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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1184, 2021 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654094

RESUMO

Computational flattening algorithms have been successfully applied to X-ray microtomography scans of damaged historical documents, but have so far been limited to scrolls, books, and documents with one or two folds. The challenge tackled here is to reconstruct the intricate folds, tucks, and slits of unopened letters secured shut with "letterlocking," a practice-systematized in this paper-which underpinned global communications security for centuries before modern envelopes. We present a fully automatic computational approach for reconstructing and virtually unfolding volumetric scans of a locked letter with complex internal folding, producing legible images of the letter's contents and crease pattern while preserving letterlocking evidence. We demonstrate our method on four letterpackets from Renaissance Europe, reading the contents of one unopened letter for the first time. Using the results of virtual unfolding, we situate our findings within a novel letterlocking categorization chart based on our study of 250,000 historical letters.

2.
Eur Psychiatry ; 64(1): e14, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation has been linked with mood disorder and cognitive impairment. The extent of this relationship remains uncertain, with the effects of serum inflammatory biomarkers compared to genetic predisposition toward inflammation yet to be clearly established. METHODS: We investigated the magnitude of associations between C-reactive protein (CRP) measures, lifetime history of bipolar disorder or major depression, and cognitive function (reaction time and visuospatial memory) in 84,268 UK Biobank participants. CRP was measured in serum and a polygenic risk score for CRP was calculated, based on a published genome-wide association study. Multiple regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical confounders. RESULTS: Increased serum CRP was significantly associated with mood disorder history (Kruskal-Wallis H = 196.06, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.002) but increased polygenic risk for CRP was not (F = 0.668, p = 0.648, η2 < 0.001). Compared to the lowest quintile, the highest serum CRP quintile was significantly associated with both negative and positive differences in cognitive performance (fully adjusted models: reaction time B = -0.030, 95% CI = -0.052, -0.008; visuospatial memory B = 0.066, 95% CI = 0.042, 0.089). More severe mood disorder categories were significantly associated with worse cognitive performance and this was not moderated by serum or genetic CRP level. CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort study, we found that measured inflammation was associated with mood disorder history, but genetic predisposition to inflammation was not. The association between mood disorder and worse cognitive performance was very small and did not vary by CRP level. The inconsistent relationship between CRP measures and cognitive performance warrants further study.

3.
Cortex ; 137: 49-60, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588132

RESUMO

Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by deterioration in motor, oculomotor and cognitive function. A key clinical feature of PSP is the progressive paralysis of eye movements, most notably for vertical saccades. These oculomotor signs can be subtle, however, and PSP is often misdiagnosed as Parkinson's disease (PD), in its early stages. Although some of the clinical features of PD and PSP overlap, they are distinct disorders with differing underlying pathological processes, responses to treatment and prognoses. One key difference lies in the effects the diseases have on cognition. The oculomotor system is tightly linked to cognitive processes such as spatial attention and spatial short-term memory (sSTM), and previous studies have suggested that PSP and PD experience different deficits in these domains. We therefore hypothesised that people with PSP (N = 15) would experience problems with attention (assessed with feature and conjunction visual search tasks) and sSTM (assessed with the Corsi blocks task) compared to people with PD (N = 16) and Age Matched Controls (N = 15). As predicted, feature and conjunction search were sgnificantly slower in the PSP group compared to the other groups, and this deficit was significantly worse for feature compared to conjunction search. The PD group did not differ from AMC on feature search but were significantly impaired on the conjunction search. The PSP group also had a pronounced vertical sSTM impairment that was not present in PD or AMC groups. It is argued that PSP is associated with specific impairment of visuospatial cognition which is caused by degeneration of the oculomotor structures that support exogenous spatial attention, consistent with oculomotor theories of spatial attention and memory.

