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1.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645664

RESUMO

Epigenetic mechanisms play a role in the detrimental effects of traumatic stress and the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unknown whether successful treatment of PTSD restores these epigenetic marks. This study investigated longitudinal changes of blood-based genome-wide DNA methylation levels in relation to trauma-focused psychotherapy for PTSD in soldiers that obtained remission (N = 21), non-remitted PTSD patients (N = 23), and trauma-exposed military controls (N = 23). In an independent prospective cohort, we then examined whether these DMRs were also relevant for the development of deployment-related PTSD (N = 85). Successful treatment of PTSD was accompanied by significant changes in DNA methylation at 12 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in the genes: APOB, MUC4, EDN2, ZFP57, GPX6, CFAP45, AFF3, TP73, UBCLP1, RPL13P, and two intergenic regions (p values < 0.0001 were confirmed using permutation and sensitivity analyses). Of the 12 DMRs related to PTSD symptom reduction, consistent prospective evidence was found for ZFP57 methylation changes related to changing PTSD symptoms (B = -0.84, t = -2.49, p = 0.014). Increasing ZFP57 methylation related to PTSD symptom reduction was present over and above the relation with symptoms, suggesting that psychological treatments exert biological effects independent of symptom reduction. Together, these data provide longitudinal evidence that ZFP57 methylation is involved in both the development and successful treatment of deployment-related PTSD. This study is a first step to disentangle the interaction between psychological and biological systems to identify genomic regions relevant for the etiology and treatment of stress-related disorders such as PTSD.

2.
Am J Psychiatry ; : appiajp201918030335, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509004

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with mental and physical health risks that, through biological and psychosocial pathways, likely span generations. Within an individual, telomere length (TL), an established marker of cellular stress and aging, is associated with both ACE exposure and psychopathology, providing the basis for an emerging literature suggesting that TL is a biomarker of the health risks linked to early-life adversity both within and across generations. The authors tested the effect of maternal ACEs on both the trajectory of infant TL and infant social-emotional problems at 18 months of age. METHODS: Pregnant women were recruited, and maternal scores on the Adverse Childhood Experience questionnaire were obtained, along with demographic and prenatal stress measures. Postnatal visits with 155 mother-infant dyads occurred when infants were 4, 12, and 18 months of age. At each visit, infant buccal swabs were collected for TL measurement, and mothers completed measures of maternal depression. Mothers also completed the Child Behavior Checklist at the 18-month visit. Mixed-effects modeling was used to test how maternal ACEs influenced infant TL trajectory. Linear regression was used to test the association between maternal ACEs and infant internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Finally, the interaction between telomere attrition from 4 to 18 months and maternal ACEs was examined as a predictor of infant scores on the Child Behavior Checklist. RESULTS: Higher maternal ACEs were associated with shorter infant TL across infancy and higher infant externalizing behavioral problems at 18 months. No associations were found with internalizing behavioral problems. Telomere attrition from 4 to 18 months interacted with maternal ACEs to predict externalizing behaviors. In infants whose mothers reported higher scores on the Adverse Childhood Experience questionnaire, greater telomere attrition predicted higher externalizing problems, even when accounting for maternal postnatal depression and prenatal stress. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate an interactive pathway between maternal early-life adversity and infant TL that predicts emerging behavioral problems in the next generations.

3.
Environ Health ; 18(1): 75, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Michigan residents were directly exposed to endocrine-disrupting compounds, polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). A growing body of evidence suggests that exposure to certain endocrine-disrupting compounds may affect thyroid function, especially in people exposed as children, but there are conflicting observations. In this study, we extend previous work by examining age of exposure's effect on the relationship between PBB exposure and thyroid function in a large group of individuals exposed to PBB. METHODS: Linear regression models were used to test the association between serum measures of thyroid function (total thyroxine (T4), total triiodothyronine (T3), free T4, free T3, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and free T3: free T4 ratio) and serum PBB and PCB levels in a cross-sectional analysis of 715 participants in the Michigan PBB Registry. RESULTS: Higher PBB levels were associated with many thyroid hormones measures, including higher free T3 (p = 0.002), lower free T4 (p = 0.01), and higher free T3: free T4 ratio (p = 0.0001). Higher PCB levels were associated with higher free T4 (p = 0.0002), and higher free T3: free T4 ratio (p = 0.002). Importantly, the association between PBB and thyroid hormones was dependent on age at exposure. Among people exposed before age 16 (N = 446), higher PBB exposure was associated with higher total T3 (p = 0.01) and free T3 (p = 0.0003), lower free T4 (p = 0.04), and higher free T3: free T4 ratio (p = 0.0001). No significant associations were found among participants who were exposed after age 16. No significant associations were found between TSH and PBB or PCB in any of the analyses conducted. CONCLUSIONS: This suggests that both PBB and PCB are associated with thyroid function, particularly among those who were exposed as children or prenatally.

