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1.
Zootaxa ; 4564(1): zootaxa.4564.1.6, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716519

RESUMO

The taxonomic status and systematic nomenclature of the Australian dingo remain contentious, resulting in decades of inconsistent applications in the scientific literature and in policy. Prompted by a recent publication calling for dingoes to be considered taxonomically as domestic dogs (Jackson et al. 2017, Zootaxa 4317, 201-224), we review the issues of the taxonomy applied to canids, and summarise the main differences between dingoes and other canids. We conclude that (1) the Australian dingo is a geographically isolated (allopatric) species from all other Canis, and is genetically, phenotypically, ecologically, and behaviourally distinct; and (2) the dingo appears largely devoid of many of the signs of domestication, including surviving largely as a wild animal in Australia for millennia. The case of defining dingo taxonomy provides a quintessential example of the disagreements between species concepts (e.g., biological, phylogenetic, ecological, morphological). Applying the biological species concept sensu stricto to the dingo as suggested by Jackson et al. (2017) and consistently across the Canidae would lead to an aggregation of all Canis populations, implying for example that dogs and wolves are the same species. Such an aggregation would have substantial implications for taxonomic clarity, biological research, and wildlife conservation. Any changes to the current nomen of the dingo (currently Canis dingo Meyer, 1793), must therefore offer a strong, evidence-based argument in favour of it being recognised as a subspecies of Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758, or as Canis familiaris Linnaeus, 1758, and a successful application to the International Commission for Zoological Nomenclature - neither of which can be adequately supported. Although there are many species concepts, the sum of the evidence presented in this paper affirms the classification of the dingo as a distinct taxon, namely Canis dingo.


Assuntos
Canidae , Lobos , Animais , Austrália , Cães , Filogenia
2.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0215416, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329583

RESUMO

Attending the veterinary clinic is an integral part of the physical welfare of every companion dog. However, some dogs experience their veterinary visits negatively, which poses a risk of injury to the veterinary staff, their guardian (owner) and themselves. It may also influence the regularity of non-urgent veterinary appointments. To date there have been conflicting reports relating to the proportion of dogs that show fear during their veterinary visits. In this study, we explored the risk factors associated with fear during veterinary examination and in novel situations (including first time at the veterinary clinic) from 26,555 responses in the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire database. According to their guardians, 41% of companion dogs displayed mild to moderate fearful behaviour when examined by a veterinarian, and 14% exhibited severe or extreme fear. A similar trend was observed with dogs responding fearfully when in unfamiliar situations, including the dog's first time at the veterinary clinic. Chi-squared tests showed every bivariate relationship between fear and the environmental and demographic factors measured was significant (p < 0.05). The most important predictors of fear in a veterinary examination were, in order: the dog's breed group (27.1%), their history of roles or activities (16.7%), where they were sourced (15.2%), their weight (12%), the age of other dogs in the household (9.5%) and dog owner experience (6.3%). However, combined these risk factors only explain a total of 7% of variance of fear observed during veterinary examination. This suggests that fear exhibited during veterinary visits is common in dogs, but that the environment or human-animal interactions are likely to contribute more to prevalence and severity of this problem than the demographic factors measured here. We conclude by highlighting opportunities for future research aimed at facilitating less stressful veterinary visits for dogs and their guardians.

3.
Appl Ergon ; 77: 9-15, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832782

RESUMO

The effects on dehydration and cognitive performance from heat and/or physical activity are well established in the laboratory, although have not yet been studied for personnel working in occupations such as wildland firefighting regularly exposed to these types of conditions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of temperature and dehydration on seventy-three volunteer firefighters (35.7 ±â€¯13.7 years, mean ±â€¯standard deviation) during a simulation of wildfire suppression under either control or hot (18-20; or 33-35 °C) temperature conditions. Results showed cognitive performance on the psychomotor vigilance task declined when participants were dehydrated in the heat and Stroop task performance was impaired when dehydrated late in the afternoon. Firefighters may be at risk of deteriorations in simple cognitive functions in the heat whilst dehydrated, although may also experience impairments in complex cognitive functions if dehydrated late in the day, irrespective of the environmental temperature.


