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1.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 327, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797917

RESUMO

Anhedonia is a core symptom of several psychiatric disorders but its biological underpinnings are poorly understood. We performed a genome-wide association study of state anhedonia in 375,275 UK Biobank participants and assessed for genetic correlation between anhedonia and neuropsychiatric conditions (major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder and Parkinson's Disease). We then used a polygenic risk score approach to test for association between genetic loading for anhedonia and both brain structure and brain function. This included: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessments of total grey matter volume, white matter volume, cerebrospinal fluid volume, and 15 cortical/subcortical regions of interest; diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures of white matter tract integrity; and functional MRI activity during an emotion processing task. We identified 11 novel loci associated at genome-wide significance with anhedonia, with a SNP heritability estimate (h2SNP) of 5.6%. Strong positive genetic correlations were found between anhedonia and major depressive disorder, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder; but not with obsessive compulsive disorder or Parkinson's Disease. Polygenic risk for anhedonia was associated with poorer brain white matter integrity, smaller total grey matter volume, and smaller volumes of brain regions linked to reward and pleasure processing, including orbito-frontal cortex. In summary, the identification of novel anhedonia-associated loci substantially expands our current understanding of the biological basis of state anhedonia and genetic correlations with several psychiatric disorders confirm the utility of this phenotype as a transdiagnostic marker of vulnerability to mental illness. We also provide the first evidence that genetic risk for state anhedonia influences brain structure, including in regions associated with reward and pleasure processing.

2.
Adv Skin Wound Care ; 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789623

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to build on previous work regarding predictive factors of acute skin failure (ASF) in the critically ill population. METHODS: Researchers conducted a retrospective case-control study with a main and validation analysis. Data were extracted from the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System. For the main analysis, there were 415 cases with a hospital-acquired pressure injury (HAPI) and 194,872 controls without. Researchers then randomly selected 100 cases with a HAPIs and 300 controls without for the validation analysis. A step-up logistic regression model was used. Researchers generated receiver operating characteristic curves for both the main and validation analyses, assessing the overall utility of the regression model. RESULTS: Eleven variables were significantly and independently related to ASF: renal failure (odds ratio [OR], 1.4, P = .003), respiratory failure (OR, 2.2; P = < .001), arterial disease (OR, 2.4; P = .001), impaired nutrition (OR, 2.3; P = < .001), sepsis (OR, 2.2; P = < .001), septic shock (OR, 2.3; P = < .001), mechanical ventilation (OR, 2.5; P = < .001), vascular surgery (OR, 2.2; P = .02), orthopedic surgery (OR, 3.4; P = < .001), peripheral necrosis (OR, 2.5; P = .003), and general surgery (OR, 3.8; P = < .001). The areas under the curve for the main and validation analyses were 0.864 and 0.861, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The final model supports previous work and is consistent with the current definition of ASF in the setting of critical illness.

3.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e027389, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784428

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Smoking in people with serious mental illness is a major public health problem and contributes to significant levels of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the review was to systematically examine the efficacy of methods used to aid smoking cessation in people with serious mental illness. METHOD: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials to compare the effectiveness and safety of pharmacological and behavioural programmes for smoking cessation in people with serious mental illness. Electronic databases were searched for trials to July 2018. We used the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias. RESULTS: Twenty-eight randomised controlled trials were identified. Varenicline increased the likelihood of smoking cessation at both 3 months (risk ratio (RR) 3.56, 95% CI 1.82 to 6.96, p=0.0002) and at 6 months (RR 3.69, 95% CI 1.08 to 12.60, p=0.04). Bupropion was effective at 3 months (RR 3.96, 95% CI 1.86 to 8.40, p=0.0003), especially at a dose of 300 mg/day, but there was no evidence of effect at 6 months (RR 2.22, 95% CI 0.52 to 9.47, p=0.28). In one small study, nicotine therapy proved effective at increasing smoking cessation up to a period of 3 months. Bupropion used in conjunction with nicotine replacement therapy showed more effect than single use. Behavioural and bespoke interventions showed little overall benefit. Side effects were found to be low. CONCLUSION: The new information of this review was the effectiveness of varenicline for smoking cessation at both 3 and 6 months and the lack of evidence to support the use of both bupropion and nicotine products for sustained abstinence longer than 3 months. Overall, the review found relatively few studies in this population.

