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1.
Resuscitation ; 170: 28-35, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early defibrillation is an essential element of the chain of survival for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Public access defibrillation (PAD) programmes aim to place automated external defibrillators (AED) in areas with high OHCA incidence, but there is sometimes a mismatch between AED density and OHCA incidence. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess whether there were any disparities in the characteristics of areas that have an AED and those that do not in England. METHODS: Details of the location of AEDs registered with English Ambulance Services were obtained from individual services or internet sources. Neighbourhood characteristics of lower layer super output areas (LSOA) were obtained from the Office for National Statistics. Comparisons were made between LSOAs with and without a registered AED. RESULTS: AEDs were statistically more likely to be in LSOAs with a lower residential but higher workplace population density, with people predominantly from a white ethnic background and working in higher socio-economically classified occupations (p < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between AED coverage and the LSOA Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) (r = 0.79, p = 0.007), with only 27.4% in the lowest IMD decile compared to about 45% in highest. AED density varied significantly across the country from 0.82/km2 in the north east to 2.97/km2 in London. CONCLUSIONS: In England, AEDs were disproportionately placed in more affluent areas, with a lower residential population density. This contrasts with locations where OHCAs have previously occurred. Future PAD programmes should give preference to areas of higher deprivation and be tailored to the local community.

2.
Resusc Plus ; 8: 100176, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816140

RESUMO

Background: Using straight-line distance to estimate the proximity of public-access Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs) or volunteer first-responders to potential out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) does not reflect real-world travel distance. The difference between estimates may be an important consideration for bystanders and first-responders responding to OHCAs and may potentially impact patient outcome. Objectives: To explore how calculating real-world travel routes instead of using straight-line distance estimates might impact the community response to OHCA. Methods: We mapped 4355 OHCA (01/04/2016-31/03/2017) and 2677 AEDs in London (UK), and 1263 OHCA (18/06/2017-17/06/2018) and 4704 AEDs in East Midlands (UK) using ArcGIS mapping software. We determined the distance from OHCAs to the nearest AED using straight-line estimates and real-world travel routes. We mapped locations of potential OHCAs (London: n = 9065, 20/09/2019-22/03/2020; East Midlands: n = 7637, 20/09/2019-17/03/2020) for which volunteer first-responders were alerted by the GoodSAM mobile-phone app, and calculated response distance using straight-line estimates and real-world travel routes. We created Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and calculated the Area Under the Curve (AUC) to determine if travel distance predicted whether or not a responder accepted an alert. Results: Real-world travel routes to the nearest AED were (median) 219 m longer (623 m vs 406 m) than straight-line estimates in London, and 211 m longer (568 m vs 357 m) in East Midlands. The identity of the nearest AED changed on 26% occasions in both areas when calculating real-world travel routes. GoodSAM responders' real-world travel routes were (median) 222 m longer (601 m vs 379 m) in London, and 291 m longer (814 m vs 523 m) in East Midlands. AUC statistics for both areas demonstrated that neither straight-line nor real-world travel distance predicted whether or not a responder accepted an alert. Conclusions: Calculating real-world travel routes increases the estimated travel distance and time for those responding to OHCAs. Calculating straight-line distance may overestimate the benefit of the community response to OHCA.

3.
Shoulder Elbow ; 13(6): 592-599, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804207

RESUMO

Background: This review aims to establish current knowledge of the shoulder skin microbiome and how to manage the bacteria that reside within it. Methods: A review was undertaken of the current literature through OvidSP. All abstracts were reviewed by three independent researchers. Results: Thirty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. With forward referencing an additional 14 were included. None commented on organisms specific to the shoulder microbiome other than Cutibacterium acnes. Therefore, this review is focussed on the current knowledge of C. acnes. Discussion: C. acnes is a skin commensal within the pilo-sebaceous glands reported to be the primary pathogen in up to 86% of shoulder joint infections. Pre-operative culture of unprepared skin can be indicative of underlying joint infection in shoulder arthroplasty revision. Intra-articular biopsies may have a high false positive due to skin contamination. Correlating the number of positive samples and certain associated signs can give a greater than 90% probability of a true infection. Standard surgical skin preparation, peri-surgical intravenous antibiotics and oral pre-operative antibiotics do not reduce bacterial load within the skin. However, topical benzoyl peroxide and clindamycin have both demonstrated significantly reduced bacteria load. Phylogenetically there are six main types. Patients may have more than one phenotype present during infection.