Assuntos
Desidratação/psicologia , Bombeiros/psicologia , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Adulto , Cognição , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desempenho Psicomotor , Incêndios Florestais , Desempenho Profissional
5.
Hum Nat ; 28(3): 255-273, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28639123

RESUMO

Human sleeping arrangements have evolved over time and differ across cultures. The majority of adults share their bed at one time or another with a partner or child, and many also sleep with pets. In fact, around half of dog and cat owners report sharing a bed or bedroom with their pet(s). However, interspecies co-sleeping has been trivialized in the literature relative to interpersonal or human-human co-sleeping, receiving little attention from an interdisciplinary psychological perspective. In this paper, we provide a historical outline of the "civilizing process" that has led to current sociocultural conceptions of sleep as an individual, private function crucial for the functioning of society and the health of individuals. We identify similar historical processes at work in the formation of contemporary constructions of socially normative sleeping arrangements for humans and animals. Importantly, since previous examinations of co-sleeping practices have anthropocentrically framed this topic, the result is an incomplete understanding of co-sleeping practices. By using dogs as an exemplar of human-animal co-sleeping, and comparing human-canine sleeping with adult-child co-sleeping, we determine that both forms of co-sleeping share common factors for establishment and maintenance, and often result in similar benefits and drawbacks. We propose that human-animal and adult-child co-sleeping should be approached as legitimate and socially relevant forms of co-sleeping, and we recommend that co-sleeping be approached broadly as a social practice involving relations with humans and other animals. Because our proposition is speculative and derived from canine-centric data, we recommend ongoing theoretical refinement grounded in empirical research addressing co-sleeping between humans and multiple animal species.


Assuntos
Vínculo Homem-Animal de Estimação , Estilo de Vida , Relações Pais-Filho , Animais de Estimação , Sono , Animais , Cães , Humanos
6.
Behav Processes ; 140: 41-46, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28343988

RESUMO

Our understanding of the frequency and duration of maternal care behaviours in the domestic dog during the first two postnatal weeks is limited, largely due to the inconsistencies in the sampling methodologies that have been employed. In order to develop a more concise picture of maternal care behaviour during this period, and to help establish the sampling method that represents these behaviours best, we compared a variety of time sampling methods Six litters were continuously observed for a total of 96h over postnatal days 3, 6, 9 and 12 (24h per day). Frequent (dam presence, nursing duration, contact duration) and infrequent maternal behaviours (anogenital licking duration and frequency) were coded using five different time sampling methods that included: 12-h night (1800-0600h), 12-h day (0600-1800h), one hour period during the night (1800-0600h), one hour period during the day (0600-1800h) and a one hour period anytime. Each of the one hour time sampling method consisted of four randomly chosen 15-min periods. Two random sets of four 15-min period were also analysed to ensure reliability. We then determined which of the time sampling methods averaged over the three 24-h periods best represented the frequency and duration of behaviours. As might be expected, frequently occurring behaviours were adequately represented by short (oneh) sampling periods, however this was not the case with the infrequent behaviour. Thus, we argue that the time sampling methodology employed must match the behaviour of interest. This caution applies to maternal behaviour in altricial species, such as canids, as well as all systematic behavioural observations utilising time sampling methodology.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comportamental/métodos , Comportamento Materno , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Accid Anal Prev ; 99(Pt B): 389-394, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26604016

RESUMO

Wildland firefighting exposes personnel to combinations of occupational and environmental stressors that include physical activity, heat and sleep restriction. However, the effects of these stressors on sleep have rarely been studied in the laboratory, and direct comparisons to field scenarios remain problematic. The aim of this study was to examine firefighters' sleep during a three-day, four-night simulated wildfire suppression that included sleep restriction and physical activity circuits representative of firefighting wildfire suppression tasks in varied temperatures. Sixty-one volunteer firefighters (37.5±14.5 years of age, mean±SD) were assigned to one of three conditions: control (n=25; 8h sleep opportunities and 18-20°C), awake (n=25; 4h sleep opportunities and 18-20°C) or awake/hot (n=11; 4h sleep opportunities and 33-35°C during the day and 23-25°C during the night). Results demonstrated that amounts of N1, N2 and R sleep, TST, SOL and WASO declined, whilst sleep efficiency increased significantly in the awake and awake/hot conditions compared to the control condition. Results also demonstrated that SWS sleep remained relatively stable in the awake and awake/hot conditions compared to control values. Most importantly, no significant differences were found for any of the sleep measures between the awake and awake/hot conditions. Thus, working in hot daytime temperatures in combination with sleep restriction during the night did not affect patterns of sleep compared to working in temperate conditions in combination with sleep restriction during the night. However, the effects on sleep of high (>25°C) night-time temperatures with sleep restriction in addition to physical activity remains to be studied.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Bombeiros , Temperatura Alta , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polissonografia , Voluntários , Vigília
8.
J Comp Psychol ; 130(3): 269-77, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27135263