4.
Mol Pharm ; 18(3): 836-849, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539105

RESUMO

Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs), which consist of a drug dispersed in a polymeric matrix, are increasingly being applied to improve the in vivo performance of poorly water-soluble drugs delivered orally. The polymer is a critical component, playing several roles including facilitating drug release from the ASD, as well as delaying crystallization from the supersaturated solution generated upon dissolution. Certain ASD formulations dissolve to produce amorphous drug-rich nanodroplets. The interaction of the polymer with these nanodroplets is poorly understood but is thought to be important for inhibiting crystallization in these systems. In this study, the impact of ionic polymers on the crystallization kinetics of enzalutamide from supersaturated solutions containing different amounts of amorphous nanodroplets was evaluated by determination of nucleation induction times. The amount of the polymer associated with the drug nanodroplets was also determined. When comparing two polymers, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) and Eudragit E PO, it was found that the crystallization tendency and physical properties of the drug nanodroplets varied in the presence of these two polymers. Both polymers distributed between the aqueous phase and the drug-rich nanodroplets. A greater amount of Eudragit E PO was associated with the drug-rich nanodroplets. Despite this, Eudragit E PO was a less-effective crystallization inhibitor than HPMCAS in systems containing nanodroplets. In conclusion, in supersaturated solutions containing amorphous nanodroplets, the extent of association of a polymer with the drug nanodroplet does not solely predict crystallization inhibition.

5.
Pathog Dis ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544836

RESUMO

In recent decades, Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) have emerged as a model system to explore experimental aspects of fungal pathogenesis. The benefits of the G. mellonella model include being faster, cheaper, higher-throughput, and easier compared to vertebrate models. Additionally, as invertebrates, their use is subject to fewer ethical and regulatory issues. However, for G. mellonella models to provide meaningful insight into fungal pathogenesis, the G. mellonella-fungal interactions must be comparable to mammalian-fungal interactions. Indeed, as discussed in the review, studies suggest that G. mellonella and mammalian immune systems share many similarities, and fungal virulence factors show conserved functions in both hosts. While the moth model has opened novel research areas, many comparisons are superficial and leave large gaps of knowledge that need to be addressed concerning specific mechanisms underlying G. mellonella-fungal interactions. Closing these gaps in understanding will strengthen G. mellonella as a model for fungal virulence in the upcoming years. In this review we provide comprehensive comparisons between fungal pathogenesis in mammals and G. mellonellqa from immunological and virulence perspectives. When information on an antifungal immune component is unknown in G. mellonella, we include findings from other well-studied Lepidoptera. We hope that by outlining this information available in related species we highlight areas of needed research and provide a framework for understanding G. mellonella immunity and fungal interactions.

6.
Am J Ind Med ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As global temperatures rise, increasing numbers of individuals will work in hot environments. Interventions to protect their health are critical, as are reliable methods to measure the physiological strain experienced from heat exposure. The physiological strain index (PSI) is a measure of heat strain that relies on heart rate and core temperature but is challenging to calculate in a real-world occupational setting. METHODS: We modified the PSI for use in field settings where resting temperature and heart rate are not available and used the modified physiological strain index (mPSI) to describe risk factors for high heat strain (mPSI ≥ 7) experienced by agricultural workers in Florida during the summers of 2015 through 2017. mPSI was calculated for 221 workers, yielding 465 days of data. RESULTS: A higher heat index (ß = 0.185; 95% CI: 0.064, 0.307) and higher levels of physical activity at work (0.033; 95% CI: 0.017, 0.050) were associated with a higher maximum mPSI. More years worked in US agriculture (-0.041; 95% CI: -0.061, -0.020) were protective against a higher maximum mPSI. Out of 23 workdays that a participant experienced a maximum mPSI ≥ 7, 22 were also classified as strained by at least one other measure of high heat strain (core temperature [Tc] >38.5°C, sustained heart rate >(180 - age), and mean heart rate > 115 bpm). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides critical information on risk factors for elevated heat strain for agricultural workers and suggests a practical approach for using PSI in field-based settings.

7.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; : 1-13, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594911

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to provide radiologists with a guide to the fundamental principles of oncology clinical trials. The review summarizes the evolution and structure of modern clinical trials with an emphasis on the relevance of clinical trials in the field of oncologic imaging. CONCLUSION. Understanding the structure and clinical relevance of modern clinical trials is beneficial for radiologists in the field of oncologic imaging.

