Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 53
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Curr Res Physiol ; 4: 243-251, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806034

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of fatigue on muscular performance, oxygenation saturation, and cognition following acute hypoxic exposure at Normoxia, Moderate Hypoxia (MH), and Severe Hypoxia (SH). Methods: Twelve males performed 3 sets of leg extensions to failure under Normoxia (FiO2: 21%), MH (Fi02: 15.4%), and SH (Fi02: 12.9%). Heart rate, peripheral oxygenation saturation, total saturation index, psychomotor vigilance testing reaction time, psychomotor vigilance error rate, maximum strength, and repetitions to failure were measured throughout each visit. Results: The primary findings indicated that MH and SH resulted in significant decreases in psychomotor vigilance test performance (MH: 388.25-427.17 ms, 0.41-0.33 error rate; SH: 398.17-445.42 ms reaction time, 0.25-1.00 error rate), absolute muscle tissue oxygen saturation (Abs-StO2) (MH:67.22% compared to SH:57.56%), but similar muscular strength, heart rate, and patterns of muscle tissue oxygen saturation responses (StO2%) during fatigue when compared to Normoxia. There was an acute decrease in the ability to remain vigilant and/or respond correctly to visual stimuli as indicated by the worsened reaction time (PVTRT) during MH (FiO2: 15.4%) and increased PVTRT and error rate (PVTE) during SH (FiO2: 12.9%) conditions. Conclusions: Acute hypoxic exposure in the current study was not a sufficient stimuli to elicit hypoxic-related changes in HR, muscular strength (1-RM), or repetitions to failure. The SpO2 responses were hypoxic-level dependent with increasing levels of hypoxia resulting in greater and more sustained reductions in SpO2. The combined SpO2 and StO2 responses at MH and SH suggested a balance between the muscles metabolic demand remaining lower than the muscle oxygen diffusion capacity. During the SH condition, Abs-StO2 suggested greater metabolic stress than Normoxia and MH conditions during the fatiguing leg extensions. The patterns of responses for StO2% during the three sets of leg press to failure indicated that exercise is a more potent influencer to muscle oxygenation status than hypoxic conditions (FiO2: 15.4 and 12.9%).

2.
Curr Res Physiol ; 4: 209-215, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746840

RESUMO

Purpose: The present study examined acute normobaric hypoxic exposure on the number of repetitions to failure, electromyographic (EMG) repetition duration (Time), EMG root mean square (RMS) and EMG mean power frequency (MPF) during biceps brachii (BB) dynamic constant external resistance (DCER) exercise. Methods: Thirteen subjects performed two sets of fatiguing DCER arm curl repetitions to failure at 70% of their one repetition maximum under normoxic (NH), moderate hypoxia FiO2 = 15% (MH) and severe hypoxia FiO2 = 13% (SH). Electromyography of the BB was analyzed for EMG Time, EMG RMS, and EMG MPF. Repetitions were selected as 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of total repetitions (%Fail) completed. Pulse oximetry (SpO2) was measured pre-and post-fatigue. Results: There was no significant three-way (Condition x Set x %Fail) or two-way (Condition x Set) interaction for any variable. The number of repetitions to failure significantly decreased from (mean ± SEM) 18.2 ± 1.4 to 9.5 ± 1.0 with each Set. In addition, EMG Time increased (25% < 50%<75% < 100%), EMG RMS decreased (50% > 75%>100%), and EMG MPF decreased (75% > 100%) as a result of fatiguing exercise. SpO2 was lower during MH (Δ5.3%) and SH (Δ9.2%) compared to NH and as a result of fatiguing exercise increased only in MH (Δ2.1%) and SH (Δ5.7%). Conclusion: The changes in BB EMG variables indicated exercise caused myoelectric manifestations of fatigue, however, acute moderate or severe hypoxia had no additional influence on the rate of fatigue development or neuromuscular parameters.

