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1.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e1900399, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533195

RESUMO

SCOPE: A better understanding of factors contributing to interindividual variability in biomarkers of vitamin K can enhance the understanding of the equivocal role of vitamin K in cardiovascular disease. Based on the known biology of phylloquinone, the major form of vitamin K, it is hypothesized that plasma lipids contribute to the variable response of biomarkers of vitamin K metabolism to phylloquinone supplementation. METHODS AND RESULTS: The association of plasma lipids and 27 lipid-related genetic variants with the response of biomarkers of vitamin K metabolism is examined in a secondary analysis of data from a 3-year phylloquinone supplementation trial in men (n = 66) and women (n = 85). Year 3 plasma triglycerides (TG), but not total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, or HDL-cholesterol, are associated with the plasma phylloquinone response (men: ß = 1.01, p < 0.001, R2  = 0.34; women: ß = 0.61, p = 0.008, R2  = 0.11; sex interaction p = 0.077). Four variants and the TG-weighted genetic risk score are associated with the plasma phylloquinone response in men only. Plasma lipids are not associated with changes in biomarkers of vitamin K function (undercarboxylated osteocalcin and matrix gla protein) in either sex. CONCLUSION: Plasma TG are an important determinant of the interindividual response of plasma phylloquinone to phylloquinone supplementation, but changes in biomarkers of vitamin K carboxylation are not influenced by lipids.

2.
J Nutr ; 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) genetic variants that predispose individuals to type 2 diabetes (T2D) show inconsistent associations with anthropometric traits. Interaction between TCF7L2 genotypes and dietary factors may help explain these observations. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the potential modulation of TCF7L2-rs7903146 and rs12255372 on anthropometric markers by a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet). METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 1120 participants (aged 45-75 y) of the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study. Anthropometric variables were measured, and polymorphisms were genotyped using standardized protocols. Diet was assessed using a validated FFQ. The MedDiet was defined based on adherence to 9 food and nutrient components using sex-specific population-based median cut-offs; high adherence was defined as meeting ≥4 components. Haplotypes were tested for association with obesity traits, independently and via interaction with the MedDiet. RESULTS: TCF7L2-rs7903146 showed significant interaction with the MedDiet influencing BMI, weight, and waist circumference. The T risk-allele carriers (CT + TT) with a high MedDiet score had lower weight (77.3 ± 1.0 compared with CC 80.9 ± 1.0 kg; P = 0.013) and waist circumference (99.2 ± 0.9 compared with CC 102.2 ± 0.9 cm; P = 0.021), when compared with CC participants. A low MedDiet score resulted in no significant differences between genotypes. For TCF7L2-rs12255372, we found significant interactions with the MedDiet for weight (P-interaction = 0.034) and BMI (P-interaction = 0.036). The T allele carriers with a higher MedDiet score showed a trend of lower but no significant differences when compared with CC participants for BMI (P = 0.19), weight (P = 0.09), and waist circumference (P = 0.11). We found significant interactions between the 2 risk-carrying haplotypes and the MedDiet compared with the common haplotype (GC), with lower BMI (ß ± SE, TT: -1.53 ± 0.68; P-interaction = 0.024), weight (TT: -4.16 ± 1.77; P-interaction = 0.019), and waist circumference (GT: -5.07 ± 2.50; P-interaction = 0.042) at a high MedDiet score. CONCLUSION: Puerto Ricans with the TCF7L2-rs7903146 and rs12255372 T2D risk genotypes, although still high, had better anthropometric profiles when adhering to a MedDiet, suggesting that this diet may offset unfavorable genetic predisposition.