8.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386448

RESUMO

Unintentional weight loss (UWL) is a common presenting symptom with a wide differential diagnosis. Causes may be organic (e.g., malignancy or gastrointestinal disease) or inorganic (e.g., psychosocial). The purpose of this review is to provide a guide for radiologists and other clinicians to understand the imaging modalities and laboratory studies involved in the diagnosis and treatment of UWL and the evidence supporting their routine use. Cases illustrating both common and uncommon causes of UWL are presented to emphasize both the breadth of pathology that may cause UWL as well as the importance of a multi-modality diagnostic approach. Imaging studies are crucial in the diagnosis of unintentional weight loss, particularly with regard to evaluating for the presence of malignancy. It is important for both the radiologist and other clinicians to understand the relative prevalence of the various causes of UWL and the utility of different imaging modalities in diagnosis and management.

9.
Mol Pharm ; 18(3): 1293-1304, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497574

RESUMO

Nicotine vaccine was considered a promising therapy against smoking addiction. The level of immune response that a nicotine vaccine can induce is pivotal to its efficacy. In this study, Toll-like receptor 9 agonists, namely, CpG ODN 1555 and CpG ODN 1826, were incorporated into a nanoparticle-based nicotine vaccine (NanoNicVac) to enhance its immunogenicity. The results showed that NanoNicVac containing either CpG ODN 1555 or CpG ODN 1826 could be rapidly internalized by dendritic cells. In mice trials, it was found that NanoNicVac with CpG ODN 1555 and CpG ODN 1826 induced 3.3- and 3.2-fold higher anti-nicotine antibody titer than that by the native NanoNicVac after two injections, respectively. Instead of enhancing the immunogenicity of the vaccine, however, mixtures of the two CpG ODNs were observed to exert an immune-suppressing effect on NanoNicVac. Finally, the histopathological examination on major organs of the mice immunized with the NanoNicVacs proved that NanoNicVac with either CpG ODN 1555 or CpG ODN 1826 as adjuvants did not cause detectable toxicity to the mice.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 632, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436761

RESUMO

Understanding why individuals with severe mental illness (Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder) have increased risk of cardiometabolic disease (including obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease), and identifying those at highest risk of cardiometabolic disease are important priority areas for researchers. For individuals with European ancestry we explored whether genetic variation could identify sub-groups with different metabolic profiles. Loci associated with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder from previous genome-wide association studies and loci that were also implicated in cardiometabolic processes and diseases were selected. In the IMPROVE study (a high cardiovascular risk sample) and UK Biobank (general population sample) multidimensional scaling was applied to genetic variants implicated in both psychiatric and cardiometabolic disorders. Visual inspection of the resulting plots used to identify distinct clusters. Differences between these clusters were assessed using chi-squared and Kruskall-Wallis tests. In IMPROVE, genetic loci associated with both schizophrenia and cardiometabolic disease (but not bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder) identified three groups of individuals with distinct metabolic profiles. This grouping was replicated within UK Biobank, with somewhat less distinction between metabolic profiles. This work focused on individuals of European ancestry and is unlikely to apply to more genetically diverse populations. Overall, this study provides proof of concept that common biology underlying mental and physical illness may help to stratify subsets of individuals with different cardiometabolic profiles.

11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(5)2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514659

RESUMO

Classic antibody functions include opsonization, complement activation, and enhancement of cellular antimicrobial function. Antibodies can also have catalytic activity, although the contribution of catalysis to their biological functions has been more difficult to establish. With the ubiquity of catalytic antibodies against glycans virtually unknown, we sought to advance this knowledge. The use of a glycan microarray allowed epitope mapping of several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans From this, we designed and synthesized two glycan-based FRET probes, which we used to discover antibodies with innate glycosidase activity and analyze their enzyme kinetics, including mAb 2H1, the most efficient identified to date. The validity of the FRET assay was confirmed by demonstrating that the mAbs mediate glycosidase activity on intact cryptococcal capsules, as observed by a reduction in capsule diameter. Furthermore, the mAb 18B7, a glycosidase hydrolase, resulted in the appearance of reducing ends in the capsule as labeled by a hydroxylamine-armed fluorescent (HAAF) probe. Finally, we demonstrate that exposing C. neoformans cells to catalytic antibodies results in changes in complement deposition and increased phagocytosis by macrophages, suggesting that the antiphagocytic properties of the capsule have been impaired. Our results raise questions over the ubiquity of antibodies with catalytic activity against glycans and establish the utility of glycan-based FRET and HAAF probes as tools for investigating this activity.