4.
Psychol Trauma ; 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pregnant African American women living in low-income urban communities have high rates of trauma exposure and elevated risk for the development of trauma-related disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Yet, engagement in behavioral health services is lower for African American women than Caucasian women. Limited attention has been given to identifying trauma exposure and PTSD, especially within at-risk communities. The present study examined rates of trauma exposure, PTSD, depression, and behavioral health treatment engagement in an obstetrics/gynecology (OB/GYN) clinic within an urban hospital. METHOD: The study included 633 pregnant African American women screened within the OB/GYN clinic waiting room; 55 of the women also participated in a subsequent detailed clinical assessment based on eligibility for a separate study of intergenerational risk for trauma and PTSD in African American mother-child dyads. RESULTS: Overall, 98% reported trauma exposure, approximately one third met criteria for probable current PTSD, and one third endorsed moderate-or-severe depression based on self-report measures. Similar levels were found based on clinical assessments in the subsample. While 18% endorsed depression treatment, only 6% received treatment for PTSD. In a subsample of women with whom chart reviews were conducted (n = 358), 15% endorsed a past psychiatric diagnosis but none shared their PTSD diagnosis with their OB/GYN provider. CONCLUSION: Results of the current study highlight elevated levels of trauma exposure, PTSD, and depression in low-income, African American pregnant women served by this urban clinic, and demonstrate the need for better identification of trauma-related disorders and appropriate linkage to culturally responsive care especially for PTSD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

5.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(15): 5498-5517, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375641

RESUMO

Advanced age increases risk for cancer, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. However, people do not age at the same rate, and biological age (frequently measured through DNA methylation) can be older than chronological age. Environmental factors have been associated with the rate of biological aging, but it is not known whether persistent endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) like polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) would associate with age acceleration. Three different epigenetic age acceleration measures (intrinsic, extrinsic, and phenotypic) were calculated from existing epigenetic data in whole blood from a population highly exposed to PBB (N=658). Association between serum PBB concentration and these measures was tested, controlling for sex, lipid levels, and estimated cell type proportions. Higher PBB levels associated with increased age acceleration (intrinsic: ß=0.24, 95%CI=0.01-0.46, p = 0.03; extrinsic: ß=0.39, 95%CI=0.12-0.65, p = 0.004; and phenotypic: ß=0.30, 95%CI=0.05-0.54, p = 0.01). Neither age when exposed to PBB nor sex statistically interacted with PBB to predict age acceleration, but, in stratified analyses, the association between PBB and age acceleration was only in people exposed before finishing puberty and in men. This suggests that EDCs can associate with the biological aging process, and further studies are warranted to investigate other environmental pollutants' effect on aging.

6.
Brain Behav Immun ; 81: 655-658, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune dysregulation has been widely observed in those with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). An individual's immune response is shaped, in part, by the highly polymorphic Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) locus that is associated with major psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, major depression and bipolar disorder. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between common HLA alleles and PTSD. METHODS: Genome-wide association data was used to predict alleles of 7 classical polymorphic HLA genes (A, B, C, DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, DPB1) in 403 lifetime PTSD cases and 369 trauma exposed controls of African ancestry. Association of HLA allelic variations with lifetime PTSD was analyzed using logistic regression, controlling for ancestry, sex and multiple comparisons. The effect of HLA alleles on gene expression was assessed by weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA), using 353 subjects with available expression data. Enrichment analysis was performed using anRichment to identify associated pathways of each module. RESULTS: HLA-B*58:01 (p = 0.035), HLA-C*07:01 (p = 0.035), HLA-DQA1*01:01 (p = 0.003), HLA-DQB1*05:01 (p = 0.009) and HLA-DPB1*17:01 (p = 0.017) were more common in PTSD cases, while HLA-A*02:01 (p = 0.026), HLA-DQA1*05:05 (p = 0.011) and HLA-DRB1*11:01 (p < 0.001) were more frequent in controls. WGCNA was used to explore expression patterns of the PTSD related alleles. Gene expression modules of PTSD-related HLA alleles were enriched in various pathways, including pathways related to immune and neural activity. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report an association of HLA alleles with PTSD. Altogether, our results support the link between the immune system, brain and PTSD.