RESUMO

Surprisingly little information is available about the behavior of newborn mammals in the functionally vital context of suckling. We have previously reported notable differences in the pattern of nipple use by kittens of the domestic cat and puppies of the domestic dog. Whereas kittens rapidly develop a "teat order," with each individual using principally 1 or 2 particular nipples, puppies show no such pattern. We asked whether the more "chaotic" behavior seen in puppies of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) could be the result of relaxed selection due to domestication. In a first test of this hypothesis, we studied suckling behavior in 4 litters of wild-type captive dingoes (Canis dingo), a canid species that has inhabited the Australian mainland in substantial numbers for at least 5,000 years with minimal human influence. On all measures of individual puppies' behavior-time spent attached to nipples, lack of individual use of particular nipples and consequent absence of a teat order, lack of synchronized suckling with other littermates, lack of agonistic behavior-we found no differences between the 2 species. In conclusion, we suggest that the difference between the pattern of suckling behavior of kittens of the domestic cat (and other felids) and the domestic dog is not an artifact of domestication, but rather reflects phylogenetic differences between felids and canids as a consequence of their different lifestyles and associated patterns of parental care. These findings emphasize the need for comparative studies to avoid simplistic generalizations from 1 or 2 species across broad taxonomic groups. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Felidae , Mamilos , Comportamento de Sucção , Animais , Austrália , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Gatos , Comportamento de Escolha , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Filogenia
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 13(2): 171, 2016 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26840323

RESUMO

Under controlled laboratory conditions, neurobehavioral assays such as the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) are sensitive to increasing levels of fatigue, and in general, tend to correlate with subjective ratings. However, laboratory studies specifically curtail physical activity, potentially limiting the applicability of such findings to field settings that involve physical work. In addition, laboratory studies typically involve healthy young male participants that are not always representative of a typical working population. In order to determine whether these findings extend to field-like conditions, we put 88 Australian volunteer firefighters through a multi-day firefighting simulation. Participants were required to perform real-world physical and cognitive tasks under conditions of elevated temperature and moderate sleep restriction. We aimed to examine changes in fatigue in an effort to determine the optimum objective and subjective measures. Objective and subjective tests were sensitive to fatigue outside laboratory conditions. The PVT was the most sensitive assay of objective fatigue, with the Samn-Perelli fatigue scale the most sensitive of the subjective measures. The Samn-Perilli fatigue scale correlated best with PVT performance, but explained a small amount of variance. Although the Samn-Perelli scale can be easily administered in the field, the wide range of individual variance limits its efficacy as a once-off assessment tool. Rather, fatigue measures should be applied as a component of a broader fatigue risk management system. Findings provide firefighting agencies, and other occupations involving physical work, guidance as to the most sensitive and specific measures for assessing fatigue in their personnel.


Assuntos
Fadiga/diagnóstico , Bombeiros , Fogo , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Privação do Sono/complicações , Adulto , Austrália , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Fadiga/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 13(2): 173, 2016 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26840327

RESUMO

Adequate sleep is fundamental to workplace performance. For volunteer firefighters who work in safety critical roles, poor performance at work can be life threatening. Extended shifts and sleeping conditions negatively impact sleep during multi-day fire suppression campaigns. Having sleep disordered breathing (SDB) could contribute further to sleep deficits. Our aim was to investigate whether those with suspected SDB slept and performed more poorly during a fire ground simulation involving sleep restriction. Participants, n = 20 participated in a 3-day-4-night fire ground simulation. Based on oximetry desaturation index data collected during their participation, participants were retrospectively allocated to either a SDB (n = 8) or a non-SDB group (n = 12). The simulation began with an 8 h Baseline sleep (BL) followed by two nights of restricted (4 h) sleep and an 8 h recovery sleep (R). All sleeps were recorded using a standard electroencephalography (EEG) montage as well as oxygen saturation. During the day, participants completed neurobehavioral (response time, lapses and subjective fatigue) tasks. Mixed effects ANOVA were used to compare differences in sleep and wake variables. Analyses revealed a main effect of group for Total sleep (TST), REM , wake after sleep onset (WASO) and Arousals/h with the SDB group obtaining less TST and REM and greater WASO and Arousals/h. The group × night interaction was significant for N3 with the SDB group obtaining 42 min less during BL. There was a significant main effect of day for RRT, lapses and subjective fatigue and a significant day × group interaction for RRT. Overall, the SDB group slept less, experienced more disturbed sleep and had poorer response time performance, which was exacerbated by the second night of sleep restriction. This could present a safety concern, particularly during longer campaigns and is worthy of further investigation. In addition, we would recommend promotion of awareness of SDB, its symptoms and potential impact among volunteers and relevant agencies.


