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1.
Soc Sci Med ; : 112928, 2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204948

RESUMO

Within palliative care, clear and open communication about death is encouraged. Euphemisms are discouraged as threats to promoting clear understanding of the prognosis; to opening communication about what a good death means to individual patients and families; and to fostering collaborative planning aimed at achieving this 'good death'. Principles of patient-centred and culturally competent care, however, which reflect trends of individualisation, plurality and multiculturalism that are characteristic of late modernity, encourage respect for and support of patients' and families' preferences. These may include wishes to avoid open communication, preferences for euphemisms, and definitions of a 'good death' that vary from the practitioner's, and within families. The aim of this study was to examine how physicians navigate these competing priorities. Analysis is based on interviews with 23 doctors, ranging in experience from medical students through to senior palliative care specialists, and eight recorded observations of palliative care multidisciplinary team meetings with 52 clinicians collected in 2017 at two hospitals in one Australian metropolitan area. Findings show that synonyms familiar to clinicians are often used to communicate prognoses in multidisciplinary meetings. In communication with patients and families, doctors rely on emotional and cultural cues to decipher the preferred terminology and response. Drawing on a late modern re-imagination of emotion management, we conceptualise the work performed in this context as emotionally reflexive labour. These findings suggest that blanket protocols for direct communication overlook the complexity of end-of-life communication in an era where a 'good death' is understood to be culturally relative.

2.
Blood ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187361

RESUMO

Based on the profile of genetic alterations occurring in tumor samples from selected diffuse-large-B-cell-lymphoma (DLBCL) patients, two recent whole exome sequencing studies proposed partially overlapping classification systems. Using clustering techniques applied to targeted sequencing data derived from a large unselected population-based patient cohort with full clinical follow-up (n=928), we investigated whether molecular subtypes can be robustly identified using methods potentially applicable in routine clinical practice. DNA extracted from DLBCL tumors diagnosed in patients residing in a catchment population of ~4 million (14 centers), were sequenced with a targeted 293-gene hematological-malignancy panel. Bernoulli mixture-model clustering was applied, and the resulting subtypes analyzed in relation to their clinical characteristics and outcomes. Five molecular subtypes were resolved, termed MYD88, BCL2, SOCS1/SGK1, TET2/SGK1 and NOTCH2, along with an unclassified group. The subtypes characterized by genetic alterations of BCL2, NOTCH2 and MYD88 respectively recapitulated recent studies showing good, intermediate and poor prognosis respectively. The SOCS1/SGK1 subtype showed biological overlap with primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma and conferred excellent prognosis. Although not identified as a distinct cluster, NOTCH1 mutation was associated with poor prognosis. The impact of TP53 mutation varied with genomic subtypes, conferring no effect in the NOTCH2 subtype and poor prognosis in the MYD88 subtype. Our findings confirm the existence of molecular subtypes of DLBCL, providing evidence that genomic tests have prognostic significance in non-selected DLBCL patients. The identification of both good and poor risk subtypes in R-CHOP treated patients clearly demonstrate the clinical value of the approach; confirming the need for a consensus classification.

3.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e25, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036802

RESUMO

Chickenpox is caused by varicella-zoster-virus (VZV) and is highly contagious. Immigration detention settings are a high-risk environment for primary VZV transmission, with large, rapidly-changing populations in close quarters, and higher susceptibility among non-UK-born individuals. During outbreaks, operational challenges occur in detention settings because of high-turnover and the potential need to implement population movement restriction for prolonged periods. Between December 2017 and February 2018, four cases of chickenpox were notified amongst 799 detainees in an immigration removal centre (IRC). Microbiological investigations included case confirmation by vesicular fluid polymerase chain reaction, and VZV serology for susceptibility testing. Control measures involved movement restrictions, isolation of cases, quarantining and cohorting of non-immune contacts and extending VZV immunity testing to the wider detainee population to support outbreak management. Immunity was tested for 301/532 (57%) detainees, of whom 24 (8%) were non-immune. The level of non-immunity was lower than expected based on the existing literature on VZV seroprevalence in detained populations in England. Serology results identified non-immune contacts who could be cohorted and, due to the lack of isolation capacity, allowed the placement of cases with immune detainees. The widespread immunity testing of all detainees was proving challenging to sustain because it required significant resources and was having a severe impact on operational capacity and the ability to maintain core business activities at the IRC. Therefore, mathematical modelling was used to assess the impact of scaling back mass immunity testing. Modelling demonstrated that interrupting testing posed a risk of one additional case compared to continuing with testing. As such, the decision was made to stop testing, and the outbreak was successfully controlled without excessive strain on resources. Operational challenges generated learning for future outbreaks, with implications for a local and national policy on IRC staff occupational health requirements, and proposed reception screening of detainees for VZV immunity.

