadherin expression as an important marker of tumor subtypes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Caderinas/genética , Expressão Gênica , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
17.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(13): 3197-3203, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29559562

RESUMO

Purpose: Pathogenic POLE proofreading domain mutations are found in many malignancies where they are associated with ultramutation and favorable prognosis. The extent to which this prognosis depends on their sensitivity to adjuvant treatment is unknown, as is the optimal therapy for advanced-staged or recurrent POLE-mutant cancers.Experimental Design: We examined the recurrence-free survival of women with POLE-mutant and POLE-wild-type endometrial cancers (EC) in the observation arm of the randomized PORTEC-1 endometrial cancer trial (N = 245 patients with stage I endometrial cancer for analysis). Sensitivity to radiotherapy and selected chemotherapeutics was compared between Pole-mutant mouse-derived embryonic stem (mES) cells, generated using CRISPR-Cas9 (Pole mutations D275A/E275A, and cancer-associated P286R, S297F, V411L) and isogenic wild-type cell lines.Results: In the observation arm of the PORTEC-1 trial (N = 245), women with POLE-mutant endometrial cancers (N = 16) had an improved recurrence-free survival (10-year recurrence-free survival 100% vs. 80.1% for POLE-wild-type; HR, 0.143; 95% confidence interval, 0.001-0.996; P = 0.049). Pole mutations did not increase sensitivity to radiotherapy nor to chemotherapeutics in mES cells. In contrast, Pole-mutant cells displayed significantly increased sensitivity to cytarabine and fludarabine (IC50Pole P286R-mutant vs. wild-type: 0.05 vs. 0.17 µmol/L for cytarabine, 4.62 vs. 11.1 µmol/L for fludarabine; P < 0.001 for both comparisons).Conclusions: The favorable prognosis of POLE-mutant cancers cannot be explained by increased sensitivity to currently used adjuvant treatments. These results support studies exploring minimization of adjuvant therapy for early-stage POLE-mutant cancers, including endometrial and colorectal cancers. Conversely, POLE mutations result in hypersensitivity to nucleoside analogues, suggesting the use of these compounds as a potentially effective targeted treatment for advanced-stage POLE-mutant cancers. Clin Cancer Res; 24(13); 3197-203. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , DNA Polimerase II/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose/genética , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas/genética , Tolerância a Radiação/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , DNA Polimerase II/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose/química , Prognóstico , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 482, 2018 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29396493

