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1.
J Behav Decis Mak ; 31(3): 446-460, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30319175

RESUMO

Adults differ in the extent to which they find spending money to be distressing; "tightwads" find spending money painful and "spendthrifts" do not find spending painful enough. This affective dimension has been reliably measured in adults, and predicts a variety of important financial behaviors and outcomes (e.g., saving behavior, credit scores). Although children's financial behavior has also received attention, feelings about spending have not been studied in children, as they have in adults. We measured the spendthrift-tightwad (ST-TW) construct in children for the first time, with a sample of 5-to-10-year-old children (n = 225). Children across the entire age range were able to reliably report on their affective responses to spending and saving, and children's ST-TW scores were related to parent reports of children's temperament and financial behavior. Further, children's ST-TW scores were predictive of whether they chose to save or spend money in the lab, even after controlling for age and how much they liked the offered items. Our novel findings - that children's feelings about spending and saving can be measured from an early age and relate to their behavior with money - are discussed with regard to theoretical and practical implications.

2.
Neuroreport ; 29(11): 889-893, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29771819

RESUMO

Emerging research suggests that children's ability to divide is the best predictor of later arithmetic development. Although division is typically taught around grade 3, children much younger than this practice division when sharing and allocating resources (e.g. sharing food). To test the hypothesis that social sharing abilities are linked to the emergence of complex numerical division abilities, we examined sharing and division abilities in adults and children. The first study used functional near infrared spectroscopy to examine the neurocognitive bases of division in adults (N=28; age range: 18-23 years) during a task that evaluated their judgment of proportions in the context of sharing, as well as traditional numerical division tasks. The second study explored the relation between sharing and emergent math abilities in children (N=53; age range: 4-6 years) using the same sharing task and established math measures. Our findings suggest that social sharing activities might engage similar cognitive mechanisms that support mathematical reasoning. The study informs theories of numerical cognition and highlights the importance of examining gaps in how early life activities support cognitive development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Resolução de Problemas/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Fam Stud ; 23(1): 38-61, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28405175

RESUMO

Young children are sensitive to the importance of apologies, yet little is known about when and why parents prompt apologies from children. We examined these issues with parents of 3-10-year-old children (N = 483). Parents judged it to be important for children to apologize following both intentional and accidental morally-relevant transgressions, and they anticipated prompting apologies in both contexts, showing an 'outcome bias' (i.e., a concern for the outcomes of children's transgressions rather than for their underlying intentions). Parents viewed apologies as less important after children's breaches of social convention; parents recognized differences between social domains in their responses to children's transgressions. Irrespective of parenting style, parents were influenced in similar fashion by particular combinations of transgressions and victims, though permissive parents were least likely to anticipate prompting apologies. Parents endorsed different reasons for prompting apologies as a function of transgression type, suggesting that they attend to key features of their children's transgressions when deciding when to prompt apologies.

4.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 156: 113-128, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28063404

RESUMO

Young children understand that lying is wrong, yet little is known about the emotions children connect to the acts of lying and confessing and how children's emotion expectancies relate to real-world behavior. In the current study, 4- to 9-year-old children (N=48) heard stories about protagonists (a) committing transgressions, (b) failing to disclose their misdeeds, and (c) subsequently lying or confessing. Younger children (4-5years) expected relatively positive feelings to follow self-serving transgressions, failure to disclose, and lying, and they often used gains-oriented and punishment-avoidance reasoning when justifying their responses. Older children (7-9years) had the opposite pattern of emotional responses (better feelings linked to confession compared with lying). Older children expected a more positive parental response to a confession than younger children. Furthermore, children who expected more positive parental responses to confession were reported by parents to confess more in real life than children who expected more negative parental responses to confession. Thus, the current research demonstrates a link between children's emotion expectancies and actual confession behavior.


Assuntos
Emoções , Pais , Revelação da Verdade , Boston , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Compreensão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Dev Psychol ; 52(4): 613-28, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26845506

RESUMO

Research on distributive justice indicates that preschool-age children take issues of equity and merit into account when distributing desirable items, but that they often prefer to see desirable items allocated equally in third-party tasks. By contrast, less is known about the development of retributive justice. In a study with 4- to 10-year-old children (n = 123) and adults (n = 93), we directly compared the development of reasoning about distributive and retributive justice. We measured the amount of rewards or punishments that participants allocated to recipients who differed in the amount of good or bad things they had done. We also measured judgments about collective rewards and punishments. We found that the developmental trajectory of thinking about retributive justice parallels that of distributive justice. The 4- to 5-year-olds were the most likely to prefer equal distributions of both rewarding and aversive consequences; older children and adults preferred deservingness-based allocations. The 4- to 5-year-olds were also most likely to judge collective rewards and punishments as fair; this tendency declined with increasing age. Our results also highlight the extent to which the notion of desert influences thinking about distributive and retributive justice; desert was considered equally when participants allocated reward and punishments, but in judgments about collective discipline, participants focused more on desert in cases of punishment compared with reward. We discuss our results in relation to theories about preferences for equality versus equity, theories about how desert is differentially weighed across distributive and retributive justice, and the literature on moral development and fairness.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Formação de Conceito/fisiologia , Julgamento , Desenvolvimento Moral , Justiça Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Associação , Atenção/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Punição , Recompensa , Adulto Jovem
6.
Br J Dev Psychol ; 32(1): 3-16, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25284361