4.
BMJ Open ; 10(2): e033202, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051313

RESUMO

AIM: To explore healthcare providers' perceptions and experiences of the implications of a patient data-sharing agreement between National Health Service (NHS) Digital and the Home Office on access to NHS services and quality of care received by migrant patients in England. DESIGN: A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, thematic analysis and constant-comparison approach. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven healthcare providers and one non-clinical volunteer working in community or hospital-based settings who had experience of migrants accessing NHS England services. Interviews were carried out in 2018. SETTING: England. RESULTS: Awareness and understanding of the patient data-sharing agreement varied among participants, who associated this with a perceived lack of transparency by the government. Participants provided insight into how they thought the data-sharing agreement was negatively influencing migrants' health-seeking behaviour, their relationship with clinicians and the safety and quality of their care. They referred to the policy as a challenge to their core ethical principles, explicitly patient confidentiality and trust, which varied depending on their clinical specialty. CONCLUSIONS: A perceived lack of transparency during the policy development process can result in suspicion or mistrust towards government among the health workforce, patients and public, which is underpinned by a notion of power or control. The patient data-sharing agreement was considered a threat to some of the core principles of the NHS and its implementation as adversely affecting healthcare access and patient safety. Future policy development should involve a range of stakeholders including civil society, healthcare professionals and ethicists, and include more meaningful assessments of the impact on healthcare and public health.

5.
BMJ Open ; 10(2): e034244, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054627

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore alignment of experiences before lymphoma and myeloma diagnosis with the appraisal, help seeking and diagnostic intervals in the Model of Pathways to Treatment (MPT). DESIGN: A qualitative study using in-depth semistructured interviews with patients and relatives. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, anonymised and analysed using qualitative description. SETTING: A UK population-based haematological malignancy patient cohort. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-five patients (35 lymphoma, 20 myeloma: diagnosed 2014-2016) and 28 relatives participated, within around a year of the patient's diagnosis. Patients were selected from those in the cohort who had returned a questionnaire about their symptoms and help seeking, and consented to contact for further research. Sampling was purposive, to achieve maximum variation in age, sex and time to diagnosis. RESULTS: Participants described time from symptom onset to diagnosis as ranging from several weeks to years. Pathways largely aligned with MPT components and help seeking could lead to the rapid investigations and identification of abnormalities. However, symptoms could be vague and/or inadvertently interpreted as other conditions, which if perpetuated, could cause diagnostic delay. The latter was associated with chaotic pathways, with activities rarely occurring only once or in a linear sequence. Rather, intermittent or ongoing processes were described, moving forward and backwards through intervals. This is 'unpacked' within five themes: (1) appraisal and reappraisal; (2) patient-initiated self-management/treatment; (3) initial help seeking; (4) re-presentation; and (5) patient-initiated actions, decisions and emotions during re-presentation. Within these themes, various healthcare professionals were consulted, often many times, as symptoms persisted/progressed. Input from family/friends was described as substantial, as was the extent to which information seeking occurred. CONCLUSION: Lymphoma and myeloma pathways align with the MPT, but do not fully capture the repetition and complexity described by participants. Time to diagnosis was often prolonged, despite the best efforts of patients, relatives and healthcare professionals. The impact of National Health Service England's Multi-diagnostic Disciplinary Centres on time to haematological cancer diagnosis remains to be seen.