4.
Otol Neurotol ; 42(10): 1585-1593, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766952

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: After 160 years the true underlying cause of Meniere's disease remains enigmatic. The aim of our study is to discuss the possible implication of an obstruction of the ductus reuniens as a cause in Menière's disease. METHODOLOGY: We first conducted an historical study of the description of the ductus reuniens. We then reviewed the literature regarding ductus reuniens obstruction in animal experiments, human post-mortem studies and living ear imaging. We completed its description by modern microCT imaging. Limited knowledge on the fate of dislodged saccular otoconia is summarized. The possible implications for Meniere's attacks are discussed. RESULTS: Victor Hensen was the first to describe the ductus reuniens in 1863. He described its length and width and predicted that saccular otoconia might enter the ductus and the cochlea. On microCT the narrowest width of the human ductus reuniens was 0.14 mm. The literature reports cochlear endolymphatic hydrops occurring after animal experimental obstruction of the duct. Human postmortem studies have confirmed saccular otoconial clumps entering the ductus and the cochlea. A postmortem study has shown sites of endolymphatic obstruction, and imaging speculates on blockages in ears with Meniere's disease. Dislodged utricular otoconia can be in clumps of otolithic membranes. CONCLUSION: Blockages of the ductus reuniens and at other endolymphatic system sites appear to be a feature in Meniere's disease ears. The blockages have been postulated to be saccular otoconia either causing or aggravating hydrops. This could be consistent with observed nystagmus reversals during attacks as the endolymphatic sac attempts to clear the hydrops and the otoconia.

5.
Am J Vet Res ; : 1-7, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727067

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the level of agreement (LOA) between direct and oscillometric blood pressure (BP) measurements and the ability of oscillometric measurements to accurately detect hypotension in anesthetized chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). ANIMALS: 8 captive, adult chimpanzees. PROCEDURES: During prescheduled annual examinations, each chimpanzee underwent general anesthesia and patient monitoring for their examination, echocardiography for a concurrent study, and measurement of direct BP with the use of tibial artery catheterization and oscillometry with the use of a cuff placed around a brachium and a cuff placed around the second digit of the contralateral forelimb for the present study. Bland-Altman plots were generated to compare results for direct and oscillometric BP measurements. Mean bias and 95% LOAs were calculated for oscillometric measurements of systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) for each cuff site. Sensitivity and specificity in detecting hypotension were also determined for each cuff site. RESULTS: There were 74 paired direct and brachial oscillometric measurements of each, SAP, MAP, and DAP and 66 paired direct and digit oscillometric measurements of each, SAP, MAP, and DAP. Only brachial oscillometric measurements of MAP had adequate sensitivity (78%) and specificity (95%) to accurately detect hypotension, and this technique also had the least mean bias (0.8 mm Hg; 95% LOA, -29 to 31 mm Hg). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results indicated that brachial oscillometric measurement of MAP provided reasonable agreement with tibial arterial direct MAP measurement and performed well in diagnosing hypotension in anesthetized chimpanzees.

6.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 771, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal immunisation is an essential public health intervention aimed at improving the health outcomes for pregnant women and providing protection to the newborn. Despite international recommendations, safety and efficacy data for the intervention, and often a fully funded program, uptake of vaccines in pregnancy remain suboptimal. One possible explanation for this includes limited access to vaccination services at the point of antenatal care. The aim of this study is to evaluate the change in vaccine coverage among pregnant women following implementation of a modified model of delivery aimed at improving access at the point of antenatal care, including an economic evaluation. METHODS: This prospective multi-centre study, using action research design, across six maternity services in Victoria, Australia, evaluated the implementation of a co-designed vaccine delivery model (either a pharmacy led model, midwife led model or primary care led model) supported by provider education. The main outcome measure was influenza and pertussis vaccine uptake during pregnancy and the incremental cost of the new model (compared to existing models) and the cost-effectiveness of the new model at each participating health service. RESULTS: Influenza vaccine coverage in 2019 increased between 50 and 196% from baseline. All services reduced their average cost per immunisation under the new platforms due to efficiencies achieved in the delivery of maternal immunisations. This cost saving ranged from $9 to $71. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that there is no 'one size fits all' model of vaccine delivery. Future successful strategies to improve maternal vaccine coverage at other maternity services should be site specific, multifaceted, targeted at the existing barriers to maternal vaccine uptake, and heavily involve local stakeholders in the design and implementation of these strategies. The cost-effectiveness analysis indicates that an increase in maternal influenza immunisation uptake can be achieved at a relatively modest cost through amendment of maternal immunisation platforms.