7.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 178, 2019 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346158

RESUMO

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) selectively develops in some individuals exposed to a traumatic event. Genetic and epigenetic changes in glucocorticoid pathway sensitivity may be essential for understanding individual susceptibility to PTSD. This study focuses on PTSD markers in the glucocorticoid pathway, spotlighting glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ), a transcription factor encoded by the gene Tsc22d3 on the X chromosome. We propose that GILZ uniquely "quantifies" exposure to stressors experienced from late gestation to adulthood and that low levels of GILZ predispose individuals to PTSD in males only. GILZ mRNA and methylation were measured in 396 male and female human blood samples from the Grady Trauma Project cohort (exposed to multiple traumatic events). In mice, changes in glucocorticoid pathway genes were assessed following exposure to stressors at distinct time points: (i) CRF-induced prenatal stress (CRF-inducedPNS) with, or without, additional exposure to (ii) PTSD induction protocol in adulthood, which induces PTSD-like behaviors in a subset of mice. In humans, the number of traumatic events correlated negatively with GILZ mRNA levels and positively with % methylation of GILZ in males only. In male mice, we observed a threefold increase in the number of offspring exhibiting PTSD-like behaviors in those exposed to both CRF-inducedPNS and PTSD induction. This susceptibility was associated with reduced GILZ mRNA levels and epigenetic changes, not found in females. Furthermore, virus-mediated shRNA knockdown of amygdalar GILZ increased susceptibility to PTSD. Mouse and human data confirm that dramatic alterations in GILZ occur in those exposed to a stressor in early life, adulthood or both. Therefore, GILZ levels may help identify at-risk populations for PTSD prior to additional traumatic exposures.

8.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 246, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The microbial population of the human gut (the gut microbiome) is an integral cog in the bidirectional communication axis that exists between the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system. African American infants disproportionately experience multiple, overlapping vulnerabilities such as preterm birth and formula rather than breast feeding that may disrupt the development of the infant microbiome. African American infants also are more likely to have mothers affected by chronic stress both pre- and post-natally. Perhaps relatedly, African American offspring are disproportionately affected by neurodevelopmental delays. Taken together, these findings suggest that one important mechanism that may link prenatal and postnatal stress and African American infant brain development is the composition of the infant microbiome. METHODS: In our ongoing longitudinal study, Maternal Stress and the Gut-Brain Axis in African American Infants (R01MD009746), we investigate associations between maternal prenatal and postnatal stress and the composition of the infant gut microbiome, in relation to cognitive and social-emotional development. We aim to recruit 300 African American mother-infant dyads, contingent on the mother's previous participation in an associated prenatal cohort study: Biobehavioral Determinants of the Microbiome and Preterm Birth in Black Women (R01NR014800). Following enrollment, we assess infants at 1-week, and 3-, 6-, 12-and 18-months to collect: standardized assessments of infant neurocognitive and social-emotional development; questionnaire measures of infant feeding and health; observational data on maternal-infant interactions; maternal reports of postnatal stress; blood and saliva samples to evaluate maternal and infant psychoneuroimmunologic (PNI) function; and infant stool samples to characterize acquisition and trajectory of gut microbiome composition. Genetic variants of the major histocompatibility complex that may influence gut microbiome composition are also being evaluated. DISCUSSION: This rich data set will allow future consideration of risk and protective factors that influence neurodevelopment in African American infants who are exposed to varying levels of prenatal and early life stress. Evidence for a mechanistic role of the microbiome would provide a framework for future clinical evaluations of preventative interventions (e.g., probiotics, culturally-appropriate breastfeeding campaigns) that could potentially improve the health and development of African American children in infancy and across the lifespan.