6.
Mil Med ; 185(1-2): 68-74, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268528

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is mixed evidence regarding how posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters are associated with sexual dysfunction (SD), and most studies to date have failed to account for potentially confounding variables. Our study sought to explore the unique contribution of PTSD symptom clusters on (a) lack of sexual desire or pleasure, and (b) pain or problems during sexual intercourse, after adjusting for comorbidities and medication usage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants included 543 male treatment-seeking veterans and Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) personnel (aged <65 years), referred for treatment between September 2006 and September 2014. Each participant completed self-report measures of demographic variables, depressive symptom severity, chronic pain, alcohol misuse, and psychotropic medication usage as part of a standard clinical intake protocol. Hierarchical ordinal logistic regression analyses were used to determine the incremental contribution of PTSD symptom clusters on sexual dysfunction. RESULTS: Nearly three-quarters (71.5%) of participants reported a lack of sexual desire or pleasure and 40.0% reported pain or problems during intercourse. Regression analyses suggested that avoidant/numbing symptoms were the only symptoms to be independently associated with lacking sexual desire or pleasure (AOR = 1.10; 95% CI 1.05-1.15). None of the PTSD symptom clusters were independently associated with pain or problems during intercourse. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual dysfunction is prevalent among male treatment-seeking CAF personnel and veterans. Results suggest that PTSD symptoms are differentially associated with sexual desire or pleasure concerns. Assessing sexual function among CAF personnel and veterans seeking treatment for PTSD is critical in order to treat both conditions and improve overall functioning.

7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(12): e0007840, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite known gender-specific differences in terms of prevalence, transmission and exposure to neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), there is limited discussion of the influence of gender in NTD programmes and interventions. There is a paucity of research on how gender interacts with NTD service provision and uptake. This study, part of broader implementation research in Ethiopia, applied a gender lens to health seeking for five NTDs: lymphatic filariasis, podoconiosis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminth infection and trachoma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study was conducted in a district of the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region of Ethiopia where the five NTDs are prevalent. A qualitative methodology was adopted to explore participants' perspectives and experiences. Data generation methods included 20 interviews and four focus group discussions. Community members, volunteer Health Development Army leaders, Health Extension Workers and a range of health workers at the health post, health centre and hospital level (n = 59) were purposively sampled. Interviews and focus group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim into English then analysed through open coding, drawing on constant comparative methods. Gender related factors affected care seeking for NTDs and were described as reasons for not seeking care, delayed care seeking and treating NTDs with natural remedies. Women faced additional challenges in seeking health care due to gender inequalities and power dynamics in their domestic partnerships. Participants recommended raising community awareness about NTDs, however this remains problematic due to gender and social norms around appropriate discourse with members of the opposite gender. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings from this study provide crucial insights into how gender interacts with accessing health services, at different levels of the health system. If we are committed to leaving no one behind and achieving universal health coverage, it is essential to address gender disparities to access and utilisation of interventions delivered by national NTD programmes.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis/terapia , Doenças Negligenciadas/diagnóstico , Doenças Negligenciadas/terapia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Etiópia , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
8.
BJGP Open ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hodgkin lymphoma is usually detected in primary care with early signs and symptoms, and is highly treatable with standardised chemotherapy. However, late presentation is associated with poorer outcomes. AIM: To investigate the relationship between markers of advanced disease, emergency admission, and survival following a diagnosis of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL). DESIGN & SETTING: The study was set within a sociodemographically representative UK population-based patient cohort of ~4 million, within which all patients were tracked through their care pathways, and linked to national data obtained from Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) and deaths. METHOD: All 971 patients with CHL newly diagnosed between 1 September 2004-31 August 2015 were followed until 18th December 2018. RESULTS: The median diagnostic age was 41.5 years (range 0-96 years), 55.2% of the patients were male, 31.2% had stage IV disease, 43.0% had a moderate-high or high risk prognostic score, and 18.7% were admitted via the emergency route prior to diagnosis. The relationship between age and emergency admission was U-shaped: more likely in patients aged <25 years and ≥70 years. Compared to patients admitted via other routes, those presenting as an emergency had more advanced disease and poorer 3-year survival (relative survival 68.4% [95% confidence interval {CI} = 60.3 to 75.2] versus 89.8% [95% CI = 87.0 to 92.0], respectively [P<0.01]). However, after adjusting for clinically important prognostic factors, no difference in survival remained. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that CHL survival as a whole could be increased by around 4% if the cancer in patients who presented as an emergency had been detected at the same point as in other patients.