3.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 121(12): 3313-3321, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432149

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Literature is conflicted on whether electromechanical delay durations decrease following resistance training programs. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the contributions and durations of the electrochemical (EMDE-M) and mechanical (EMDM-F) components to the overall electromechanical delay (EMDE-F) during step isometric muscle actions following 4-weeks of structured, multi-joint, lower-body variable resistance training (VRT) program. METHODS: Twelve men performed 4-weeks of VRT leg press training utilizing combination of steel plates (80% total load) and elastic bands (20% total load). Training consisted of 3 sets of 10 repetitions at a 10 repetition maximum load, 3 day week-1 for 4-weeks. EMDE-M, EMDM-F, and EMDE-F was measured at Baseline, Week-2, and Week-4 during voluntary step isometric muscle actions (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction) from the vastus lateralis using electromyographic, mechanomyographic, and force signals. RESULTS: The EMDE-M, EMDM-F, and EMDE-F exhibited decreases in duration following 4-weeks of VRT. In addition, EMDE-M contributed significantly less (42-47%) than EMDM-F (53-58%) to the total duration of EMDE-F across the 4-weeks of VRT. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicated that a structured, VRT program utilizing multi-joint exercise was sufficient to induce decreases in the electrochemical and mechanical processes associated with step isometric muscle contractions. In addition, the utilization of the electromyographic, mechanomyographic, and force signals were capable of quantifying electrochemical and mechanical component changes associated with voluntary muscle contraction. Thus, EMDE-M, EMDM-F, and EMDE-F can be useful in quantifying physiological changes in athletic, clinical, and applied research interventions.

4.
Clin Physiol Funct Imaging ; 41(5): 452-460, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192417

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute changes in muscle swelling (as assessed by muscle thickness and echo intensity) and muscle blood flow associated with an acute bout of low-load blood flow restriction (LLBFR) and low-load non-blood flow restriction (LL) exercise. Twenty women (mean ± SD; 22 ± 2years) volunteered to perform an acute exercise bout that consisted of 75 (1 × 30, 3 × 15) isokinetic, reciprocal, concentric-only, submaximal (30% of peak torque), forearm flexion and extension muscle actions. Pretest, immediately after (posttest), and 5-min after (recovery) completing the 75 repetitions, muscle thickness and echo intensity were assessed from the biceps brachii and triceps brachii muscles and muscle blood flow was assessed from the brachial artery. There were no between group differences for any of the dependent variables, but there were significant simple and main effects for muscle and time. Biceps and triceps brachii muscle thickness increased from pretest (2.13 ± 0.39 cm and 1.88 ± 0.40 cm, respectively) to posttest (2.58 ± 0.49 cm and 2.17 ± 0.43 cm, respectively) for both muscles and remained elevated for the biceps brachii (2.53 ± 0.43 cm), but partially returned to pretest levels for the triceps brachii (2.06 ± 0.41 cm). Echo intensity and muscle blood flow increased from pretest (98.0 ± 13.6 Au and 94.5 ± 31.6 ml min-1 , respectively) to posttest (109.2 ± 16.9 Au and 312.2 ± 106.5 ml min-1 , respectively) and pretest to recovery (110.1 ± 18.3 Au and 206.7 ± 92.9 ml min-1 , respectively) and remained elevated for echo intensity, but partially returned to pretest levels for muscle blood flow. The findings of the present study indicated that LLBFR and LL elicited comparable acute responses as a result of reciprocal, concentric-only, forearm flexion and extension muscle actions.


Assuntos
Braço , Músculo Esquelético , Edema , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Torque
5.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 121(5): 1473-1485, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638690

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the individual and composite patterns of responses and time-course of changes in muscle size, strength, and edema throughout a 4 week low-load blood flow restriction (LLBFR) resistance training intervention. METHODS: Twenty recreationally active women (mean ± SD; 23 ± 3 years) participated in this investigation and were randomly assigned to 4 weeks (3/week) of LLBFR (n = 10) or control (n = 10) group. Resistance training consisted of 75 reciprocal isokinetic forearm flexion-extension muscle actions performed at 30% of peak torque. Strength and ultrasound-based assessments were determined at each training session. RESULTS: There were quadratic increases for composite muscle thickness (R2 = 0.998), concentric peak torque (R2 = 0.962), and maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque (R2 = 0.980) data for the LLBFR group. For muscle thickness, seven of ten subjects exceeded the minimal difference (MD) of 0.16 cm during the very early phase (laboratory visits 1-7) of the intervention compared to three of ten subjects that exceeded MD for either concentric peak torque (3.7 Nm) or MVIC (2.2 Nm) during this same time period. There was a linear increase for composite echo intensity (r2 = 0.563) as a result of LLBFR resistance training, but eight of ten subjects never exceeded the MD of 14.2 Au. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggested that the increases in muscle thickness for the LLBFR group were not associated with edema and changes in echo intensity should be examined on a subject-by-subject basis. Furthermore, LLBFR forearm flexion-extension resistance training elicited real increases in muscle size during the very early phase of training that occurred prior to real increases in muscle strength.