7.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A significant challenge is faced for the genetic diagnosis of inherited platelet disorders in which candidate genetic variants can be found in more than 100 bleeding, thrombotic, and platelet disorder genes, especially within families in which there are both normal and low platelet counts. Genetic variants of unknown clinical significance (VUS) are found in a significant proportion of such patients in which functional studies are required to prove pathogenicity. OBJECTIVE: To identify the genetic cause in patients with a suspected platelet disorder and subsequently perform a detailed functional analysis of the candidate genetic variants found. METHODS: Genetic and functional studies were undertaken in three patients in two unrelated families with a suspected platelet disorder and excessive bleeding. A targeted gene panel of previously known bleeding and platelet genes was used to identify plausible genetic variants. Deep platelet phenotyping was performed using platelet spreading analysis, transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and platelet function testing using lumiaggregometry and flow cytometry. RESULTS: We report rare conserved missense variants (p.R182C and p.A183V) in TPM4 encoding tromomyosin-4 in 3 patients. Deep platelet phenotyping studies revealed similar platelet function defects across the 3 patients including reduced platelet secretion, and aggregation and spreading defects suggesting that TPM4 missense variants impact platelet function and show a disordered pattern of tropomyosin staining. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic and functional TPM4 defects are reported making TPM4 a diagnostic grade tier 1 gene and highlights the importance of including TPM4 in diagnostic genetic screening for patients with significant bleeding and undiagnosed platelet disorders, particularly for those with a normal platelet count.

8.
Mol Metab ; 54: 101356, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662713

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Motilin is a proximal small intestinal hormone with roles in gastrointestinal motility, gallbladder emptying, and hunger initiation. In vivo motilin release is stimulated by fats, bile, and duodenal acidification but the underlying molecular mechanisms of motilin secretion remain poorly understood. This study aimed to establish the key signaling pathways involved in the regulation of secretion from human motilin-expressing M-cells. METHODS: Human duodenal organoids were CRISPR-Cas9 modified to express the fluorescent protein Venus or the Ca2+ sensor GCaMP7s under control of the endogenous motilin promoter. This enabled the identification and purification of M-cells for bulk RNA sequencing, peptidomics, calcium imaging, and electrophysiology. Motilin secretion from 2D organoid-derived cultures was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), in parallel with other gut hormones. RESULTS: Human duodenal M-cells synthesize active forms of motilin and acyl-ghrelin in organoid culture, and also co-express cholecystokinin (CCK). Activation of the bile acid receptor GPBAR1 stimulated a 3.4-fold increase in motilin secretion and increased action potential firing. Agonists of the long-chain fatty acid receptor FFA1 and monoacylglycerol receptor GPR119 stimulated secretion by 2.4-fold and 1.5-fold, respectively. Acidification (pH 5.0) was a potent stimulus of M-cell calcium elevation and electrical activity, an effect attributable to acid-sensing ion channels, and a modest inducer of motilin release. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents the first in-depth transcriptomic and functional characterization of human duodenal motilin-expressing cells. We identify several receptors important for the postprandial and interdigestive regulation of motilin release.

9.
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg ; 12(5): 635-642, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597205

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Balloon and stent angioplasty of the pulmonary arteries (PAs) are frequently performed following superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC), not only to normalize the caliber of the affected PA but also in hopes of maximizing downstream growth over time. There are limited data on the impact on subsequent PA growth prior to total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC). METHODS: A single-center, retrospective cohort study was performed on children who underwent transcatheter (TC) PA intervention following SCPC between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2018. Growth of treated and contralateral PAs was measured at the lobar bifurcation (distal branch PA [DBPA]) and in the proximal lower lobe (lower lobe branch [LLB]) on serial angiograms. Growth rate was evaluated using a mixed-effect model clustered by individual patient with an interaction term for treated PA and time to evaluate for differential growth rates between treated and contralateral PAs. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients underwent TC PA intervention following SCPC, at a median of 70 days (interquartile range: 19-297 days) postoperatively. Significant growth was seen at both DBPA and LLB for raw (0.8 mm/year, 95% CI: 0.6-1.0, P < .001 for both) and body surface area (BSA) adjusted measures (8.4mm/m2/year, 95% CI: 5.6-11.2, P < .001; 7.9 mm/m2/year, 95% CI: 5.5-10.2, P < .001). The growth rate of the treated vessel was not significantly different from that of the contralateral vessel at the DBPA or LLB positions for raw (P = .71, .70) or BSA-adjusted measurements (P = .86, .64). CONCLUSION: Transcatheter PA intervention was associated with normal distal PA growth rate relative to the untreated side.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19657, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608207