9.
Leukemia ; 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844144

RESUMO

Using a Burkitt lymphoma-like gene expression signature, we recently defined a high-risk molecular high-grade (MHG) group mainly within germinal centre B-cell like diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (GCB-DLBCL), which was enriched for MYC/BCL2 double-hit (MYC/BCL2-DH). The genetic basis underlying MHG-DLBCL and their aggressive clinical behaviour remain unknown. We investigated 697 cases of DLBCL, particularly those with MYC/BCL2-DH (n = 62) by targeted sequencing and gene expression profiling. We showed that DLBCL with MYC/BCL2-DH, and those with BCL2 translocation, harbour the characteristic mutation signatures that are associated with follicular lymphoma and its high-grade transformation. We identified frequent MYC hotspot mutations that affect the phosphorylation site (T58) and its adjacent amino acids, which are important for MYC protein degradation. These MYC mutations were seen in a subset of cases with MYC translocation, but predominantly in those of MHG. The mutations were more frequent in double-hit lymphomas with IG as the MYC translocation partner, and were associated with higher MYC protein expression and poor patient survival. DLBCL with MYC/BCL2-DH and those with BCL2 translocation alone are most likely derived from follicular lymphoma or its precursor lesion, and acquisition of MYC pathogenic mutations may augment MYC function, resulting in aggressive clinical behaviour.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675431

RESUMO

Associations between previous joint replacement and B-cell lymphoid malignancies have been reported, but despite numerous reports, associations with the disease subtypes have received little attention. Using a UK-based register of haematological malignancies and a matched general population-based cohort, joint replacements from linked hospital inpatient records were examined. Cases diagnosed 2009-2015 who were aged 50 years or more were included; 8,013 mature B-cell neoplasms comprising myeloma (n = 1,763), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, n = 1,676), chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL, n = 1,594), marginal zone lymphoma (MZL, n = 957), follicular lymphoma (FL, n = 725) and classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL, n = 255), together with monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS, n = 2,138) and monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL, n = 632). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated relative to 10 age- and sex-matched controls using conditional logistic regression. Having had a joint replacement before diagnosis was associated with myeloma (OR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5, p = 0.008) and MGUS (OR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5, p < 0.001). Excluding replacements in the year before diagnosis, the MGUS risk remained, elevated where two or more joints were replaced (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-2.0, p = 0.001), with hip (OR = 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.5, p = 0.06) or knee replacements (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.8, p < 0.001). Associations with CHL and two or more replacements (OR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-5.6, p = 0.005) or hip replacements (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.4, p = 0.04); and between DLBCL and knee replacements (OR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6, p = 0.04) were also observed. Our study reports for the first time a relationship between joint replacements and MGUS; while absolute risks of disease are low and not of major public health concern, these findings warrant further investigation.