Assuntos
Braço/irrigação sanguínea , Braço/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Braço/anatomia & histologia , Edema/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Torque , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(1): 33-40, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332803

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Hill, EC, Housh, TJ, Smith, CM, Keller, JL, Schmidt, RJ, and Johnson, GO. High- vs. low-intensity fatiguing eccentric exercise on muscle thickness, strength, and blood flow. J Strength Cond Res 35(1): 33-40, 2021-The purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute effects of equal volumes of fatiguing high- vs. low-intensity eccentric muscle actions on changes in muscle thickness, echo intensity, muscle blood flow, and adipose thickness. Eighteen men (mean ± SD = 23.2 ± 3.0 years) performed eccentric peak torque (PT) and maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) trials before (pretest), immediately after (posttest), and 5 minutes after (recovery) performing randomly ordered fatiguing eccentric, isokinetic (180°·s-1) muscle actions of the elbow flexors at 40% (72 repetitions) or 80% (36 repetitions) of eccentric PT. Muscle thickness, exercise-induced edema, muscle blood flow, and adipose thickness were also assessed via ultrasound at pretest, posttest, and recovery. There were no intensity-specific effects on the patterns of responses for eccentric PT, MVIC, muscle thickness, echo intensity, muscle blood flow, or adipose thickness. There were, however, effects across time that decreased from pretest to posttest and from pretest to recovery for eccentric PT (21.5 and 13.0%), MVIC (14.6 and 5.8%), and adipose thickness (10.0 and 6.0%), but increased for muscle thickness (7.6 and 5.9%), echo intensity (13.7 and 9.9%), and muscle blood flow (129.6 and 90.1%) (collapsed across 40 and 80%). These findings indicated that when matched for exercise volume, there were no intensity-related effects on the increases in muscle thickness, echo intensity, muscle blood flow, or the decreases in eccentric PT, MVIC, and adipose thickness after fatiguing eccentric muscle actions. Therefore, exercise volume, independent of exercise intensity and number of repetitions, may be a mediating factor of muscle fatigue and performance during eccentric muscle actions.


Assuntos
Fadiga Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Contração Isométrica , Masculino , Contração Muscular , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Torque
7.
J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact ; 20(3): 325-331, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877969

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examined performance fatigability and the patterns of neuromuscular responses for electromyographic (EMG) and mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude (AMP) and mean power frequency (MPF) during bilateral (BL) and unilateral (UL) maximal, isokinetic leg extensions. METHODS: Peak torque for each repetition and EMG and MMG signals from the non-dominant vastus lateralis were recorded in 11 men during 50 BL and UL maximal, concentric, isokinetic leg extensions at 60o·s-1 that were performed on separate days. Separate repeated measures ANOVAs were performed to examine the normalized isokinetic torque and neuromuscular parameters. RESULTS: Normalized isokinetic peak torque demonstrated a significant Conditions by Repetition interaction (p<0.001, η2p= 0.594). There were no interactions, but significant main effects for Repetition with increases in EMG AMP (p<0.001; η2p=0.255) and decreases in EMG MPF (p<0.001; η2p=0.650), MMG AMP (p<0.001; η2p=0.402), and MMG MPF (p<0.001; η2p=0.796). In addition, EMG MPF and MMG AMP demonstrated main effects for Condition (p=0.031; η2p=0.387 and p=0.002; η2p=0.64, respectively) with the BL exhibiting greater values than UL leg extensions for both parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings indicated greater performance fatigability during UL versus BL leg extensions, but similar patterns of neuromuscular responses consistent with the Muscle Wisdom Hypothesis.