3.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e1900226, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432628

RESUMO

SCOPE: Insulin resistance (IR) and inflammation are hallmarks of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The nod-like receptor pyrin domain containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a metabolic sensor activated by saturated fatty acids (SFA) initiating IL-1ß inflammation and IR. Interactions between SFA intake and NLRP3-related genetic variants may alter T2D risk factors. METHODS: Meta-analyses of six Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium (n = 19 005) tested interactions between SFA and NLRP3-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and modulation of fasting insulin, fasting glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. RESULTS: SFA interacted with rs12143966, wherein each 1% increase in SFA intake increased insulin by 0.0063 IU mL-1 (SE ± 0.002, p = 0.001) per each major (G) allele copy. rs4925663, interacted with SFA (ß ± SE = -0.0058 ± 0.002, p = 0.004) to increase insulin by 0.0058 IU mL-1 , per additional copy of the major (C) allele. Both associations are close to the significance threshold (p < 0.0001). rs4925663 causes a missense mutation affecting NLRP3 expression. CONCLUSION: Two NLRP3-related SNPs showed potential interaction with SFA to modulate fasting insulin. Greater dietary SFA intake accentuates T2D risk, which, subject to functional validation, may be further elaborated depending on NLRP3-related genetic variants.

4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(2): 473-484, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the contribution of genetic variation to food timing, and breakfast has been determined to exhibit the most heritable meal timing. As breakfast timing and skipping are not routinely measured in large cohort studies, alternative approaches include analyses of correlated traits. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to elucidate breakfast skipping genetic variants through a proxy-phenotype genome-wide association study (GWAS) for breakfast cereal skipping, a commonly assessed correlated trait. METHODS: We leveraged the statistical power of the UK Biobank (n = 193,860) to identify genetic variants related to breakfast cereal skipping as a proxy-phenotype for breakfast skipping and applied several in silico approaches to investigate mechanistic functions and links to traits/diseases. Next, we attempted validation of our approach in smaller breakfast skipping GWAS from the TwinUK (n = 2,006) and the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium (n = 11,963). RESULTS: In the UK Biobank, we identified 6 independent GWAS variants, including those implicated for caffeine (ARID3B/CYP1A1), carbohydrate metabolism (FGF21), schizophrenia (ZNF804A), and encoding enzymes important for N6-methyladenosine RNA transmethylation (METTL4, YWHAB, and YTHDF3), which regulates the pace of the circadian clock. Expression of identified genes was enriched in the cerebellum. Genome-wide correlation analyses indicated positive correlations with anthropometric traits. Through Mendelian randomization (MR), we observed causal links between genetically determined breakfast skipping and higher body mass index, more depressive symptoms, and smoking. In bidirectional MR, we demonstrated a causal link between being an evening person and skipping breakfast, but not vice versa. We observed association of our signals in an independent breakfast skipping GWAS in another British cohort (P = 0.032), TwinUK, but not in a meta-analysis of non-British cohorts from the CHARGE consortium (P = 0.095). CONCLUSIONS: Our proxy-phenotype GWAS identified 6 genetic variants for breakfast skipping, linking clock regulation with food timing and suggesting a possible beneficial role of regular breakfast intake as part of a healthy lifestyle.

5.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(2): 437-450, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Folate and vitamin B-12 are essential micronutrients involved in the donation of methyl groups in cellular metabolism. However, associations between intake of these nutrients and genome-wide DNA methylation levels have not been studied comprehensively in humans. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess whether folate and/or vitamin B-12 intake are asssociated with genome-wide changes in DNA methylation in leukocytes. METHODS: A large-scale epigenome-wide association study of folate and vitamin B-12 intake was performed on DNA from 5841 participants from 10 cohorts using Illumina 450k arrays. Folate and vitamin B-12 intakes were calculated from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs). Continuous and categorical (low compared with high intake) linear regression mixed models were applied per cohort, controlling for confounders. A meta-analysis was performed to identify significant differentially methylated positions (DMPs) and regions (DMRs), and a pathway analysis was performed on the DMR annotated genes. RESULTS: The categorical model resulted in 6 DMPs, which are all negatively associated with folate intake, annotated to FAM64A, WRAP73, FRMD8, CUX1, and LCN8 genes, which have a role in cellular processes including centrosome localization, cell proliferation, and tumorigenesis. Regional analysis showed 74 folate-associated DMRs, of which 73 were negatively associated with folate intake. The most significant folate-associated DMR was a 400-base pair (bp) spanning region annotated to the LGALS3BP gene. In the categorical model, vitamin B-12 intake was associated with 29 DMRs annotated to 48 genes, of which the most significant was a 1100-bp spanning region annotated to the calcium-binding tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated gene (CABYR). Vitamin B-12 intake was not associated with DMPs. CONCLUSIONS: We identified novel epigenetic loci that are associated with folate and vitamin B-12 intake. Interestingly, we found a negative association between folate and DNA methylation. Replication of these methylation loci is necessary in future studies.