9.
Psychol Sci ; 30(8): 1234-1244, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318641

RESUMO

Men's emerging adult romantic relationships forecast downstream relationship behavior, including commitment and quality. Accumulating evidence implicates methylation of the oxytocin-receptor-gene (OXTR) system in regulating relationship behavior. We tested hypotheses regarding the links between (a) childhood adversity and (b) socioeconomic instability in emerging adulthood on supportive romantic relationships via their associations with OXTR methylation. Hypotheses were tested using path analysis with data from 309 participants in the African American Men's Project. Consistent with our hypotheses, results showed that OXTR methylation proximally predicted changes in relationship support during a 1.5-year period. Childhood adversity was not directly associated with OXTR methylation but, rather, with contemporaneous socioeconomic instability, which in turn predicted elevated OXTR methylation. Findings suggest that early adversity is indirectly associated with OXTR methylation by links with downstream socioeconomic instability. Findings must be considered provisional, however, because preregistered replications are needed to establish more firmly the relations among these variables.

10.
Brain Behav Immun ; 81: 280-291, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228611

RESUMO

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating mental disorder precipitated by trauma exposure. However, only some persons exposed to trauma develop PTSD. There are sex differences in risk; twice as many women as men develop a lifetime diagnosis of PTSD. Methylomic profiles derived from peripheral blood are well-suited for investigating PTSD because DNA methylation (DNAm) encodes individual response to trauma and may play a key role in the immune dysregulation characteristic of PTSD pathophysiology. In the current study, we leveraged recent methodological advances to investigate sex-specific differences in DNAm-based leukocyte composition that are associated with lifetime PTSD. We estimated leukocyte composition on a combined methylation array dataset (483 participants, ∼450 k CpG sites) consisting of two civilian cohorts, the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study and Grady Trauma Project. Sex-stratified Mann-Whitney U test and two-way ANCOVA revealed that lifetime PTSD was associated with significantly higher monocyte proportions in males, but not in females (Holm-adjusted p-val < 0.05). No difference in monocyte proportions was observed between current and remitted PTSD cases in males, suggesting that this sex-specific difference may reflect a long-standing trait of lifetime history of PTSD, rather than current state of PTSD. Associations with lifetime PTSD or PTSD status were not observed in any other leukocyte subtype and our finding in monocytes was confirmed using cell estimates based on a different deconvolution algorithm, suggesting that our sex-specific findings are robust across cell estimation approaches. Overall, our main finding of elevated monocyte proportions in males, but not in females with lifetime history of PTSD provides evidence for a sex-specific difference in peripheral blood leukocyte composition that is detectable in methylomic profiles and that may reflect long-standing changes associated with PTSD diagnosis.

11.
Epigenetics ; 14(10): 1003-1018, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200609

RESUMO

Endocrine-disrupting compounds are associated with altered epigenetic regulation and adverse health outcomes, although inconsistent results suggest that people have varied responses to the same exposure. Interpersonal variation in response to environmental exposures is not identified using standard, population-based methods. However, methods that capture an individual's response, such as analyzing stochastic epigenetic mutations (SEMs), may capture currently missed effects of environmental exposure. To test whether polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) was associated with SEMs, DNA methylation was measured using Illumina's MethylationEPIC array in PBB-exposed individuals, and SEMs were identified. Association was tested using a linear regression with robust sandwich variance estimators, controlling for age, sex, lipids, and cell types. The number of SEMs was variable (range: 119-18,309), and positively associated with age (p = 1.23e-17), but not with sex (p = 0.97). PBBs and SEMs were only positively associated in people who were older when they were exposed (p = 0.02 vs. p = 0.91). Many subjects had SEMs enriched in biological pathways, particularly in pathways involved with xenobiotic metabolism and endocrine function. Higher number of SEMs was also associated with higher age acceleration (intrinsic: p = 1.70e-3; extrinsic: p = 3.59e-11), indicating that SEMs may be associated with age-related health problems. Finding an association between environmental contaminants and higher SEMs may provide insight into individual differences in response to environmental contaminants, as well as into the biological mechanism behind SEM formation. Furthermore, these results suggest that people may be particularly vulnerable to epigenetic dysregulation from environmental exposures as they age.

12.
Epigenomics ; 11(9): 1089-1105, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240951

RESUMO

Aim: We compared the performance of multiple testing corrections for candidate gene methylation studies, namely Sidak (accurate Bonferroni), false-discovery rate and three adjustments that incorporate the correlation between CpGs: extreme tail theory (ETT), Gao et al. (GEA), and Li and Ji methods. Materials & methods: The experiment-wide type 1 error rate was examined in simulations based on Illumina EPIC and 450K data. Results: For high-correlation genes, Sidak and false-discovery rate corrections were conservative while the Li and Ji method was liberal. The GEA method tended to be conservative unless a threshold parameter was adjusted. The ETT yielded an appropriate type 1 error rate. Conclusion: For genes with substantial correlation across measured CpGs, GEA and ETT can appropriately correct for multiple testing in candidate gene methylation studies.