RESUMO

Male breast cancer (MBC) is rare and poorly characterized. Like the female counterpart, most MBCs are hormonally driven, but relapse after hormonal treatment is also noted. The pan-hormonal action of steroid hormonal receptors, including estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), androgen receptor (AR), progesterone receptor (PR), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in this understudied tumor type remains wholly unexamined. This study reveals genomic cross-talk of steroid hormone receptor action and interplay in human tumors, here in the context of MBC, in relation to the female disease and patient outcome. Here we report the characterization of human breast tumors of both genders for cistromic make-up of hormonal regulation in human tumors, revealing genome-wide chromatin binding landscapes of ERα, AR, PR, GR, FOXA1, and GATA3 and enhancer-enriched histone mark H3K4me1. We integrate these data with transcriptomics to reveal gender-selective and genomic location-specific hormone receptor actions, which associate with survival in MBC patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/metabolismo , Fator 3-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
Lancet Oncol ; 19(3): 295-309, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29449189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although women with endometrial cancer generally have a favourable prognosis, those with high-risk disease features are at increased risk of recurrence. The PORTEC-3 trial was initiated to investigate the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy during and after radiotherapy (chemoradiotherapy) versus pelvic radiotherapy alone for women with high-risk endometrial cancer. METHODS: PORTEC-3 was an open-label, international, randomised, phase 3 trial involving 103 centres in six clinical trials collaborating in the Gynaecological Cancer Intergroup. Eligible women had high-risk endometrial cancer with FIGO 2009 stage I, endometrioid-type grade 3 with deep myometrial invasion or lymph-vascular space invasion (or both), endometrioid-type stage II or III, or stage I to III with serous or clear cell histology. Women were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive radiotherapy alone (48·6 Gy in 1·8 Gy fractions given on 5 days per week) or radiotherapy and chemotherapy (consisting of two cycles of cisplatin 50 mg/m2 given during radiotherapy, followed by four cycles of carboplatin AUC5 and paclitaxel 175 mg/m2) using a biased-coin minimisation procedure with stratification for participating centre, lymphadenectomy, stage of cancer, and histological type. The co-primary endpoints were overall survival and failure-free survival. We used the Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox regression analysis for final analysis by intention to treat and adjusted for stratification factors. The study was closed on Dec 20, 2013, after achieving complete accrual; follow-up is ongoing. PORTEC-3 is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN14387080, and ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00411138. RESULTS: 686 women were enrolled between Nov 23, 2006, and Dec 20, 2013. 660 eligible patients were included in the final analysis, of whom 330 were assigned to chemoradiotherapy and 330 were assigned to radiotherapy. Median follow-up was 60·2 months (IQR 48·1-73·1). 5-year overall survival was 81·8% (95% CI 77·5-86·2) with chemoradiotherapy versus 76·7% (72·1-81·6) with radiotherapy (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0·76, 95% CI 0·54-1·06; p=0·11); 5-year failure-free survival was 75·5% (95% CI 70·3-79·9) versus 68·6% (63·1-73·4; HR 0·71, 95% CI 0·53-0·95; p=0·022). Grade 3 or worse adverse events during treatment occurred in 198 (60%) of 330 who received chemoradiotherapy versus 41 (12%) of 330 patients who received radiotherapy (p<0·0001). Neuropathy (grade 2 or worse) persisted significantly more often after chemoradiotherapy than after radiotherapy (20 [8%] women vs one [1%] at 3 years; p<0·0001). Most deaths were due to endometrial cancer; in four patients (two in each group), the cause of death was uncertain. One death in the radiotherapy group was due to either disease progression or late treatment complications; three deaths (two in the chemoradiotherapy group and one in the radiotherapy group) were due to either intercurrent disease or late treatment-related toxicity. INTERPRETATION: Adjuvant chemotherapy given during and after radiotherapy for high-risk endometrial cancer did not improve 5-year overall survival, although it did increase failure-free survival. Women with high-risk endometrial cancer should be individually counselled about this combined treatment. Continued follow-up is needed to evaluate long-term survival. FUNDING: Dutch Cancer Society, Cancer Research UK, National Health and Medical Research Council Project Grant and Cancer Australia, L'Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco, and Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Endometrioide/radioterapia , Carcinoma Endometrioide/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Neoplasias do Endométrio/terapia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Austrália , Canadá , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Endometrioide/mortalidade , Carcinoma Endometrioide/patologia , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante/mortalidade , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Endométrio/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/mortalidade , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nova Zelândia , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Histopathology ; 72(2): 248-258, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28795426

RESUMO

AIMS: POLE exonuclease domain mutations identify a subset of endometrial cancer (EC) patients with an excellent prognosis. The use of this biomarker has been suggested to refine adjuvant treatment decisions, but the necessary sequencing is not widely performed and is relatively expensive. Therefore, we aimed to identify histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics to aid in the detection of POLE-mutant ECs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty-one POLE-mutant endometrioid, 67 POLE-wild-type endometrioid and 15 POLE-wild-type serous ECs were included (total N = 133). An expert gynaecopathologist, blinded to molecular features, evaluated each case (two or more slides) for 16 morphological characteristics. Immunohistochemistry was performed for p53, p16, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2. POLE-mutant ECs were characterised by a prominent immune infiltrate: 80% showed peritumoral lymphocytes and 59% showed tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes, as compared with 43% and 28% of POLE-wild-type endometrioid ECs, and 27% and 13% of their serous counterparts (P < 0.01, all comparisons). Of POLE-mutant ECs, 33% contained tumour giant cells; this proportion was significantly higher than that in POLE-wild-type endometrioid ECs (10%; P = 0.003), but not significantly different from that in serous ECs (53%). Serous-like features were as often (focally) present in POLE-mutant as in POLE-wild-type endometrioid ECs (6-24%, depending on the feature). The majority of POLE-mutant ECs showed wild-type p53 (86%), negative/focal p16 (82%) and normal mismatch repair protein expression (90%). CONCLUSIONS: A simple combination of morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics (tumour type, grade, peritumoral lymphocytes, MLH1, and p53 expression) can assist in prescreening for POLE exonuclease domain mutations in EC, increasing the probability of a mutation being detected from 7% to 33%. This facilitates the use of this important prognostic biomarker in routine pathology.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Endometrioide/genética , Carcinoma Endometrioide/patologia , DNA Polimerase II/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação
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