11.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 14(2): 184-195, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Neonatal AKI is associated with poor short- and long-term outcomes. The objective of this study was to describe the risk factors and outcomes of neonatal AKI in the first postnatal week. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: The international retrospective observational cohort study, Assessment of Worldwide AKI Epidemiology in Neonates (AWAKEN), included neonates admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit who received at least 48 hours of intravenous fluids. Early AKI was defined by an increase in serum creatinine >0.3 mg/dl or urine output <1 ml/kg per hour on postnatal days 2-7, the neonatal modification of Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria. We assessed risk factors for AKI and associations of AKI with death and duration of hospitalization. RESULTS: Twenty-one percent (449 of 2110) experienced early AKI. Early AKI was associated with higher risk of death (adjusted odds ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.7 to 4.7) and longer duration of hospitalization (parameter estimate: 7.3 days 95% confidence interval, 4.7 to 10.0), adjusting for neonatal and maternal factors along with medication exposures. Factors associated with a higher risk of AKI included: outborn delivery; resuscitation with epinephrine; admission diagnosis of hyperbilirubinemia, inborn errors of metabolism, or surgical need; frequent kidney function surveillance; and admission to a children's hospital. Those factors that were associated with a lower risk included multiple gestations, cesarean section, and exposures to antimicrobials, methylxanthines, diuretics, and vasopressors. Risk factors varied by gestational age strata. CONCLUSIONS: AKI in the first postnatal week is common and associated with death and longer duration of hospitalization. The AWAKEN study demonstrates a number of specific risk factors that should serve as "red flags" for clinicians at the initiation of the neonatal intensive care unit course.

12.
Accid Anal Prev ; 132: 105273, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521874

RESUMO

This study examined cannabis use and driving outcomes among older drivers in Colorado, which has legalized medical and recreational use. The associations of self-reported past-year cannabis use with diverse driving outcomes were assessed in 598 drivers aged 65-79 (51% female, 70% with postsecondary education), using regression analysis to adjust for health and sociodemographic characteristics. Two hundred forty four (40.8%) drivers reported ever using cannabis. Fifty-four drivers (9.0%) reported past-year use, ranging from more than once a day (13.0%) to less than once a month (50.0%). Of past-year users, 9.3% reported cannabis use within 1 h of driving in the past year. Past-year users were younger, less highly educated, lower income, and reported significantly worse mental, emotional, social and cognitive health status than drivers without past-year use. Past-year users were four times as likely to report having driven when they may have been over the legal blood-alcohol limit (adjusted OR [aOR] = 4.18; 95% CI: 2.11, 8.25) but were not more likely to report having had a crash or citation (aOR = 1.36; 95% CI: 0.70, 2.66) in the past year. Users and non-users had similar scores on self-rated abilities for safe driving (adjusted beta=-0.04; 95% CI: -0.23, 0.15) and on driving-related lapses, errors and violations in the past year (adjusted beta = 0.04; 95% CI: -0.04, 0.12). Further study is needed to establish driving risks and behaviours related to cannabis use, independent of other associated risk factors, among older adults.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Colorado/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato
14.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(35): 3359-3368, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498031

RESUMO

PURPOSE: MYC rearrangement (MYC-R) occurs in approximately 10% of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) and has been associated with poor prognosis in many studies. The impact of MYC-R on prognosis may be influenced by the MYC partner gene (immunoglobulin [IG] or a non-IG gene). We evaluated a large cohort of patients through the Lunenburg Lymphoma Biomarker Consortium to validate the prognostic significance of MYC-R (single-, double-, and triple-hit status) in DLBCL within the context of the MYC partner gene. METHODS: The study cohort included patients with histologically confirmed DLBCL morphology derived from large prospective trials and patient registries in Europe and North America who were uniformly treated with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone therapy or the like. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for the MYC, BCL2, BCL6, and IG heavy and light chain loci was used, and results were correlated with clinical outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 5,117 patients were identified of whom 2,383 (47%) had biopsy material available to assess for MYC-R. MYC-R was present in 264 (11%) of 2,383 patients and was associated with a significantly shorter progression-free and overall survival, with a strong time-dependent effect within the first 24 months after diagnosis. The adverse prognostic impact of MYC-R was only evident in patients with a concurrent rearrangement of BCL2 and/or BCL6 and an IG partner (hazard ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6 to 3.6; P < .001). CONCLUSION: The negative prognostic impact of MYC-R in DLBCL is largely observed in patients with MYC double hit/triple-hit disease in which MYC is translocated to an IG partner, and this effect is restricted to the first 2 years after diagnosis. Our results suggest that diagnostic strategies should be adopted to identify this high-risk cohort, and risk-adjusted therapeutic approaches should be refined further.