12.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; : 1-14, 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502227

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to familiarize radiologists with the evidence-based imaging guidelines of major oncologic societies and organizations and to discuss approaches to effective implementation of the most recent guidelines in daily radiology practice. CONCLUSION. In an era of precision oncology, radiologists in practice and radiologists in training are key stakeholders in multidisciplinary care, and their awareness and understanding of society guidelines is critically important.

13.
Psychol Med ; : 1-12, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Policy in many high-income settings supports giving pregnant women with previous caesarean section a choice between an elective repeat caesarean section (ERCS) or planning a vaginal birth after previous caesarean (VBAC), provided they have no contraindications to VBAC. Despite the potential for this choice to influence women's mental health, evidence about the associated effect to counsel women and identify potential targets for intervention is limited. This study investigated the association between planned mode of birth after previous caesarean and women's subsequent use of psychotropic medications. METHODS: A population-based cohort study of 31 131 women with one or more previous caesarean sections who gave birth to a term singleton in Scotland between 2010 and 2015 with no prior psychotropic medications in the year before birth was conducted using linked Scottish national datasets. Cox regression was used to investigate the association between planned mode of birth and being dispensed psychotropic medications in the first year postpartum adjusted for socio-demographic, medical, pregnancy-related factors and breastfeeding. RESULTS: Planned VBAC (n = 10 220) compared to ERCS (n = 20 911) was associated with a reduced risk of the mother being dispensed any psychotropic medication [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78-0.92], an antidepressant (aHR 0.83, 95% CI 0.76-0.90), and at least two consecutive antidepressants (aHR 0.83, 95% CI 0.75-0.91) in the first year postpartum. CONCLUSIONS: Women giving birth by ERCS were more likely than those having a planned VBAC to be dispensed psychotropic medication including antidepressants in the first year postpartum. Further research is needed to establish the reasons behind this new finding.

14.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 53(4): 499-509, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary fructans may worsen gastrointestinal symptoms in children with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). AIM: To determine whether gut microbiome composition and function are associated with childhood IBS fructan-induced symptoms. METHODS: Faecal samples were collected from 38 children aged 7-17 years with paediatric Rome III IBS, who previously completied a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled crossover (fructan vs maltodextrin) trial. Fructan sensitivity was defined as an increase of ≥30% in abdominal pain frequency during the fructan diet. Gut microbial composition was determined via 16Sv4 rDNA sequencing. LEfSe evaluated taxonomic composition differences. Tax4Fun2 predicted microbial fructan metabolic pathways. RESULTS: At baseline, 17 fructan-sensitive (vs 21 fructan-tolerant) subjects had lower alpha diversity (q < 0.05) and were enriched in the genus Holdermania. In contrast, fructan-tolerant subjects were enriched in 14 genera from the class Clostridia. During the fructan diet, fructan-sensitive (vs tolerant) subjects were enriched in both Agathobacter (P = 0.02) and Cyanobacteria (P = 0.0001). In contrast, fructan-tolerant subjects were enriched in three genera from the Clostridia class. Comparing the fructan vs maltodextrin diet, fructan-sensitive subjects had a significantly increased relative abundance of Bifidobacterium (P = 0.02) while fructan-tolerant subjects had increased Anaerostipes (P = 0.03) during the fructan diet. Only fructan-sensitive subjects had a trend towards increased predicted ß-fructofuranosidase during the fructan vs maltodextrin diet. CONCLUSIONS: Fructan-sensitive children with IBS have distinct gut microbiome signatures. These microbiome signatures differ both at baseline and in response to a fructan challenge.