13.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 44(12): 2045-2053, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071720

RESUMO

Although oxytocin (OXT) plays an important role in secure attachment formation with a primary caregiver, which is impaired in many children with childhood maltreatment (CM), epigenetic regulation in response to CM is a key factor in brain development during childhood. To address this issue, we first investigated differences in salivary DNA methylation of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) between CM and Non-CM groups of Japanese children (CM: n = 44; Non-CM: n = 41) and its impact on brain structures in subgroup analysis using brain imaging and full clinical data (CM: n = 24; Non-CM: n = 31). As a result, we observed that the CM group showed higher CpG 5,6 methylation than did the Non-CM group and confirmed negative correlations of gray matter volume (GMV) in the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) with CpG 5,6 methylation. In addition, the CM group showed significantly lower GMV in the left OFC than did the Non-CM group. Furthermore, as a result of examining the relationship between GMV in the left OFC and psychiatric symptoms in CM, we observed a negative association with insecure attachment style and also confirmed the mediation effect of left-OFC GMV reduction on the relationship between OXTR methylation and insecure attachment style. These results suggest that any modulation of the oxytocin signaling pathway induced by OXTR hypermethylation at CpG 5,6 leads to atypical development of the left OFC, resulting in distorted attachment formation in children with CM.

14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(23): 11370-11379, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113877

RESUMO

Aging and psychosocial stress are associated with increased inflammation and disease risk, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Because both aging and stress are also associated with lasting epigenetic changes, a plausible hypothesis is that stress along the lifespan could confer disease risk through epigenetic effects on molecules involved in inflammatory processes. Here, by combining large-scale analyses in human cohorts with experiments in cells, we report that FKBP5, a protein implicated in stress physiology, contributes to these relations. Across independent human cohorts (total n > 3,000), aging synergized with stress-related phenotypes, measured with childhood trauma and major depression questionnaires, to epigenetically up-regulate FKBP5 expression. These age/stress-related epigenetic effects were recapitulated in a cellular model of replicative senescence, whereby we exposed replicating human fibroblasts to stress (glucocorticoid) hormones. Unbiased genome-wide analyses in human blood linked higher FKBP5 mRNA with a proinflammatory profile and altered NF-κB-related gene networks. Accordingly, experiments in immune cells showed that higher FKBP5 promotes inflammation by strengthening the interactions of NF-κB regulatory kinases, whereas opposing FKBP5 either by genetic deletion (CRISPR/Cas9-mediated) or selective pharmacological inhibition prevented the effects on NF-κB. Further, the age/stress-related epigenetic signature enhanced FKBP5 response to NF-κB through a positive feedback loop and was present in individuals with a history of acute myocardial infarction, a disease state linked to peripheral inflammation. These findings suggest that aging/stress-driven FKBP5-NF-κB signaling mediates inflammation, potentially contributing to cardiovascular risk, and may thus point to novel biomarker and treatment possibilities.

15.
Pregnancy Hypertens ; 15: 64-71, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825929

RESUMO

Uterine stromal cell decidualization of maternal tissue is essential for implantation of and local adaptation to the fetal allograft, as well as growth and maintenance of the placenta in healthy pregnancies. Maternal defects in decidualization have been suggested as a possible driver of preeclampsia. Preeclampsia (PE) pregnancies demonstrate shallow implantation, inadequate spiral artery remodeling, and elevated levels of the anti-angiogenic protein, sFlt1. To test whether stromal cells (DSCs) isolated from PE placentas exhibit inadequate re-decidualization and increased expression of sFlt1, DSCs from normotensive (NT-DSCs) and PE (PE-DSCs) placentas were treated for 8 days (D8) with cAMP to induce decidualization and levels of decidualization markers (PRL, IGFBP1, VEGF) and sFlt1 were measured at day 0 (D0), D8, and after reversal of treatment. NT-DSCs achieved statistically significant elevations in PRL and IFGBP1 expression (25.72 [5.78-50.04], p = 0.0008 and 92.09 [1.79-543.10], p = 0.005). PE-DSCs increased PRL and IFGBP1 expression to 6.15 [2.30-10.73] (p = 0.18) and 8.67 [1.64-376.10] (p = 0.04). NT-DSCs reduced sFlt1 expression at D8 to 0.25 [0.17-0.49] (p = 0.0021) compared to 0.31 [0.25-0.82] (p = 0.087) in PE-DSCs. These results show that, when induced to decidualize, PE-DSCs fail to increase expression of decidualization markers to levels achieved by NT-DSCs. sFlt1 expression is higher in PE-DSCs during decidualization, suggesting inadequate suppression during the crucial implantation period. These defects at the maternal fetal interface may lead to the failed spiral artery modification, decreased placental invasion of the uterus, and elevated circulating sFlt1 levels seen in PE pathology.