15.
EClinicalMedicine ; 12: 20-30, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388660

RESUMO

Background: Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of death in children under-five globally. The current diagnostic criteria for pneumonia are based on increased respiratory rate (RR) or chest in-drawing in children with cough and/or difficulty breathing. Accurately counting RR is difficult for community health workers (CHWs). Current RR counting devices are frequently inadequate or unavailable. This study analysed the performance of improved RR timers for detection of pneumonia symptoms in low-resource settings. Methods: Four RR timers were evaluated on 454 children, aged from 0 to 59 months with cough and/or difficulty breathing, over three months, by CHWs in hospital settings in Cambodia, Ethiopia, South Sudan and Uganda. The devices were the Mark Two ARI timer (MK2 ARI), counting beads with ARI timer, Rrate Android phone and the Respirometer feature phone applications. Performance was evaluated for agreement with an automated RR reference standard (Masimo Root patient monitoring and connectivity platform with ISA CO2 capnography). This study is registered with ANZCTR [ACTRN12615000348550]. Findings: While most CHWs managed to achieve a RR count with the four devices, the agreement was low for all; the mean difference of RR measurements from the reference standard for the four devices ranged from 0.5 (95% C.I. - 2.2 to 1.2) for the respirometer to 5.5 (95% C.I. 3.2 to 7.8) for Rrate. Performance was consistently lower for young infants (0 to < 2 months) than for older children (2 to ≤ 59 months). Agreement of RR classification into fast and normal breathing was moderate across all four devices, with Cohen's Kappa statistics ranging from 0.41 (SE 0.04) to 0.49 (SE 0.05). Interpretation: None of the four devices evaluated performed well based on agreement with the reference standard. The ARI timer currently recommended for use by CHWs should only be replaced by more expensive, equally performing, automated RR devices when aspects such as usability and duration of the device significantly improve the patient-provider experience. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation [OPP1054367].

17.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(8): 889-900, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165419

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To conduct a pooled analysis assessing the association of blood transfusion with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). METHODS: We used harmonized data from 13 case-control studies (10,805 cases, 14,026 controls) in the InterLymph Consortium. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for study design variables. RESULTS: Among non-Hispanic whites (NHW), history of any transfusion was inversely associated with NHL risk for men (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.65-0.83) but not women (OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.83-1.03), pheterogeneity = 0.014. Transfusion history was not associated with risk in other racial/ethnic groups. There was no trend with the number of transfusions, time since first transfusion, age at first transfusion, or decade of first transfusion, and further adjustment for socioeconomic status, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, and HCV seropositivity did not alter the results. Associations for NHW men were stronger in hospital-based (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.45-0.70) but still apparent in population-based (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.72-0.98) studies. CONCLUSIONS: In the setting of a literature reporting mainly null and some positive associations, and the lack of a clear methodologic explanation for our inverse association restricted to NHW men, the current body of evidence suggests that there is no association of blood transfusion with risk of NHL.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Linfoma não Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci ; 58(3): 356-361, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010456

RESUMO

Opioids are widely used in veterinary and human medicine to manage pain. However, there is a paucity of information in the literature regarding the pharmacokinetics of opioid transdermal patches (TDP) in NHP. Therefore, to determine whether opioid TDP attain therapeutic concentrations in NHP, the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl (25 µg/h) and buprenorphine (10 and 20 µg/h) TDP were evaluated in naïve, adult, male cynomolgus macaques (n = 4) in a crossover study. Plasma opioid levels were determined by tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The AUC0-inf for fentanyl and the low and high dose buprenorphine patches were 115 ± 14, 462 ± 74, and 778 ± 344 ng× h/mL, and the plasma half-lifes were 22 ± 4, 77 ± 27, and 42 ± 11 h, respectively. No adverse effects were noted throughout the study. Minimal therapeutic concentrations for fentanyl (0.2 ng/mL) and buprenorphine (0.1 ng/mL) were achieved in all macaques within 8 h of fentanyl and 24 h of buprenorphine TDP application. Therapeutic levels for the fentanyl and low- and high-dose buprenorphine patches were maintained for 96, 120, and 144 h, respectively. These findings suggest that 25-µg/h fentanyl patches should be replaced every 4 d, and the low- and high-dose buprenorphine patches should be replaced every 5 and 6 d, respectively. The results of this study show that fentanyl and buprenorphine patches achieve minimal therapeutic levels for clinically relevant periods of time and should be considered viable options for pain management in cynomolgus macaques.