15.
J Med Chem ; 64(1): 677-694, 2021 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370104

RESUMO

A search for structurally diversified Tyk2 JH2 ligands from 6 (BMS-986165), a pyridazine carboxamide-derived Tyk2 JH2 ligand as a clinical Tyk2 inhibitor currently in late development for the treatment of psoriasis, began with a survey of six-membered heteroaryl groups in place of the N-methyl triazolyl moiety in 6. The X-ray co-crystal structure of an early lead (12) revealed a potential new binding pocket. Exploration of the new pocket resulted in two frontrunners for a clinical candidate. The potential hydrogen bonding interaction with Thr599 in the pocket was achieved with a tertiary amide moiety, confirmed by the X-ray co-crystal structure of 29. When the diversity search was extended to nicotinamides, a single fluorine atom addition was found to significantly enhance the permeability, which directly led to the discovery of 7 (BMS-986202) as a clinical Tyk2 inhibitor that binds to Tyk2 JH2. The preclinical studies of 7, including efficacy studies in mouse models of IL-23-driven acanthosis, anti-CD40-induced colitis, and spontaneous lupus, will also be presented.

16.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295801

RESUMO

Background. Patients undergoing immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy may present to the emergency department (ED) with a wide range of immune-related adverse events. Objective. To evaluate chest CT findings in patients on ICI therapy presenting to the ED, and to explore these findings' associations with clinical parameters. Methods. This retrospective study included 136 patients (75 men, 61 women; mean age, 65±12 years) on ICI therapy with a total of 163 ED visits between 2011 to 2018 in which chest CT was performed. Two radiologists independently reviewed chest CT examinations for various findings and resolved discrepancies by consensus. Clinical parameters, including survival at last available follow-up, were recorded. Chest CT findings were summarized, and interreader agreement evaluated using kappa coefficients. Associations between CT findings and clinical parameters were explored using Fisher's exact, chi square, Wilcoxon, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results. A total of 62.5% of patients had primary lung cancer; 52.9% received nivolumab monotherapy, and 30.1% received pembrolizumab monotherapy. A total of 55.8% of ED visits occurred within 60 days after ICI initiation. Most common CT findings were worsening lung tumor burden (60.1%), new consolidation unrelated to tumor (30.1%), new or worsening pleural effusion (23.9%), and ICI-associated pneumonitis (12.9%). Most common CT pneumonitis pattern was radiation recall pneumonitis (6/21, 28.6%). A total of 78.5% of ED visits in which chest CT was performed resulted in hospitalization; 66.9% of the ED visits were associated with subsequent death. Survival was worse for examinations with, vs without, worsening tumor (72.2% vs 49.1% deceased, respectively; p=.006) and for examinations with, vs without, pleural effusion (39.2% vs 17.5% decreased, respectively; p=.04). Interreader agreement for evaluated chest CT findings ranged from kappa=0.66 (worsening tumor burden) to kappa=1.00 (numerous findings). Conclusion. Most chest CT examinations in the ED in patients on ICI therapy exhibited worsening lung tumor burden, which was associated with worse survival. New consolidation and ICI-associated pneumonitis (most commonly radiation recall pneumonitis) were also commonly detected in the ED setting. Clinical Impact. This knowledge of pathologies detected on chest CT in patients on ICI therapy who present to the ED may guide radiologists in interpreting such imaging.

17.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242080, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259503

RESUMO

Children and adolescents commonly suffer from sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances, which may contribute to poorer mental health and wellbeing during this critical developmental phase. Many studies however rely on self-reported sleep measures. This study assessed whether accelerometry data collection was feasible within the school setting as a method for investigating the extent of sleep and circadian disruption, and associations with subjective wellbeing, in Scotland. Fourteen days of wrist-worn accelerometry data were collected from 69 pupils, aged 10-14 years. Objective measures of sleep timing, sleep duration and circadian rest-activity patterns were derived. Questionnaires assessed subjective sleep timing, depressive symptoms, and experiences of wearing the accelerometer. Pupils slept on average less than 8 hours per night, failing to meet standard age-specific recommendations. Sleep timing was later and duration longer on weekends compared to weekdays (B = 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70, 1.04; B = 0.49, 95% CI 0.29, 0.69), indicating social jetlag. Lower daytime activity was correlated with higher depressive symptoms (r = -0.84, p = 0.008). Compared to primary school pupils, secondary pupils had shorter sleep window duration and lower circadian relative amplitude. Over half of participants reported some discomfort/inconvenience wearing the accelerometer. These data highlight that inadequate sleep is prevalent in this sample of schoolchildren. Future, larger scale investigations will examine in more detail the associations between sleep, circadian function and physical activity with mental health and wellbeing.