Assuntos
Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Eletrofisiologia/métodos , Humanos , Perna (Membro) , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Electromyogr Kinesiol ; 50: 102367, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711012

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to compare isokinetic peak torque and the patterns of responses for electromyographic (EMG) and mechanomyographic (MMG), amplitude (AMP) and mean power frequency (MPF) for bilateral (BL) versus unilateral (UL), maximal, isokinetic leg extensions. Eleven recreationally trained women (Mean ±â€¯SD: age 22.9 ±â€¯0.9 yrs; body mass 60.5 ±â€¯10.1 kg; height 167.2 ±â€¯6.4 cm) performed 50 maximal, BL and UL isokinetic leg extensions at 60°â€¯s-1 on separate days. Electromyographic and MMG signals from the vastus lateralis of the nondominant leg were recorded. Five separate 2 (Condition [BL and UL]) × 10 (Repetitions [5-50]) repeated measures ANOVAs were performed to examine normalized EMG AMP, EMG MPF, MMG AMP, MMG MPF, and isokinetic torque. The results indicated no significant interactions or main effects for EMG AMP and MMG AMP. There were significant interactions for normalized isokinetic peak torque (p < 0.001, η2p = 0.493) and MMG MPF (p = 0.003, η2p = 0.234). For EMG MPF, there was no significant interaction, but significant main effects for Condition (p = 0.003, η2p = 0.607) and Repetitions (p < 0.001, η2p = 0.805). The current findings demonstrated greater performance fatigability for UL than BL leg extensions. Both modalities exhibited similar patterns of neuromuscular responses that were consistent with the Muscular Wisdom hypothesis.


Assuntos
Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adulto , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Contração Muscular , Torque
9.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 120(2): 425-441, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848703

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Low-load venous blood flow restriction resistance training (RT + BFR) has been demonstrated to increase muscle strength to a greater degree than low-load non-BFR resistance training (RT) during isotonic training, but no previous investigations have examined RT + BFR versus RT during isokinetic training. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of 4 weeks of isokinetic low-load RT + BFR versus low-load RT on indices of muscle strength, muscle size, and neural adaptations. METHODS: Thirty women (mean ± SD; 22 ± 2 years) participated in this investigation and were randomly assigned to 4 weeks of either RT + BFR (n = 10), RT (n = 10), or control (n = 10) group. Resistance training consisted of 75 reciprocal forearm flexion-extension isokinetic muscle actions of the forearm flexors performed at a velocity of 120°s-1. RESULTS: Concentric peak torque increased to a greater extent for RT + BFR after 4 weeks (36.9%) compared to RT (25.8%), but there were similar increases in isometric torque (23.3-42.1%). For both RT + BFR and RT, there were similar increases in muscle cross-sectional area and muscle thickness of the biceps brachii after 2 weeks (11.3-14.3% and 12.4-12.9%, respectively) and 4 weeks (18.7-21.9% and 19.0-20.0%, respectively). There were similar increases in mechanomyographic amplitude, mechanomyographic mean power frequency, and electromyographic mean power frequency, but no changes in electromyographic amplitude for all conditions (including control). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicated that low-load RT + BFR elicited greater increases in concentric strength than low-load RT, but elicited comparable increases in isometric strength and muscle size. There were also no differences in any of the EMG and MMG responses among conditions.


Assuntos
Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Funct Morphol Kinesiol ; 5(1)2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467220

RESUMO

Previous studies have demonstrated that ayurvedic ingredients exhibit ergogenic (performance enhancing) properties, however, no previous studies have examined the ergogenic potential of Asparagus racemosus. The purpose of the present study was to examine the ergogenic efficacy of supplementation with 500 mg·d-1 of A. racemosus during bench press training. Eighteen recreationally trained men (mean ± SD; age = 20.4 ± 0.5 yrs; height = 179.7 ± 1.5 cm; weight = 84.7 ± 5.7 kg) were randomly assigned either 500 mg·d-1 of A. racemosus (n = 10) or placebo (n = 8). An overlapping sample of 10 participants were used to determine test-retest reliability. Pre- and post-training testing included bench press with one repetition maximum (1RM) and repetitions to failure at 70% of pre-training 1RM. The participants performed two sets of bench press to failure three times a week for eight weeks. Independent t-tests, Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA), and regression analyses were used to analyze the dependent variables. The results demonstrated greater mean percentage (14.3 ± 7.7% vs. 7.8 ± 4.5%; p = 0.048) and individual (80% vs. 50%) increases in 1RM, mean (17.5 ± 2.2 repetitions vs. 15.2 ± 2.2 repetitions; p = 0.044) and individual (80% vs. 38%) increases in repetitions to failure, and a greater rate of increase in training loads for the Asparagus racemosus group than the placebo group. In conjunction with bench press training, supplementation with A. racemosus provided ergogenic benefits compared to placebo.