6.
Diabetes Care ; 42(9): 1784-1791, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213470

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)-associated genetic variants and examine their implications for glycemic status evaluated by HbA1c in U.S. Hispanics/Latinos with diverse genetic ancestries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of HbA1c in 9,636 U.S. Hispanics/Latinos without diabetes from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, followed by a replication among 4,729 U.S. Hispanics/Latinos from three independent studies. RESULTS: Our GWAS and replication analyses showed 10 previously known and novel loci associated with HbA1c at genome-wide significance levels (P < 5.0 × 10-8). In particular, two African ancestry-specific variants, HBB-rs334 and G6PD-rs1050828, which are causal mutations for sickle cell disease and G6PD deficiency, respectively, had ∼10 times larger effect sizes on HbA1c levels (ß = -0.31% [-3.4 mmol/mol]) and -0.35% [-3.8 mmol/mol] per minor allele, respectively) compared with other HbA1c-associated variants (0.03-0.04% [0.3-0.4 mmol/mol] per allele). A novel Amerindian ancestry-specific variant, HBM-rs145546625, was associated with HbA1c and hematologic traits but not with fasting glucose. The prevalence of hyperglycemia (prediabetes and diabetes) defined using fasting glucose or oral glucose tolerance test 2-h glucose was similar between carriers of HBB-rs334 or G6PD-rs1050828 HbA1c-lowering alleles and noncarriers, whereas the prevalence of hyperglycemia defined using HbA1c was significantly lower in carriers than in noncarriers (12.2% vs. 28.4%, P < 0.001). After recalibration of the HbA1c level taking HBB-rs334 and G6PD-rs1050828 into account, the prevalence of hyperglycemia in carriers was similar to noncarriers (31.3% vs. 28.4%, P = 0.28). CONCLUSIONS: This study in U.S. Hispanics/Latinos found several ancestry-specific alleles associated with HbA1c through erythrocyte-related rather than glycemic-related pathways. The potential influences of these nonglycemic-related variants need to be considered when the HbA1c test is performed.

7.
J Nutr ; 149(7): 1116-1121, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary intervention (DI) is a primary strategy to attenuate some of the metabolic abnormalities associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), including low HDL cholesterol. There is no biomarker that can identify individuals who respond to DI by increasing HDL cholesterol. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the predictive power of a genetic predisposition score (GPS) in Mexican adults with MetS to identify HDL cholesterol responders to DI. METHODS: This study followed a prospective cohort design. Sixty-seven Mexican adults aged 20-60 y (21% men) with BMI ≥25 and ≤39.9 kg/m², who had at least 3 of 5 positive criteria for MetS, were included. Participants consumed a low saturated fat diet for 2.5 mo (<7% energy as saturated fat, <200 mg of cholesterol/d) and reduced their usual diet by ∼440 kcal/d, a reduction in total energy intake of about 25%. Anthropometry and serum biochemical markers, including HDL cholesterol, were measured before and after DI. A multilocus GPS was constructed using previously reported genetic variants associated with response to diet in subjects with MetS. GPS values, designed to predict the response of HDL cholesterol to the DI, were computed for each individual as the sum of the number of effect alleles across 14 SNPs. RESULTS: Individuals were dichotomized as high and low GPS according to median GPS (-2.12) and we observed a difference in HDL cholesterol changes on DI of +3 mg/dL (6.3%) in subjects with low GPS, whereas those with high GPS had HDL cholesterol decreases of -3 mg/dL (-7.9%) (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with low GPS showed greater increases in their HDL cholesterol than those with high GPS. Therefore, the GPS can be useful for predicting the HDL cholesterol response to diet.