4.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; : ATVBAHA119313226, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801372

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of most cardiovascular disease, but mechanisms underlying atherosclerosis are incompletely understood. Ultrasound measurement of the carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) can be used to measure vascular remodeling, which is indicative of atherosclerosis. Genome-wide association studies have identified many genetic loci associated with cIMT, but heterogeneity of measurements collected by many small cohorts have been a major limitation in these efforts. Here, we conducted genome-wide association analyses in UKB (UK Biobank; N=22 179), the largest single study with consistent cIMT measurements. Approach and Results: We used BOLT-LMM to run linear regression of cIMT in UKB, adjusted for age, sex, and genotyping chip. In white British participants, we identified 5 novel loci associated with cIMT and replicated most previously reported loci. In the first sex-specific analyses of cIMT, we identified a locus on chromosome 5, associated with cIMT in women only and highlight VCAN as a good candidate gene at this locus. Genetic correlations with body mass index and glucometabolic traits were also observed. Two loci influenced risk of ischemic heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: These findings replicate previously reported associations, highlight novel biology, and provide new directions for investigating the sex differences observed in cardiovascular disease presentation and progression.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802253

RESUMO

Recent genome-wide association studies have demonstrated that the genetic burden associated with depression correlates with depression severity. Therefore, conducting genetic studies of patients at the most severe end of the depressive disorder spectrum, those with treatment-resistant depression and who are prescribed electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), could lead to a better understanding of the genetic underpinnings of depression. Despite ECT being one of the most effective forms of treatment for severe depressive disorders, it is usually placed at the end of treatment algorithms of current guidelines. This is perhaps because ECT has controlled risk and logistical demands including use of general anaesthesia and muscle relaxants and side-effects such as short-term memory impairment. Better understanding of the genetics and biology of ECT response and of cognitive side-effects could lead to more personalized treatment decisions. To enhance the understanding of the genomics of severe depression and ECT response, researchers and ECT providers from around the world and from various depression or ECT networks, but not limited to, such as the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, the Clinical Alliance and Research in ECT, and the National Network of Depression Centers have formed the Genetics of ECT International Consortium (Gen-ECT-ic). Gen-ECT-ic will organize the largest clinical and genetic collection to date to study the genomics of severe depressive disorders and response to ECT, aiming for 30,000 patients worldwide using a GWAS approach. At this stage it will be the largest genomic study on treatment response in depression. Retrospective data abstraction and prospective data collection will be facilitated by a uniform data collection approach that is flexible and will incorporate data from many clinical practices. Gen-ECT-ic invites all ECT providers and researchers to join its efforts.

6.
Br J Psychiatry ; : 1-8, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychiatric disorders are associated with increased risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke, but it is not known whether the associations or the role of sociodemographic factors have changed over time. AIMS: To investigate the association between psychiatric disorders and IHD and stroke, by time period and sociodemographic factors. METHOD: We used Scottish population-based records from 1991 to 2015 to create retrospective cohorts with a hospital record for psychiatric disorders of interest (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or depression) or no record of hospital admission for mental illness. We estimated incidence and relative risks of IHD and stroke in people with versus without psychiatric disorders by calendar year, age, gender and area-based deprivation level. RESULTS: In all cohorts, incidence of IHD (645 393 events) and stroke (276 073 events) decreased over time, but relative risks decreased for depression only. In 2015, at the mean age at event onset, relative risks were 2- to 2.5-fold higher in people with versus without a psychiatric disorder. Age at incidence of outcome differed by cohort, gender and socioeconomic status. Relative but not absolute risks were generally higher in women than men. Increasing deprivation conveys a greater absolute risk of IHD for people with bipolar disorder or depression. CONCLUSIONS: Despite declines in absolute rates of IHD and stroke, relative risks remain high in those with versus without psychiatric disorders. Cardiovascular disease monitoring and prevention approaches may need to be tailored by psychiatric disorder and cardiovascular outcome, and be targeted, for example, by age and deprivation level.