RESUMO

One line of research on children's attributions of guilt suggests that 3-year-olds attribute negative emotion to self-serving victimizers, slightly older children attribute happiness, and with increasing age, attributions become negative again (i.e., a three-step model; Yuill et al., 1996, Br. J. Dev. Psychol., 14, 457). Another line of research provides reason to expect that 3-year-olds may be predisposed to view self-serving moral transgression as leading to positive emotion; this is a linear developmental model in which emotion attributions to transgressors become increasingly negative over the course of childhood (e.g., Nunner-Winkler & Sodian, 1988, Child Dev., 59, 1323). However, key differences in methodology make it difficult to compare across these findings. The present study was designed to address this problem. We asked how 3- to 9-year-old children (n = 111) reason about transgression scenarios that involve satisfying wicked desires (wanting to cause harm and doing so successfully) versus material desires (wanting an object and getting it successfully via harmful behaviour). Three-year-old children reasoned differently about desire and emotion across these two types of transgressions, attributing negative emotion in the case of wicked desires and positive emotion in the case of material desires. This pattern of emotion attribution by young children provides new information about how young children process information about desires and emotions in the moral domain, and it bridges a gap in the existing literature on this topic.


Assuntos
Emoções , Princípios Morais , Motivação , Percepção Social , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Formação de Conceito , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Social
7.
PLoS One ; 8(3): e59510, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23527210

RESUMO

Young children endorse fairness norms related to sharing, but often act in contradiction to those norms when given a chance to share. This phenomenon has rarely been explored in the context of a single study. Using a novel approach, the research presented here offers clear evidence of this discrepancy and goes on to examine possible explanations for its diminution with age. In Study 1, 3-8-year-old children readily stated that they themselves should share equally, asserted that others should as well, and predicted that others had shared equally with them. Nevertheless, children failed to engage in equal sharing until ages 7-8. In Study 2, 7-8-year-olds correctly predicted that they would share equally, and 3-6-year-olds correctly predicted that they would favor themselves, ruling out a failure-of-willpower explanation for younger children's behavior. Similarly, a test of inhibitory control in Study 1 also failed to explain the shift with age toward adherence to the endorsed norm. The data suggest that, although 3-year-olds know the norm of equal sharing, the weight that children attach to this norm increases with age when sharing involves a cost to the self.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Comportamento Cooperativo , Desenvolvimento Moral , Comportamento Social , Fatores Etários , Análise de Variância , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Massachusetts , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
PLoS One ; 8(8)2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29220847

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059510.].

9.
Br J Dev Psychol ; 28(Pt 4): 727-46, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21121464

RESUMO

Previous research suggests that children gradually understand the mitigating effects of apology on damage to a transgressor's reputation. However, little is known about young children's insights into the central emotional implications of apology. In two studies, children ages 4-9 heard stories about moral transgressions in which the wrongdoers either did or did not apologize. In Study 1, children in the no-apology condition showed the classic pattern of 'happy victimizer' attributions by expecting the wrongdoer to feel good about gains won via transgression. By contrast, in the apology condition, children attributed negative feelings to the transgressor and improved feelings to the victim. In Study 2, these effects were found even when the explicit emotion marker 'sorry' was removed from the apology exchange. Thus, young children understand some important emotional functions of apology.


Assuntos
Compreensão/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Culpa , Felicidade , Julgamento/fisiologia , Princípios Morais , Fatores Etários , Agressão/psicologia , Análise de Variância , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Formação de Conceito/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desenvolvimento Moral , Comportamento Social , Roubo/psicologia
10.
Aggress Behav ; 35(4): 313-23, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19373900

RESUMO

Over three decades of research have established a positive connection between fantasizing about aggression and enacting aggression. Such findings have provided strong evidence against the catharsis view of aggressive fantasy. However, little attention has been paid to the potentially nuanced nature of the link between fantasy aggression and actual aggression. In the present article, we examined the influence of four variables in the aggressive fantasy-aggressive behavior link: gender, exposure to violence, fantasy absorption, and level of fantasy about harm befalling loved ones and the self (dysphoric fantasy). Using data from a diverse, community-based sample of 7-14-year olds and their mothers, we replicated the general finding that aggressive fantasy is positively associated with real-world aggressive behavior. However, we also found that the interaction of aggressive fantasy and exposure to violence related significantly to aggression, as did the relation between aggressive fantasy and dysphoric fantasy. When exposure to violence was low, even high levels of aggressive fantasizing did not predict aggressive behavior, and, when aggressive fantasizing was low, even high levels of exposure to violence did not predict aggressive behavior. Similarly, when dysphoric fantasy was high, the connection between fantasy aggression and real aggression was markedly attenuated. The implications of these findings for intervention efforts and future research are considered.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Cognição , Fantasia , Meio Social , Adolescente , Catarse , Criança , Cultura , Depressão/psicologia , Comportamento Exploratório , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Massachusetts , Inventário de Personalidade , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Estatística como Assunto , Violência/psicologia
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