8.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988085

RESUMO

Macronutrient intake, the proportion of calories consumed from carbohydrate, fat, and protein, is an important risk factor for metabolic diseases with significant familial aggregation. Previous studies have identified two genetic loci for macronutrient intake, but incomplete coverage of genetic variation and modest sample sizes have hindered the discovery of additional loci. Here, we expanded the genetic landscape of macronutrient intake, identifying 12 suggestively significant loci (P < 1 × 10-6) associated with intake of any macronutrient in 91,114 European ancestry participants. Four loci replicated and reached genome-wide significance in a combined meta-analysis including 123,659 European descent participants, unraveling two novel loci; a common variant in RARB locus for carbohydrate intake and a rare variant in DRAM1 locus for protein intake, and corroborating earlier FGF21 and FTO findings. In additional analysis of 144,770 participants from the UK Biobank, all identified associations from the two-stage analysis were confirmed except for DRAM1. Identified loci might have implications in brain and adipose tissue biology and have clinical impact in obesity-related phenotypes. Our findings provide new insight into biological functions related to macronutrient intake.

9.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 108(1): 188-200, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29901700

RESUMO

Background: The putative functional variant -265T>C (rs5082) within the APOA2 promoter has shown consistent interactions with saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake to influence the risk of obesity. Objective: The aim of this study was to implement an integrative approach to characterize the molecular basis of this interaction. Design: We conducted an epigenome-wide scan on 80 participants carrying either the rs5082 CC or TT genotypes and consuming either a low-SFA (<22 g/d) or high-SFA diet (≥22 g/d), matched for age, sex, BMI, and diabetes status in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (BPRHS). We then validated the findings in selected participants in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) Study (n = 379) and the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) (n = 243). Transcription and metabolomics analyses were conducted to determine the relation between epigenetic status, APOA2 mRNA expression, and blood metabolites. Results: In the BPRHS, we identified methylation site cg04436964 as exhibiting significant differences between CC and TT participants consuming a high-SFA diet, but not among those consuming low-SFA. Similar results were observed in the GOLDN Study and the FHS. Additionally, in the FHS, cg04436964 methylation was negatively correlated with APOA2 expression in the blood of participants consuming a high-SFA diet. Furthermore, when consuming a high-SFA diet, CC carriers had lower APOA2 expression than those with the TT genotype. Lastly, metabolomic analysis identified 4 pathways as overrepresented by metabolite differences between CC and TT genotypes with high-SFA intake, including tryptophan and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) pathways. Interestingly, these pathways were linked to rs5082-specific cg04436964 methylation differences in high-SFA consumers. Conclusions: The epigenetic status of the APOA2 regulatory region is associated with SFA intake and APOA2 -265T>C genotype, promoting an APOA2 expression difference between APOA2 genotypes on a high-SFA diet, and modulating BCAA and tryptophan metabolic pathways. These findings identify potential mechanisms by which this highly reproducible gene-diet interaction influences obesity risk, and contribute new insights to ongoing investigations of the relation between SFA and human health. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03452787.