Assuntos
Fadiga/etiologia , Bombeiros , Fogo , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/complicações , Privação do Sono/etiologia , Desempenho Profissional , Adulto , Fadiga/diagnóstico , Fadiga/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Polissonografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/diagnóstico , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/psicologia , Privação do Sono/psicologia , Voluntários
11.
Aust J Prim Health ; 16(4): 284-90, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21138695

RESUMO

Equitable access to primary health care is a key objective for health policy makers. In Australia, poor access to primary care providers has been well documented for many rural areas, yet the distribution of general practitioners (GPs) in metropolitan regions remains relatively unknown. Traditional methods of determining geographic access to GPs are limited as they rely on simple population to provider ratios within artificial administrative borders and, among other things, fail to take into account patients that utilise close-by facilities outside of these borders. This study utilised specialised geographic information systems to examine the equity of access to GPs in an Australia capital city (Adelaide). Results showed that by Australian standards, residents of metropolitan Adelaide have low GP ratios. However, an inequitable spatial distribution of GPs within metropolitan Adelaide was found, with ~16% of residents considered to be living in areas of GP workforce shortage. Residents in the outer suburbs and those with lower social economic status appeared to be the most disadvantaged. It is recommended that future studies employ specialised GIS techniques as they provide a more accurate measurement of variations in spatial accessibility to primary care within metropolitan cities.


Assuntos
Clínicos Gerais/provisão & distribução , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Serviços Urbanos de Saúde , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Áreas de Pobreza , Área de Atuação Profissional , Análise de Regressão , Análise de Pequenas Áreas , Austrália do Sul , Recursos Humanos
12.
J Appl Anim Welf Sci ; 13(2): 103-22, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20349377

RESUMO

This case study examined the effect of environmental enrichment on the activity budgets of a male and female Australian Sea Lion (Neophoca cinerea) housed together at Adelaide Zoo. Using non-food-related (intrinsic) and food-related (extrinsic) enrichment objects, the study conducted an ABABA (withdrawal) experimental design over a 30-day period (180 hr). The study expected extrinsically reinforcing objects to be more effective than intrinsically reinforcing objects in reducing pattern swimming. The male sea lion spent more than 45% of scans engaged in pattern swimming during the initial baseline, which was reduced by at least 25% when enrichment items were present. However, there was no evidence of stereotypic behavior in the female sea lion, indicating that individual differences may exist. When enrichment was present, the study observed more active behaviors in both nonhuman animals. They spent more time interacting with the non-food-related objects overall. Therefore, introducing simple enrichment devices offers a cheap, practical, and effective method of adding complexity to the environment, which is likely to benefit the animals' welfare and enhance the zoo-visitor experience.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico , Leões-Marinhos , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/psicologia , Comportamento Animal , Planejamento Ambiental , Feminino , Masculino , Atividade Motora , Leões-Marinhos/psicologia , Comportamento Estereotipado
13.
Anim Cogn ; 13(2): 367-76, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19779743

RESUMO

There is contention concerning the role that domestication plays in the responsiveness of canids to human social cues, with most studies investigating abilities of recognized domestic dog breeds or wolves. Valuable insight regarding the evolution of social communication with humans might be gained by investigating Australian dingoes, which have an early history of domestication, but have been free-ranging in Australia for approximately 3500-5000 years. Seven 'pure' dingoes were tested outdoors by a familiar experimenter using the object-choice paradigm to determine whether they could follow nine human communicative gestures previously tested with domestic dogs and captive wolves. Dingoes passed all cues significantly above control, including the "benchmark" momentary distal pointing, with the exception of gaze only, gaze and point, and pointing from the incorrect location. Dingo performance appears to lie somewhere between wolves and dogs, which suggests that domestication may have played a role in their ability to comprehend human gestures.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Canidae/psicologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Animais , Vínculo Homem-Animal de Estimação , Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Gestos , Humanos , Masculino , Comunicação não Verbal/psicologia , Comportamento Social
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