19.
J Trauma Stress ; 32(3): 363-372, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947372

RESUMO

In the current paper, we first describe the rationale for and methodology employed by an international research consortium, the Moral Injury Outcome Scale (MIOS) Consortium, the aim of which is to develop and validate a content-valid measure of moral injury as a multidimensional outcome. The MIOS Consortium comprises researchers and clinicians who work with active duty military service members and veterans in the United States, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Australia, and Canada. We describe the multiphase psychometric development process being conducted by the Consortium, which will gather phenomenological data from service members, veterans, and clinicians to operationalize subdomains of impact and to generate content for a new measure of moral injury. Second, to illustrate the methodology being employed by the Consortium in the first phase of measure development, we present a small subset of preliminary results from semistructured interviews and questionnaires conducted with care providers (N = 26) at three of the 10 study sites. The themes derived from these initial preliminary clinician interviews suggest that exposure to potentially morally injurious events is associated with broad psychological/behavioral, social, and spiritual/existential impacts. The early findings also suggest that the outcomes associated with acts of commission or omission and events involving others' transgressions may overlap. These results will be combined with data derived from other clinicians, service members, and veterans to generate the MIOS.

20.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 59: 236-243, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autoimmune inflammatory disease increases the risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), but findings for other mature B-cell malignancies are equivocal. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the increase in DLBCL is due to the activated B-cell (ABC) subtype; but data on this, and the impact of inflammatory co-morbidities on survival, are sparse and contradictory. METHODS: Data are from an established UK population-based cohort. Patients (n = 6834) diagnosed between 01/2009 and 08/2015 are included; DLBCL (n = 1771), myeloma (n = 1760), chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL, n = 1580), MZL (n = 936), and follicular lymphoma (FL, n = 787). Information on rheumatological disorders and deaths was obtained by record-linkage to nationally compiled Hospital Episode Statistics, with age-and sex-matched individuals (n = 68,340) from the same catchment population (˜4 million people) providing the comparator. RESULTS: Significantly increased risks for DLBCL (OR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.8-2.8) and MZL (OR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.5-2.7) were found for those with rheumatological disorders; the site distribution of those with/without rheumatological conditions differing for DLBCL (p = 0.007) and MZL (p = 0.002). No increases in risk were observed for the remaining mature B-cell malignancies, and no associations with survival were detected for DLBCL (age-adjusted HR = 1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.6) or MZL (age-adjusted HR = 1.0, 95% CI 0.6-1.9). Furthermore, whilst our findings provide evidence for an association with rheumatological disease severity for DLBCL, they offer little support for the notion that the association is driven by an increase in the incidence of the ABC subtype. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the hypothesis that the chronic activation and proliferation of specific B-cell populations which characterize autoimmune disease increase the potential for the lymphomagenic events that lead to DLBCL and MZL in both males and females; but have no impact on the development of CLL, FL or MM, or on survival.


Assuntos
Linfoma/epidemiologia , Mieloma Múltiplo/epidemiologia , Doenças Reumáticas/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B , Linfoma/mortalidade , Linfoma/patologia , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/epidemiologia , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/mortalidade , Linfoma Folicular/epidemiologia , Linfoma Folicular/mortalidade , Linfoma Folicular/patologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/epidemiologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/mortalidade , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Doenças Reumáticas/mortalidade , Doenças Reumáticas/patologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
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