10.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0196951, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29738550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Odd-numbered chain saturated fatty acids (OCSFA) have been associated with potential health benefits. Although some OCSFA (e.g., C15:0 and C17:0) are found in meats and dairy products, sources and metabolism of C19:0 and C23:0 are relatively unknown, and the influence of non-dietary determinants, including genetic factors, on circulating levels of OCSFA is not established. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the biological processes that influence circulating levels of OCSFA by investigating associations between genetic variation and OCSFA. DESIGN: We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of plasma phospholipid/erythrocyte levels of C15:0, C17:0, C19:0, and C23:0 among 11,494 individuals of European descent. We also investigated relationships between specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the lactase (LCT) gene, associated with adult-onset lactase intolerance, with circulating levels of dairy-derived OCSFA, and evaluated associations of candidate sphingolipid genes with C23:0 levels. RESULTS: We found no genome-wide significant evidence that common genetic variation is associated with circulating levels of C15:0 or C23:0. In two cohorts with available data, we identified one intronic SNP (rs13361131) in myosin X gene (MYO10) associated with C17:0 level (P = 1.37×10-8), and two intronic SNP (rs12874278 and rs17363566) in deleted in lymphocytic leukemia 1 (DLEU1) region associated with C19:0 level (P = 7.07×10-9). In contrast, when using a candidate-gene approach, we found evidence that three SNPs in LCT (rs11884924, rs16832067, and rs3816088) are associated with circulating C17:0 level (adjusted P = 4×10-2). In addition, nine SNPs in the ceramide synthase 4 (CERS4) region were associated with circulating C23:0 levels (adjusted P<5×10-2). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that circulating levels of OCSFA may be predominantly influenced by non-genetic factors. SNPs associated with C17:0 level in the LCT gene may reflect genetic influence in dairy consumption or in metabolism of dairy foods. SNPs associated with C23:0 may reflect a role of genetic factors in the synthesis of sphingomyelin.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/genética , Miosinas/genética , Esfingosina N-Aciltransferase/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Lactase/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Esfingomielinas/biossíntese , Esfingomielinas/genética
11.
Diabetes Care ; 41(5): 1089-1096, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483184

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the causal effect of childhood BMI on adult cardiometabolic diseases using a Mendelian randomization analysis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms as instrumental variables for childhood BMI to test the causal effect of childhood BMI on cardiometabolic diseases using summary-level data from consortia. RESULTS: We found that a 1-SD increase in childhood BMI (kg/m2) was associated with an 83% increase in risk of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.83 [95% CI 1.46, 2.30]; P = 2.5 × 10-7) and a 28% increase in risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) (OR 1.28 [95% CI 1.17, 1.39]; P = 2.1 × 10-8) at the Bonferroni-adjusted level of significance (P < 0.017) in adults. In addition, a 1-SD increase in childhood BMI was associated with a 0.587-SD increase in adulthood BMI (kg/m2), a 0.062-SD increase in hip circumference (cm), a 0.602-SD increase in waist circumference (cm), a 0.111 pmol/L increase in log fasting insulin, a 0.068 increase in log-transformed HOMA of ß-cell function (%), a 0.126 increase in log-transformed HOMA of insulin resistance (%), and a 0.109-SD increase in triglyceride (mg/dL) but a 0.138-SD decrease in HDL (mg/dL) in adults at the Bonferroni-adjusted level of significance (P < 0.0026). CONCLUSIONS: A genetic predisposition to higher childhood BMI was associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and CAD in adult life. These results provide evidence supportive of a causal association between childhood BMI and these outcomes.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Resistência à Insulina , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética
12.
J Hum Genet ; 63(4): 431-446, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29382920

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many susceptibility loci for cardiometabolic disorders. Most of the associated variants reside in non-coding regions of the genome including long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are thought to play critical roles in diverse biological processes. Here, we leveraged data from the available GWAS meta-analyses on lipid and obesity-related traits, blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and coronary artery disease and identified 179 associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 102 lncRNAs (p-value < 2.3 × 10-7). Of these, 55 SNPs, either the lead SNP or in strong linkage disequilibrium with the lead SNP in the related loci, were selected for further investigations. Our in silico predictions and functional annotations of the SNPs as well as expression and DNA methylation analysis of their lncRNAs demonstrated several lncRNAs that fulfilled predefined criteria for being potential functional targets. In particular, we found evidence suggesting that LOC157273 (at 8p23.1) is involved in regulating serum lipid-cholesterol. Our results showed that rs4841132 in the second exon and cg17371580 in the promoter region of LOC157273 are associated with lipids; the lncRNA is expressed in liver and associates with the expression of its nearby coding gene, PPP1R3B. Collectively, we highlight a number of loci associated with cardiometabolic disorders for which the association may act through lncRNAs.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Cardiopatias/genética , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Epistasia Genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Interferência de RNA , RNA Longo não Codificante/química
13.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 62(3)2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28941034