RESUMO

The mass extinction characterizing the Permian/Triassic boundary (PTB; ~ 252 Ma) corresponds to a major faunal shift between the Palaeozoic and the Modern evolutionary fauna. The temporal, spatial, environmental, and ecological dynamics of the associated biotic recovery remain highly debated, partly due to the scarce, or poorly-known, Early Triassic fossil record. Recently, an exceptionally complex ecosystem dated from immediately after the Smithian/Spathian boundary (~ 3 myr after the PTB) was reported: the Paris Biota (Idaho, USA). However, the spatiotemporal representativeness of this unique assemblage remained questionable as it was hitherto only reported from a single site. Here we describe three new exceptionally diverse assemblages of the same age as the Paris Biota, and a fourth younger one. They are located in Idaho and Nevada, and are taxonomic subsets of the Paris Biota. We show that the latter covered a region-wide area and persisted at least partially throughout the Spathian. The presence of a well-established marine fauna such as the Paris Biota, as soon as the early Spathian, indicates that the post-PTB biotic recovery and the installation of complex ecosystems probably took place earlier than often assumed, at least at a regional scale.

12.
Shoulder Elbow ; 13(5): 544-551, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659489

RESUMO

Background: Total elbow arthroplasty is a low volume procedure. We aimed to evaluate complication rates and cumulative percentages associated with the most frequently used contemporary implants and for the commonest indications. Methods: A systematic literature search of all studies reporting complications following total elbow arthroplasty with 12-month minimum follow-up was undertaken. Quality of studies was assessed with the Methodological-Index-for-Non-Randomised-studies criteria. British NJR data identified the most common UK prostheses and indications. The complication rates for all undesirable events contributing to patient outcome were extracted and cumulative percentages were calculated. Results: One hundred seventeen studies were screened, 12 studies included, totalling 815 procedures. Mean follow-up was 3.8 years. The overall complication cumulative percentage was 60.7%, significantly higher than that seen in other joint arthroplasty, including a 6.5% deep infection rate. Nerve injury was comparable between implants at around 4.1%. Radiographic loosening had a cumulative rate of 17.2%. Revision for symptomatic aseptic loosening was 6.3%. Conclusions: This is the largest systematic review of the complications of total elbow arthroplasty. Surgeons should be aware of differing complications related to their implant of choice, each having its own specific complication. Trauma as an indication appears to have an increased complication rates compared to inflammatory arthropathy. There is a lack of literature regarding the independent results of osteoarthritis as a specific indication for total elbow arthroplasty.

14.
MedEdPORTAL ; 17: 11181, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604511

RESUMO

Introduction: Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) education is growing throughout medical education, but many institutions lack POCUS-trained faculty. Interprofessional education offers a strategy for expanding the pool of available teachers while providing an opportunity for collaboration between health professional students. Methods: Six students enrolled in the diagnostic medical sonography (DMS) program participated in a case-based, train-the-trainer session to practice a standardized approach for POCUS instruction. They then served as coaches to 25 first-year internal medicine residents learning to perform ultrasound exams of the kidneys, bladder, and aorta. Course assessment included an objective structured exam (OSCE), coaching evaluations, and course evaluations. Results: Residents scored an average of 81% (71.3 out of 88 points, SD = 7.5) on the OSCE. Residents rated the DMS student-coaches positively on all teacher evaluation questions. Both the residents and DMS student-coaches gave positive course evaluations scores. Discussion: An interprofessional workshop with DMS students coaching internal medicine residents was an effective strategy for teaching POCUS skills. This approach may offer a solution for programs wanting to implement POCUS training with limited faculty expertise or time.