11.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860532

RESUMO

Keller, JL, Housh, TJ, Hill, EC, Smith, CM, Schmidt, RJ, and Johnson, GO. Are there sex-specific neuromuscular or force responses to fatiguing isometric muscle actions anchored to a high perceptual intensity? J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-The purpose of this study was to use the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) clamp model to examine sex-specific changes in neuromuscular responses and force after a sustained isometric leg extension muscle action anchored to RPE = 8. Twenty adults (10 men and 10 women) performed sustained, isometric leg extension muscle actions at RPE = 8. Electromyographic (EMG) and mechanomyographic signals were recorded from the dominant leg. Neuromuscular and force values resulting from the sustained muscle action were normalized to pretest maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs). The level of significance set for the study was p ≤ 0.05. The pretest MVIC was significantly (p < 0.001) greater (averaged across sex) than posttest MVIC force (55.5 ± 10.0 vs. 47.6 ± 11.1 kg). There was a significant (p < 0.01) decrease from pretest (95.4 ± 7.7 Hz) to posttest (76.2 ± 5.9 Hz) in EMG mean power frequency (MPF) for the men. The normalized force (averaged across sex) decreased significantly (p < 0.001) from the initial timepoint (57.1 ± 16.4%) to the final timepoint (44.3 ± 15.7%) of the sustained muscle action. Normalized EMG MPF (averaged across sex) decreased significantly (p = 0.001) from the initial timepoint (96.4 ± 17.5%) to final timepoint (87.8 ± 18.1%). The men and women exhibited similar fatigue-induced changes in force and neuromuscular parameters; therefore, these findings did not indicate different sex-specific responses after the fatiguing task anchored to a high perception of exertion. The force corresponding to RPE = 8 did not match the anticipated value; so, RPE and percentages of MVIC cannot be used interchangeably, and sustained isometric muscle actions anchored to RPE may elicit unique neuromuscular adaptations.

12.
Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback ; 44(4): 343-350, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494754

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to examine the fatigue-related patterns of responses for electromyography (EMG), mechanomyography (MMG), and force during a sustained isometric muscle action anchored to RPE = 5. Ten men (22.9 ± 2.0 year) performed maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) prior to and following an isometric leg extension muscle action, which was sustained for a maximal time-limit of 5 min or until it could not be maintained at RPE = 5 (actual time-limit). EMG amplitude (AMP), EMG mean power-frequency (MPF), MMG AMP, MMG MPF, and force values were determined every 5% of the actual time-limit. Regression analyses were used to examine the neuromuscular parameters and force responses, and a t test was used to examine MVIC. The pretest MVIC (62.4 ± 14.3 kg) was significantly (p < 0.001; d = 1.07) greater than posttest (47.9 ± 12.8 kg). The percent decline in force during the sustained isometric muscle action was 47.5 ± 19.6%, and there was a significant, negative force versus time relationship (p < 0.001; R = - 0.980). There was a significant, negative EMG AMP versus time relationship (p < 0.001; R = -0.789), but no significant (p > 0.05) relationships for EMG MPF, MMG AMP, or MMG MPF versus time. The findings indicated that it was necessary to reduce force and EMG AMP to maintain RPE = 5. We hypothesize that the maintenance of RPE = 5 was initially accomplished by an anticipatory feedforward mechanism and then continuous integrations of afferent feedback, which resulted in reductions of EMG AMP and force, due to reductions in neural drive, to attenuate the impact of metabolic byproducts.