RESUMO

SCOPE: Body weight responds variably to the intake of dairy foods. Genetic variation may contribute to inter-individual variability in associations between body weight and dairy consumption. METHODS AND RESULTS: A genome-wide interaction study to discover genetic variants that account for variation in BMI in the context of low-fat, high-fat and total dairy intake in cross-sectional analysis was conducted. Data from nine discovery studies (up to 25 513 European descent individuals) were meta-analyzed. Twenty-six genetic variants reached the selected significance threshold (p-interaction <10-7) , and six independent variants (LINC01512-rs7751666, PALM2/AKAP2-rs914359, ACTA2-rs1388, PPP1R12A-rs7961195, LINC00333-rs9635058, AC098847.1-rs1791355) were evaluated meta-analytically for replication of interaction in up to 17 675 individuals. Variant rs9635058 (128 kb 3' of LINC00333) was replicated (p-interaction = 0.004). In the discovery cohorts, rs9635058 interacted with dairy (p-interaction = 7.36 × 10-8) such that each serving of low-fat dairy was associated with 0.225 kg m-2 lower BMI per each additional copy of the effect allele (A). A second genetic variant (ACTA2-rs1388) approached interaction replication significance for low-fat dairy exposure. CONCLUSION: Body weight responses to dairy intake may be modified by genotype, in that greater dairy intake may protect a genetic subgroup from higher body weight.

14.
Diabetologia ; 61(2): 317-330, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29098321

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are a major dietary contributor to fructose intake. A molecular pathway involving the carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) and the metabolic hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) may influence sugar metabolism and, thereby, contribute to fructose-induced metabolic disease. We hypothesise that common variants in 11 genes involved in fructose metabolism and the ChREBP-FGF21 pathway may interact with SSB intake to exacerbate positive associations between higher SSB intake and glycaemic traits. METHODS: Data from 11 cohorts (six discovery and five replication) in the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium provided association and interaction results from 34,748 adults of European descent. SSB intake (soft drinks, fruit punches, lemonades or other fruit drinks) was derived from food-frequency questionnaires and food diaries. In fixed-effects meta-analyses, we quantified: (1) the associations between SSBs and glycaemic traits (fasting glucose and fasting insulin); and (2) the interactions between SSBs and 18 independent SNPs related to the ChREBP-FGF21 pathway. RESULTS: In our combined meta-analyses of discovery and replication cohorts, after adjustment for age, sex, energy intake, BMI and other dietary covariates, each additional serving of SSB intake was associated with higher fasting glucose (ß ± SE 0.014 ± 0.004 [mmol/l], p = 1.5 × 10-3) and higher fasting insulin (0.030 ± 0.005 [log e pmol/l], p = 2.0 × 10-10). No significant interactions on glycaemic traits were observed between SSB intake and selected SNPs. While a suggestive interaction was observed in the discovery cohorts with a SNP (rs1542423) in the ß-Klotho (KLB) locus on fasting insulin (0.030 ± 0.011 log e pmol/l, uncorrected p = 0.006), results in the replication cohorts and combined meta-analyses were non-significant. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In this large meta-analysis, we observed that SSB intake was associated with higher fasting glucose and insulin. Although a suggestive interaction with a genetic variant in the ChREBP-FGF21 pathway was observed in the discovery cohorts, this observation was not confirmed in the replication analysis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trials related to this study were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005131 (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities), NCT00005133 (Cardiovascular Health Study), NCT00005121 (Framingham Offspring Study), NCT00005487 (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) and NCT00005152 (Nurses' Health Study).