Assuntos
Médicos , Estudantes de Medicina , Currículo , Humanos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Ultrassonografia
15.
Ultrasound J ; 13(1): 43, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) devices are becoming more widely used in healthcare and have the potential to act as fomites. The objective of this project was to study the thoroughness of cleaning of POCUS machines before and after a quality improvement initiative. We designed a mixed-methods, pre/post study which took place over the course of one year at a university-affiliated health center. Cleaning rates of four ultrasound machines used by hospital medicine and critical care medicine services were evaluated using fluorescent marking. Interventions targeted physicians' knowledge of best practices and improved access to cleaning supplies. Pre- and post-intervention cleaning rates were compared using a generalized linear model. The impact of the corona virus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on baseline cleaning rates was also evaluated. Physicians' attitudes and knowledge of cleaning practices were evaluated via unpaired pre/post surveys. RESULTS: There was significant improvement in thoroughness of cleaning following intervention (pre 0.62, SE 0.05; post 0.89, SE 0.07), p < 0.0001). There was no difference in baseline cleaning rates before (0.63, SE 0.09) and after (0.61, SE 0.1) the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic (p = 0.78). Post-intervention surveying found improved understanding of guideline-based cleaning practice, better performance on knowledge-based questions, and fewer reported barriers to machine cleaning. CONCLUSION: Thoroughness of cleaning of POCUS machines can be improved with practical interventions that target knowledge and access to cleaning supplies.

16.
J Patient Rep Outcomes ; 5(Suppl 2): 87, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636973

RESUMO

PROMs are part of routine measurement for hip and knee replacement in Alberta, Canada. We provide an overview of how PROMs are implemented in routine care, and how we use PROMs data for decision-making at different levels within the health system. The Alberta Bone and Joint Health Institute (ABJHI) ran a randomized controlled trial to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an evidence-based care pathway for hip and knee arthroplasty in 2004. The study included several PROMs questionnaires: Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, Health Utility Index, Short Form 36 and the EQ-5D-3L. Subsequently, the focus shifted to spread and scale of the care pathway provincially. WOMAC and EQ-5D-3L and a patient experience survey were selected for provincial adoption - captured before surgery, three-months post-surgery, and 12-months post-surgery. These PROMs data were integrated into research and routine clinical practice at the micro, meso and macro levels. At the micro level, PROMs data are used at the individual patient and provider level for patients to provide input on their care and as a tool to communicate with their healthcare providers. We examined the relationship of appropriateness and patient reported outcomes in a prospective cohort study. We evaluated whether routinely collected PROMs could be integrated into a patient decision aid to better inform shared decision making. At the meso level, continuous quality improvement reports are provided routinely to individual health care providers, hospitals and clinics on their performance against the measurement framework and standard key performance indicators. At the macro level, PROMs data are used to evaluate system performance by comparing outcomes across different jurisdictions or over time and support health policy decision making. Combined with administrative databases, we have used simulation models to reflect transition through the continuum of care from disease onset through end-stage care regarding the burden of disease, healthcare resource requirements and associated healthcare costs. The addition of PROMs data in clinical repositories and analyses enables the system to identify and address issues of continuous quality improvement against a measurement framework of performance indicators and to explicitly recognize the trade-offs that are inherent in any resource-constrained system.

17.
Platelets ; : 1-12, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569425

RESUMO

Upon activation, platelets release a plethora of factors which help to mediate their dynamic functions in hemostasis, inflammation, wound healing, tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. The majority of these bioactive molecules are released from α-granules, which are unique to platelets, and contain an incredibly diverse repertoire of cargo including; integral membrane proteins, pro-coagulant molecules, chemokines, mitogenic, growth and angiogenic factors, adhesion proteins, and microbicidal proteins. Clinically, activation of circulating platelets has increasingly been associated with various disease states. Biomarkers indicating the level of platelet activation in patients can therefore be useful tools to evaluate risk factors to predict future complications and determine treatment strategies or evaluate antiplatelet therapy. The irreversible nature of α-granule secretion makes it ideally suited as a marker of platelet activation. This review outlines the release and contents of platelet α-granules, as well as the membrane bound, and soluble α-granule cargo proteins that can be used as biomarkers of platelet activation.