18.
J Hazard Mater ; 405: 124687, 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301976

RESUMO

River systems in developing and emerging countries are often fragmented relative to land and waste management in their catchment. The impact of inconsistent waste management and releases is a major challenge in water quality management. To examine how anthropogenic activities and estuarine effects impact water quality, we characterised water conditions, in-situ microbiomes, profiles of faecal pollution indicator, pathogenic and antibiotic resistant bacteria in the River Melayu, Southern Malaysia. Overall, upstream sampling locations were distinguished from those closer to the coastline by physicochemical parameters and bacterial communities. The abundances of bacterial DNA, total E. coli marker genes, culturable bacteria as well as antibiotic resistance ESBL-producing bacteria were elevated at upstream sampling locations especially near discharge of a wastewater oxidation pond. Furthermore, 85.7% of E. faecalis was multidrug-resistant (MDR), whereas 100% of E. cloacae, E. coli, K. pneumoniae were MDR. Overall, this work demonstrates how pollution in river estuaries does not monotonically change from inland towards the coast but varies according to local waste releases and tidal mixing. We also show that surrogate markers, such dissolved oxygen, Bacteroides and Prevotella abundances, and the rodA qPCR assay for total E. coli, can identify locations on a river that deserve immediate attention to mitigate AMR spread through improved waste management.

19.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326756

RESUMO

The financial success of a radiology department is crucial to the well-being of both the hospital and the community it serves. Radiology trainees should therefore be conscious of how the department maintains its value within the health system. The purpose of this review is to provide a concise foundational resource for contemporary radiology residents and fellows to understand the basic financial operations of a hospital-based radiology department and to demonstrate its importance in supporting clinical activities. The radiology report is at the heart of reimbursement. Coders use this tool to assign International Classification of Diseases and Current Procedural Terminology codes to file reimbursement claims. Medicare, commanding the highest market share for third-party payers, sets algorithmic standards for compensation practices. Private insurers contract with hospitals, and providers use these systems or create their own contractual framework. Radiology leaders strategically balance these revenue streams with various departmental costs utilizing tools such as budgets and forecasts to ensure long-term organizational viability. Notably, payment practices in the United States are transforming from fee-for-service to value-based care. The roles of the radiologist and the radiology report are evolving with it. Examples of value-based payment models are accountable care organizations and bundled payments. Radiologists participating in these models are increasingly expected to be stewards of imaging utilization and effectively manage health care resources. Within this context of a globally changing incentive structure, trainees must reconceptualize their educational experience to equip themselves for both current and future types of clinical practice.

20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(24)2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321886

RESUMO

Competitive figure skaters often suffer from overuse injuries, which may be due to the high impact forces endured during jump repetitions performed in practice and competition. However, to date, forces during on-ice figure skating have not been quantified due to technological limitations. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal calibration procedure for a previously developed instrumented figure skating blade (IceSense). Initial calibration was performed by collecting data from the blade while 11 skaters performed off-ice jumps, landing on a force plate in the lab. However, mean peak force measurements from the blade were greater than the desired error threshold of ±10%. Therefore, we designed a series of controlled experiments which included measuring forces from a load cell rigidly attached to the top of the blade concurrently with strain data from the strain gauges on the blade. Forces were applied to the blade by adding weight to a drop tower or by manually applying force in a quasi-static manner. Both methods showed similar accuracy, though using the drop tower allowed precise standardization. Therefore, calibration was performed using the weighted drop method. This calibration was applied to strain gauge data from out-of-sample drop trials, resulting in acceptable estimates of peak force (less than 10% error). Using this calibration, we collected data on one figure skater and present results from an exemplar on-ice double flip jump. Using the IceSense device to quantify on-ice forces in a research setting may help inform training, technique, and equipment design.

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