Assuntos
Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Autocontrole , Adulto , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 119(10): 2363-2373, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473805

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Unaccustomed exercise can result in delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), particularly as a result of the eccentric phase of the muscle contraction. Resistance training combined with venous blood flow restriction (vBFR) may attenuate DOMS, but the available information in this regard is conflicting. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of low-load eccentric vBFR (Ecc-vBFR) and concentric vBFR (Con-vBFR) resistance training on indices of DOMS. METHODS: Twenty-five previously untrained women completed seven days of either Ecc-vBFR (n = 12) or Con-vBFR (n = 13) forearm flexion resistance training at a velocity of 120° s-1 on an isokinetic dynamometer. The Ecc-vBFR group used a training load that corresponded to 30% of eccentric peak torque and the Con-vBFR group used a training load that corresponded to 30% of concentric peak torque. RESULTS: There were no differences between Ecc-vBFR and Con-vBFR at any of the seven training sessions on any of the indices of DOMS. There were no decreases in the maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque which increased at days 6 and 7. Similarly, there were no changes in perceived muscle soreness, pain pressure threshold, elbow joint angle, or edema (as assessed by echo intensity via ultrasound) across the seven training sessions. CONCLUSIONS: The Ecc-vBFR and Con-vBFR low-load training protocols were not associated with DOMS and there were no differences between protocols when performed using the same relative training intensity. These findings suggested that both unaccustomed eccentric and concentric low-load training did not result in DOMS when combined with vBFR.


Assuntos
Precondicionamento Isquêmico/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Mialgia/prevenção & controle , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Precondicionamento Isquêmico/efeitos adversos , Contração Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Mialgia/etiologia , Tempo de Reação , Treinamento de Força/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Somatosens Mot Res ; 36(3): 223-229, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474178

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in reflex-electromechanical delay (EMD) as a result of 2- and 4-wks of variable resistance training (VRT) or dynamic constant external resistance (DCER) leg press training. Material and Methods: Thirty-six men were randomised into either the Control, DCER, or VRT groups. The DCER and VRT groups performed 3 sets of 10 leg press repetitions 3-d·wk-1 for 4-wks. Reflex-EMD was measured at Baseline, Week-2, and Week-4. Results: The reflex-EMD durations decreased from Baseline at Week-2 and Week-4 for the VRT group, but not the DCER or Control groups. The reflex response < electrochemical process < mechanical process < total reflex-EMD for all groups. Conclusions: VRT elicited greater reflex adaptations compared to DCER training which indicated that VRT may be beneficial to incorporate into training or physical therapy programmes for pilots, soldiers, elderly, athletes, or professions that require quick reflexes and response times.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Reflexo de Estiramento/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453941

RESUMO

Jenkins, NDM, Miramonti, AA, Hill, EC, Smith, CM, Cochrane-Snyman, KC, Housh, TJ, and Cramer, JT. Mechanomyographic amplitude is sensitive to load-dependent neuromuscular adaptations in response to resistance training. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-We examined the sensitivity of the mechanomyographic amplitude (MMGRMS) and frequency (MMGMPF) vs. torque relationships to load-dependent neuromuscular adaptations in response to 6 weeks of higher- vs. lower-load resistance training. Twenty-five men (age = 22.8 ± 4.6 years) were randomly assigned to either a high- (n = 13) or low-load (n = 12) training group and completed 6 weeks of leg extension resistance training at 80 or 30% 1RM. Before and after 3 and 6 weeks of training, mechanomyography signals were recorded during isometric contractions at target torques equal to 10-100% of the subjects' baseline maximal strength to quantify MMGRMS and MMGMPF vs. torque relationships. MMGRMS decreased from Baseline to weeks 3 and 6 in the high-load, but not low-load group, and was dependent on the muscle and intensity of contraction examined. Consequently, MMGRMS was generally lower in the high- than low-load group at weeks 3 and 6, and these differences were most apparent in the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris muscles at higher contraction intensities. MMGMPF was greater in the high- than low-load training group independent of time or muscle. The MMGRMS vs. torque relationship was sensitive to load-dependent, muscle-specific neuromuscular adaptations and suggest reductions in neuromuscular activation to produce the same absolute submaximal torques after training with high, but not low loads.