Assuntos
Decídua/citologia , Decídua/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Dobramento de RNA , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Células Estromais/metabolismo
16.
Gastroenterology ; 156(8): 2254-2265.e3, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Crohn's disease is a relapsing and remitting inflammatory disorder with a variable clinical course. Although most patients present with an inflammatory phenotype (B1), approximately 20% of patients rapidly progress to complicated disease, which includes stricturing (B2), within 5 years. We analyzed DNA methylation patterns in blood samples of pediatric patients with Crohn's disease at diagnosis and later time points to identify changes that associate with and might contribute to disease development and progression. METHODS: We obtained blood samples from 164 pediatric patients (1-17 years old) with Crohn's disease (B1 or B2) who participated in a North American study and were followed for 5 years. Participants without intestinal inflammation or symptoms served as controls (n = 74). DNA methylation patterns were analyzed in samples collected at time of diagnosis and 1-3 years later at approximately 850,000 sites. We used genetic association and the concept of Mendelian randomization to identify changes in DNA methylation patterns that might contribute to the development of or result from Crohn's disease. RESULTS: We identified 1189 5'-cytosine-phosphate-guanosine-3' (CpG) sites that were differentially methylated between patients with Crohn's disease (at diagnosis) and controls. Methylation changes at these sites correlated with plasma levels of C-reactive protein. A comparison of methylation profiles of DNA collected at diagnosis of Crohn's disease vs during the follow-up period showed that, during treatment, alterations identified in methylation profiles at the time of diagnosis of Crohn's disease more closely resembled patterns observed in controls, irrespective of disease progression to B2. We identified methylation changes at 3 CpG sites that might contribute to the development of Crohn's disease. Most CpG methylation changes associated with Crohn's disease disappeared with treatment of inflammation and might be a result of Crohn's disease. CONCLUSIONS: Methylation patterns observed in blood samples from patients with Crohn's disease accompany acute inflammation; with treatment, these change to resemble methylation patterns observed in patients without intestinal inflammation. These findings indicate that Crohn's disease-associated patterns of DNA methylation observed in blood samples are a result of the inflammatory features of the disease and are less likely to contribute to disease development or progression.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença de Crohn/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Inflamação/genética , Masculino , América do Norte , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais
17.
Dev Psychopathol ; : 1-10, 2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728091

RESUMO

Studies examining associations between fetal serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) exposure and child autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses or delayed language remain mixed and rarely prospectively follow children or employ gold-standard assessments. We prospectively followed a cohort of mother-child dyads from pregnancy through early elementary school (N = 178), and obtained maternal and alternate-caregiver ratings of behaviors related to ASD (N = 137), as well as direct, gold-standard assessments of child ASD symptoms and pragmatic language among dyads who experienced prenatal depression and either took SRIs or were medication free during pregnancy (N = 44). Prenatal SRI exposure was related to maternal ratings of ASD-related behaviors (ß = 0.24 95% confidence interval; CI [0.07, 0.48]), and, among boys, alternative caregiver ratings (males-only ß = 0.28 95% CI [0.02, 0.55], females-only ß = -0.21 95% CI [-0.63, 0.08]). However, results of our direct assessments suggest an association between SRI exposure and reduced pragmatic language scores (ß = -0.27, 95% CI [-0.53, -0.01], but not ASD (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule ß = 0.14 95% CI [-0.15, 0.41]; Social Responsiveness Scale ß = 0.08 95% CI [-0.25, 0.40]). These discrepancies point to issues regarding how ASD is assessed, and the possibility that SRIs may be more strongly associated with language or other broader behaviors that coincide with ASD. Larger prospective studies that incorporate thorough, gold-standard assessments of ASD, language, and other ASD-related behaviors are needed.