18.
Phys Imaging Radiat Oncol ; 19: 102-107, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589619

RESUMO

Background and purpose: Prostate specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography imaging (PSMA-PET) has demonstrated potential for intra-prostatic lesion localization. We leveraged our existing database of co-registered PSMA-PET imaging with cross sectional digitized pathology to model dose coverage of histologically-defined prostate cancer when tailoring brachytherapy dose escalation based on PSMA-PET imaging. Materials and methods: Using a previously-developed automated approach, we created segmentation volumes delineating underlying dominant intraprostatic lesions for ten men with co-registered pathology-imaging datasets. To simulate realistic high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) treatments, we registered the PSMA-PET-defined segmentation volumes and underlying cancer to 3D trans-rectal ultrasound images of HDR-BT cases where 15 Gray (Gy) was delivered. We applied dose/volume optimization to focally target the dominant intraprostatic lesion identified on PSMA-PET. We then compared histopathology dose for all high-grade cancer within whole-gland treatment plans versus PSMA-PET-targeted plans. Histopathology dose was analyzed for all clinically significant cancer with a Gleason score of 7or greater. Results: The standard whole-gland plans achieved a median [interquartile range] D98 of 15.2 [13.8-16.4] Gy to the histologically-defined cancer, while the targeted plans achieved a significantly higher D98 of 16.5 [15.0-19.0] Gy (p = 0.007). Conclusion: This study is the first to use digital histology to confirm the effectiveness of PSMA-PET HDR-BT dose escalation using automatically generated contours. Based on the findings of this study, PSMA-PET lesion dose escalation can lead to increased dose to the ground truth histologically defined cancer.

19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(19): e021542, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569246

RESUMO

Background Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in congenital heart disease patients with single ventricle physiology. Intrahepatic dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance lymphangiography (IH-DCMRL) is a novel diagnostic technique that may be useful in characterizing pathologic abdominal lymphatic flow in the congenital heart disease population and in diagnosing PLE. The objective of this study was to characterize differences in IH-DCMRL findings in patients with single ventricle congenital heart disease with and without PLE. Methods and Results This was a single-center retrospective study of IH-DCMRL findings and clinical data in 41 consecutive patients, 20 with PLE and 21 without PLE, with single ventricle physiology referred for lymphatic evaluation. There were 3 distinct duodenal imaging patterns by IH-DCMRL: (1) enhancement of the duodenal wall with leakage into the lumen, (2) enhancement of the duodenal wall without leakage into the lumen, and (3) no duodenal involvement. Patients with PLE were more likely to have duodenal involvement on IH-DCMRL than patients without PLE (P<0.001). Conclusions IH-DCMRL findings of lymphatic enhancement of the duodenal wall and leakage of lymph into the duodenal lumen are associated with PLE. IH-DCMRL is a useful new modality for characterizing pathologic abdominal lymphatic flow in PLE and might be useful as a risk-assessment tool for PLE in at-risk patients.

20.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: NHS England recommends non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) as a possible treatment for type 1 respiratory failure associated with COVID-19 pneumonitis, either to avoid intubation or as a ceiling of care. However, data assessing this strategy are sparse, especially for the use of CPAP as a ceiling of care, and particularly when delivered outside of a traditional critical care environment. We describe a cohort of patients from Liverpool, UK, who received CPAP on a dedicated respiratory surge unit at the start of the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in UK. METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis of consecutive patients receiving CPAP for the treatment of respiratory failure secondary to COVID-19 on the respiratory surge unit at the Royal Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool, UK from 21 September until 30 November 2020. RESULTS: 88 patients were included in the analysis. 56/88 (64%) were deemed suitable for escalation to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and received CPAP as a trial; 32/88 (36%) received CPAP as a ceiling of care. Median age was 63 years (IQR: 56-74) and 58/88 (66%) were men. Median SpO2/FiO2 immediately prior to CPAP initiation was 95 (92-152). Among patients for escalation to IMV, the median time on CPAP was 6 days (IQR 4-7) and survival at day 30 was 84% (47/56) with 14/56 (25%) escalated to IMV. Of those patients for whom CPAP was ceiling of care, the median duration of CPAP was 9 days (IQR 7-11) and 18/32 (56%) survived to day 30. Pulmonary barotrauma occurred in 9% of the cohort. There were no associations found on multivariant analysis that were associated with all-cause 30-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: With adequate planning and resource redistribution, CPAP may be delivered effectively outside of a traditional critical care setting for the treatment of respiratory failure due to COVID-19. Clinicians delivering CPAP to patients with COVID-19 pneumonitis should be alert to the dangers of pulmonary barotrauma. Among patients who are for escalation of care, the use of CPAP may avoid the need for IMV in some patients. Our data support the NHS England recommendation to consider CPAP as a ceiling of care.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Idoso , COVID-19/terapia , Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
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