16.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 119(9): 2083-2094, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372804

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The mediators of the perception of effort during exercise are still unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine physiological responses during runs using a rating of perceived exertion (RPE)-clamp model at the RPE corresponding to the gas exchange threshold (RPEGET) and 15% above GET (RPEGET+15%) to identify potential mediators and performance applications for RPE during treadmill running. METHODS: Twenty-one runners ([Formula: see text]max = 51.7 ± 8.3 ml kg-1 min-1) performed a graded exercise test to determine maximal oxygen consumption and the RPE associated with GET and GET + 15% followed by randomized 60 min RPE-clamp runs at RPEGET and RPEGET+15%. Mean differences for [Formula: see text], heart rate (HR), minute ventilation ([Formula: see text]), respiratory frequency ([Formula: see text], respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and velocity were compared across each run. RESULTS: After minute 14, [Formula: see text], RER and velocity did not differ across conditions, but decreased across time (p < 0.05). There was a significant (p < 0.05) condition × time interaction for [Formula: see text], where values were significantly higher during RPE-clamp runs at RPEGET+15% and decreased across time in both conditions. There were no differences across condition or time for HR, and only small difference between conditions for [Formula: see text]. CONCLUSIONS: HR and [Formula: see text] may play a role in mediating the perception of effort, while [Formula: see text], RER, and [Formula: see text] may not. Although HR and [Formula: see text] may mediate the maintenance of a perceptual intensity, they may not be sensitive to differentiate perceptual intensities at GET and GET + 15%. Thus, prescribing exercise using an RPE-clamp model may only reflect a sustainable [Formula: see text] within the moderate intensity domain.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar/fisiologia , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Ventilação/métodos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sports (Basel) ; 7(7)2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323817

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to compare the composite, inter-individual, and intra-individual differences in the patterns of responses for electromyographic (EMG) and mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude (AMP) and mean power frequency (MPF) during fatiguing, maximal, bilateral, and isokinetic leg extension muscle actions. Thirteen recreationally active men (age = 21.7 ± 2.6 years; body mass = 79.8 ± 11.5 kg; height = 174.2 ± 12.7 cm) performed maximal, bilateral leg extensions at 180°·s-1 until the torque values dropped to 50% of peak torque for two consecutive repetitions. The EMG and MMG signals from the vastus lateralis (VL) muscles of both limbs were recorded. Four 2(Leg) × 19(time) repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted to examine mean differences for EMG AMP, EMG MPF, MMG AMP, and MMG MPF between limbs, and polynomial regression analyses were performed to identify the patterns of neuromuscular responses. The results indicated no significant differences between limbs for EMG AMP (p = 0.44), EMG MPF (p = 0.33), MMG AMP (p = 0.89), or MMG MPF (p = 0.52). Polynomial regression analyses demonstrated substantial inter-individual variability. Inferences made regarding the patterns of neuromuscular responses to fatiguing and bilateral muscle actions should be considered on a subject-by-subject basis.

18.
J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact ; 19(2): 142-149, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186384