18.
Genes Brain Behav ; : e12555, 2019 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624029

RESUMO

Oxytocin (OT) effects on brain function and behavior are mediated by the oxytocin receptor (OXTR). The distribution of OXTR in the brain can profoundly influence social behavior. Emerging evidence suggests that DNA methylation of OXTR influences OXTR expression. Previously, we conducted a pharmaco-functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study in which healthy subjects were randomized to 24 IU intranasal OT or placebo and imaged with fMRI while playing a dyadic social interaction task known as the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game with same-sex partners. Here, we investigate whether DNA methylation of OXTR modulates the effect of intranasal OT on the neural response to positive and negative social interactions in the PD game. OXTR methylation did not modulate OT effects within brain regions where we previously reported OT effects in response to reciprocated (caudate nucleus) and unreciprocated cooperation (amygdala and anterior insula). However, OXTR methylation did modulate OT effects on the response to both reciprocated and unreciprocated cooperation in other brain regions such as the precuneus and visual cortex. Further restricting the analysis to OXTR rs53576 GG individuals revealed that OXTR methylation modulated OT effects on the precuneus response to reciprocated cooperation in men, the lateral septum response to reciprocated cooperation in women, and the visual cortex response to unreciprocated cooperation in men. These results suggest that OXTR methylation status may influence OT effects on mentalizing, attention and reward processing during social interactions. OXTR methylation may be important to consider if exogenous OT is used to treat social behavioral disorders in the future.

19.
Epigenetics ; 14(1): 52-66, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676242

RESUMO

In 1973, Michigan residents were exposed to polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) when it was accidentally added to farm animal feed. Highly exposed individuals and their children have experienced endocrine-related health problems, though the underlying mechanism behind these remains unknown. We investigated whether PBB exposure is associated with variation in DNA methylation in peripheral blood samples from 658 participants of the Michigan PBB registry using the MethylationEPIC BeadChip, as well as investigated what the potential function of the affected regions are and whether these epigenetic marks are known to associate with endocrine system pathways. After multiple test correction (FDR <0.05), 1890 CpG sites associated with total PBB levels. These CpGs were not enriched in any particular biological pathway, but were enriched in enhancer and insulator regions, and depleted in regions near the transcription start site or in CpG islands (p < 0.05). They were also more likely to be in ARNT and ESR2 transcription factor binding sites (p = 3.27e-23 and p = 1.62e-6, respectively), and there was significant overlap between CpGs associated with PBB and CpGs associated with estrogen (p < 2.2e-16). PBB-associated CpGs were also enriched for CpGs known to be associated with gene expression in blood (eQTMs) (p < 0.05). These eQTMs were enriched for pathways related to immune function and endocrine-related autoimmune disease (FDR <0.05). These results indicate that exposure to PBB is associated with differences in epigenetic marks that suggest that it is acting similarly to estrogen and is associated with dysregulated immune system pathways.


Assuntos
Células Sanguíneas/efeitos dos fármacos , Metilação de DNA , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Bifenil Polibromatos/toxicidade , Adulto , Idoso , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico
20.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res ; : 1-8, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499755

RESUMO

Folate, a water-soluble vitamin, is a key source of one-carbon groups for DNA methylation, but studies of the DNA methylation response to supplemental folic acid yield inconsistent results. These studies are commonly conducted using whole blood, which contains a mixed population of white blood cells that have been shown to confound results. The objective of this study was to determine if CD16+ neutrophils may provide more specific data than whole blood for identifying DNA methylation response to chronic folic acid supplementation. The study was performed in normal weight (BMI 18.5 - 24.9 kg/m2) women (18 - 35 y; n = 12), with blood samples taken before and after 8 weeks of folic acid supplementation at 800 µg/day. DNA methylation patterns from whole blood and isolated CD16+ neutrophils were measured across 485,000 CpG sites throughout the genome using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Over the course of the 8-week supplementation, 6746 and 7513 CpG sites changed (p < 0.05) in whole blood and CD16+ neutrophils, respectively. DNA methylation decreased in 68.4% (whole blood) and 71.8% (CD16+ neutrophils) of these sites. There were only 182 CpG sites that changed in both the whole blood and CD16+ neutrophils, 139 of which changed in the same direction. These results suggest that the genome-wide DNA methylation response to chronic folic acid supplementation is different between whole blood and CD16+ neutrophils and that a single white blood cell type may function as a more specific epigenetic reporter of folate status than whole blood.

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