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/genética , Bebidas , Glicemia/metabolismo , Jejum/sangue , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Insulina/sangue , Edulcorantes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 105(6): 1283-1290, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28356272

RESUMO

Background: There is a potential role of choline in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease through its involvement in lipid and one-carbon metabolism.Objective: We evaluated the associations of plasma choline and choline-related compounds with cardiometabolic risk factors, history of cardiovascular disease, and cerebrovascular pathology.Design: A cross-sectional subset of the Nutrition, Aging, and Memory in Elders cohort who had undergone MRI of the brain (n = 296; mean ± SD age: 73 ± 8.1 y) was assessed. Plasma concentrations of free choline, betaine, and phosphatidylcholine were measured with the use of liquid-chromatography-stable-isotope dilution-multiple-reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry. A volumetric analysis of MRI was used to determine the cerebrovascular pathology (white-matter hyperintensities and small- and large-vessel infarcts). Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to examine relations of plasma measures with cardiometabolic risk factors, history of cardiovascular disease, and radiologic evidence of cerebrovascular pathology.Results: Higher concentrations of plasma choline were associated with an unfavorable cardiometabolic risk-factor profile [lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, higher total homocysteine, and higher body mass index (BMI)] and greater odds of large-vessel cerebral vascular disease or history of cardiovascular disease but lower odds of small-vessel cerebral vascular disease. Conversely, higher concentrations of plasma betaine were associated with a favorable cardiometabolic risk-factor profile [lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides] and lower odds of diabetes. Higher concentrations of plasma phosphatidylcholine were associated with characteristics of both a favorable cardiometabolic risk-factor profile (higher HDL cholesterol, lower BMI, lower C-reactive protein, lower waist circumference, and lower odds of hypertension and diabetes) and an unfavorable profile (higher LDL cholesterol and triglycerides).Conclusion: Choline and its metabolites have differential associations with cardiometabolic risk factors and subtypes of vascular disease, thereby suggesting differing roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and cerebral large-vessel disease compared with that of small-vessel disease.


Assuntos
Betaína/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/sangue , Colina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Fosfatidilcolinas/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/patologia , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Homocisteína/sangue , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Circunferência da Cintura
17.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 35(4): 448-455, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27628044

RESUMO

Population admixture plays a role in the risk of chronic conditions that are related to body composition; however, our understanding of these associations in Puerto Ricans, a population characterized by multiple ancestries, is limited. This study investigated the relationship between genetic admixture and body composition in 652 Puerto Ricans from the Boston Puerto Rican Osteoporosis Study. Genetic ancestry was estimated from 100 ancestry-informative markers. Body composition measures were obtained from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multivariable linear regression analyses examined associations between bone mineral density (BMD) of the hip and lumbar spine and percent fat mass and lean mass with genetic admixture. In Puerto Ricans living on the US mainland, European ancestry was associated with lower BMD at the trochanter (P = 0.039) and femoral neck (P = 0.01), and Native American ancestry was associated with lower BMD of the trochanter (P = 0.04). African ancestry was associated with a higher BMD at the trochanter (P = 0.004) and femoral neck (P = 0.001). Ancestry was not associated with percent fat mass or lean mass or waist circumference. Our findings are consistent with existing research demonstrating inverse associations between European and Native American ancestries and BMD and positive relationships between African ancestry and BMD. This work contributes to our understanding of the high prevalence of chronic disease experienced by this population and has implications for other ethnic minority groups, particularly those with multiple ancestries. Future research should consider interactions between ancestry and environmental factors, as this may provide individualized approaches for disease prevention.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/genética , Osteoporose/genética , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adiposidade/genética , Adulto , Densidade Óssea/genética , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Boston , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Porto Rico , Circunferência da Cintura/genética
18.
J Nutr ; 146(12): 2544-2550, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27934644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown an inconsistent relation between habitual beverage consumption and insulin resistance and prediabetes. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), rather than diet soda, is associated with long-term progression of insulin resistance and the development of prediabetes. METHODS: We analyzed the prospective association between cumulative mean consumption of SSBs or diet soda and incident prediabetes (n = 1685) identified across a median of 14 y of follow-up in participants [mean ± SD age: 51.9 ± 9.2 y; 59.6% women; mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; kg/m2): 26.3 ± 4.4] of the Framingham Offspring cohort. The prospective association between beverage consumption and change in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; n = 2076) over ∼7 y was also analyzed. The cumulative mean consumption of SSBs and diet soda was estimated by using food-frequency questionnaires. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models and linear regression models were implemented to estimate the HRs of incident prediabetes and change in HOMA-IR, respectively. RESULTS: After adjustment for multiple potential confounders, including baseline BMI, we observed that SSB intake was positively associated with incident prediabetes (P-trend < 0.001); the highest SSB consumers (>3 servings/wk; median: 6 servings/wk) had a 46% higher risk of developing prediabetes than did the SSB nonconsumers (HR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.16, 1.83). Higher SSB intake was also associated with a greater increase in HOMA-IR (P-trend = 0.006). No prospective associations were observed between diet soda intake and risk of prediabetes (P-trend = 0.24) or changes in HOMA-IR (P-trend = 0.25). These associations were similar after additional adjustment for change in BMI. CONCLUSION: Regular SSB intake, but not diet soda intake, is associated with a greater increase in insulin resistance and a higher risk of developing prediabetes in a group of middle-aged adults.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Gaseificadas/análise , Resistência à Insulina , Estado Pré-Diabético , Edulcorantes/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Sci Rep ; 6: 33188, 2016 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27624874