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This project proposes a unique methodology utilizing electromyography and mechanomyography to determine the intensity of a desired movement which may be useful in further developing decomposition algorithms for prosthetic controls. METHODS: Ten males performed isometric leg extension muscle actions corresponding to 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% of their maximal voluntary isometric contraction force. The duration and amplitude of the gross lateral movement of the mechanomyographic signal as well as electromechanical delay were measured during each contraction. RESULTS: The results indicated that the duration of the gross lateral movement decreased with increases in intensity (20<40=60<80<100% maximal voluntary isometric contraction) and that the amplitude of the gross lateral movement increased with increases in intensity (20<40=60<80<100% maximal voluntary isometric contraction). In addition, electromechanical delay decreased with each increase in intensity. These measurements occurred within 40 ms from the onset of the electromyographic signal. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, these measurements may be incorporated into existing prosthetic control algorithms to reduce grasp times and identify the intensity of a movement earlier. In addition, the gross lateral movement and electromechanical delay measurements may provide more intuitive controls for prosthetic users.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Membros Artificiais , Eletromiografia/métodos , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 3, 2019 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shilajit is a safe, fluvic mineral complex exudate that is common to Ayurvedic medicine and is composed of fulvic acids, dibenzo-α-pyrones, proteins, and minerals. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 8 weeks of Shilajit supplementation at 250 mg·d- 1 (low dose) and 500 mg·d- 1 (high dose) versus placebo on maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) strength, concentric peak torque, fatigue-induced percent decline in strength, and serum hydroxyproline (HYP). METHODS: Sixty-three recreationally-active men ([Formula: see text] ± SD: 21.2 ± 2.4 yr.; 179.8 ± 6.3 cm; 83.1 ± 12.7 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. The subjects were randomly assigned to the high dose, low dose, or placebo group (each group: n = 21). During pre-supplementation testing, the subjects performed 2 pretest MVICs, 2 sets of 50 maximal, bilateral, concentric isokinetic leg extensions at 180°·s- 1 separated by 2-min of rest, and 2 posttest MVICs. Following 8 weeks of supplementation, the subjects repeated the pre-supplementation testing procedures. In addition, the groups were dichotomized at the 50th percentile based on pre-supplementation MVIC and baseline HYP. Mixed model ANOVAs and ANCOVAs were used to statistically analyze the dependent variables for the total groups (n = 21 per group) as well as dichotomized groups. RESULTS: For the upper 50th percentile group, the post-supplementation adjusted mean percent decline in MVIC was significantly less for the high dose group (8.9 ± 2.3%) than the low dose (17.0 ± 2.4%; p = 0.022) and placebo (16.0 ± 2.4%; p = 0.044) groups. There was no significant (p = 0.774) difference, however, between the low dose and placebo groups. In addition, for the upper 50th percentile group, the adjusted mean post-supplementation baseline HYP for the high dose group (1.5 ± 0.3 µg·mL- 1) was significantly less than both the low dose (2.4 ± 0.3 µg·mL- 1; p = 0.034) and placebo (2.4 ± 0.3 µg·mL- 1, p = 0.024) groups. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study demonstrated that 8 weeks of PrimaVie® Shilajit supplementation at 500 mg·d- 1 promoted the retention of maximal muscular strength following the fatiguing protocol and decreased baseline HYP. Thus, PrimaVie® Shilajit supplementation at 500 mg·d- 1 elicited favorable muscle and connective tissue adaptations.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Hidroxiprolina/sangue , Minerais/farmacologia , Fadiga Muscular , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Resinas Vegetais/farmacologia , Humanos , Contração Isométrica , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Torque , Adulto Jovem
20.
Physiol Meas ; 40(2): 025009, 2019 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30736032

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the ability of the electromyographic (EMG) and mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude versus torque relationships to track group and individual changes in muscle hypertrophy as a result of resistance training. APPROACH: Twelve women performed four weeks of forearm flexion blood flow restriction (BFR) resistance training at a frequency of three times per week. The training was performed at an isokinetic velocity of 120° · s-1 with a training load that corresponded to 30% of concentric peak torque. Muscle hypertrophy was determined using ultrasound-based assessments of muscle cross-sectional area from the biceps brachii. Training-induced changes in the slope coefficients of the EMG amplitude and MMG amplitude versus torque relationships were determined from the biceps brachii during incremental (10%-100% of maximum) isometric muscle actions. MAIN RESULTS: There was a significant (p  < 0.001; d = 2.15) mean training-induced increase in muscle cross-sectional area from 0 week (mean ± SD = 5.86 ± 0.65 cm2) to 4 weeks (7.42 ± 0.80 cm2), a significant (p  = 0.023; d = 0.36) decrease in the EMG amplitude versus torque relationship (50.70 ± 20.41 to 43.82 ± 17.76 µV · Nm-1), but no significant (p  = 0.192; d = 0.17) change in the MMG amplitude versus torque relationship (0.018 ± 0.009 to 0.020 ± 0.009 m · s-2 · Nm-1). There was, however, great variability for the individual responses for the EMG and MMG amplitude versus torque relationships. SIGNIFICANCE: The results of the present study indicated that the EMG amplitude, but not the MMG amplitude versus torque relationship was sensitive to mean changes in muscle cross-sectional area during the early-phase of resistance training. There was, however, great variability for the individual EMG amplitude versus torque relationships that limits its application for identifying individual changes in muscle hypertrophy as a result of BFR.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Músculos/patologia , Músculos/fisiopatologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertrofia/diagnóstico , Hipertrofia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Treinamento de Força , Torque , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...