RESUMO

Controversy persists on the association between dairy products, especially milk, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Genetic proxies may improve dairy intake estimations, and clarify diet-disease relationships through Mendelian randomization. We meta-analytically (n ≤ 20,089) evaluated associations between a lactase persistence (LP) SNP, the minichromosome maintenance complex component 6 (MCM6)-rs3754686C>T (nonpersistence>persistence), dairy intake, and CVD biomarkers in American (Hispanics, African-American and Whites) and Mediterranean populations. Moreover, we analyzed longitudinal associations with milk, CVD and mortality in PREDIMED), a randomized Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) intervention trial (n = 7185). The MCM6-rs3754686/MCM6-rs309180 (as proxy), LP-allele (T) was strongly associated with higher milk intake, but inconsistently associated with glucose and lipids, and not associated with CVD or total mortality in the whole population. Heterogeneity analyses suggested some sex-specific associations. The T-allele was associated with higher CVD and mortality risk in women but not in men (P-sex interaction:0.005 and 0.032, respectively), mainly in the MedDiet group. However, milk intake was not associated with CVD biomarkers, CVD or mortality either generally or in sub-groups. Although MCM6-rs3754686 is a good milk intake proxy in these populations, attributing its associations with CVD and mortality in Mediterranean women to milk is unwarranted, as other factors limiting the assumption of causality in Mendelian randomization may exist.


Assuntos
Alelos , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Dieta Mediterrânea , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Leite , Componente 6 do Complexo de Manutenção de Minicromossomo/genética , Idoso , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Região do Mediterrâneo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos
20.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 35(8): 1367-73, 2016 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27503959

RESUMO

Evidence shows that both biological and nonbiological factors contribute to health disparities. Genetics, in particular, plays a part in how common diseases manifest themselves. Today, unprecedented advances in genetically based diagnoses and treatments provide opportunities for personalized medicine. However, disadvantaged groups may lack access to these advances, and treatments based on research on non-Hispanic whites might not be generalizable to members of minority groups. Unless genetic technologies become universally accessible, existing disparities could be widened. Addressing this issue will require integrated strategies, including expanding genetic research, improving genetic literacy, and enhancing access to genetic technologies among minority populations in a way that avoids harms such as stigmatization.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/prevenção & controle , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Afro-Americanos/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/economia , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
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