7.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754740

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the frequency, imaging, and clinical manifestations of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-related colitis in cancer patients on monotherapy or combination therapy. METHODS: The electronic medical records of 1044 cancer patients who received ICIs were retrospectively reviewed to identify 48 patients who had a clinical diagnosis of immune-related colitis. Imaging studies were reviewed to identify patients with imaging manifestations of colitis. Demographic data, type of ICIs, symptoms, presence of other immune-related adverse events (irAEs), and management were recorded. RESULTS: There was imaging evidence of immune-related colitis in 34 patients (24 men; median age: 63.5 years). The median time to onset of colitis was 75 days (IQR 25-75, 49.5-216 days) in patients receiving monotherapy (group 1) and 78 days (IQR 25-75, 44.3-99.5 days) in patients undergoing combination therapy (group 2) following start of ICI. Symptoms included diarrhea (91.1% [31 of 34]), nausea/vomiting (52.9% [18 of 34]), and abdominal pain (52.9% [18 of 34]). The most common imaging findings were bowel wall thickening (97% [33 of 34]) and fluid-filled colon (82.3% [28 of 34]). Colitis was diffuse in 21 of 34 (61.8%) patients. Imaging manifestations did not differ between the two groups (p > 0.05). Steroids and antibiotics were used to treat colitis in 29 of 34 (85.2%) and 13 of 34 (38.2%) patients, respectively. No patients in group 1 experienced concurrent irAEs, but 5 of 18 (27.8%) of patients in group 2 had other irAEs (p = 0.046). CONCLUSION: Immune-related colitis occurred in 3.3% of patients receiving ICIs with bowel wall thickening, fluid-filled colon and pancolitis being the most common imaging manifestations. Imaging manifestations did not differ between patients receiving monotherapy or combination therapy. However, concurrent irAEs were significantly observed in patients undergoing combination therapy.

8.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 310, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748543

RESUMO

Chronic pain is a complex trait that is moderately heritable and genetically, as well as phenotypically, correlated with major depressive disorder (MDD). Use of the conditional false discovery rate (cFDR) approach, which leverages pleiotropy identified from existing GWAS outputs, has been successful in discovering novel associated variants in related phenotypes. Here, genome-wide association study outputs for both von Korff chronic pain grade and for MDD were used to identify variants meeting a cFDR threshold for each outcome phenotype separately, as well as a conjunctional cFDR (ccFDR) threshold for both phenotypes together. Using a moderately conservative threshold, we identified a total of 11 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), six of which were associated with chronic pain grade and nine of which were associated with MDD. Four SNPs on chromosome 14 were associated with both chronic pain grade and MDD. SNPs associated only with chronic pain grade were located within SLC16A7 on chromosome 12. SNPs associated only with MDD were located either in a gene-dense region on chromosome 1 harbouring LINC01360, LRRIQ3, FPGT and FPGT-TNNI3K, or within/close to LRFN5 on chromosome 14. The SNPs associated with both outcomes were also located within LRFN5. Several of the SNPs on chromosomes 1 and 14 were identified as being associated with expression levels of nearby genes in the brain and central nervous system. Overall, using the cFDR approach, we identified several novel genetic loci associated with chronic pain and we describe likely pleiotropic effects of a recently identified MDD locus on chronic pain.

9.
Behav Res Ther ; 123: 103503, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression are common, debilitating and costly. These disorders are influenced by multiple risk factors, from genes to psychological vulnerabilities and environmental stressors, but research is hampered by a lack of sufficiently large comprehensive studies. We are recruiting 40,000 individuals with lifetime depression or anxiety and broad assessment of risks to facilitate future research. METHODS: The Genetic Links to Anxiety and Depression (GLAD) Study (www.gladstudy.org.uk) recruits individuals with depression or anxiety into the NIHR Mental Health BioResource. Participants invited to join the study (via media campaigns) provide demographic, environmental and genetic data, and consent for medical record linkage and recontact. RESULTS: Online recruitment was effective; 42,531 participants consented and 27,776 completed the questionnaire by end of July 2019. Participants' questionnaire data identified very high rates of recurrent depression, severe anxiety, and comorbidity. Participants reported high rates of treatment receipt. The age profile of the sample is biased toward young adults, with higher recruitment of females and the more educated, especially at younger ages. DISCUSSION: This paper describes the study methodology and descriptive data for GLAD, which represents a large, recontactable resource that will enable future research into risks, outcomes, and treatment for anxiety and depression.

10.
Lung ; 197(6): 803-810, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691027

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Australian data regarding the management of patients with bronchiectasis is scarce. We sought to compare the management of adults with bronchiectasis attending tertiary Australian centres with recent national and international guidelines. METHODS: The Australian Bronchiectasis Registry is a centralised database of patients with radiologically confirmed bronchiectasis unrelated to cystic fibrosis recruited from 14 tertiary Australian hospitals. We excluded children (<18 years) and those with incomplete data, leaving 589 adults for cross-sectional analyses. We compared the proportion of patients receiving certain therapies, as compared to the proportion eligible for those treatments according to the current guidelines and baseline clinical information available from the registry. RESULTS: Pulmonary rehabilitation was attended by 22%, although it was indicated in 67% of the cohort. Airway clearance was undertaken in 52% of patients, although 71% reported chronic productive cough. Sputum bacterial culture results were available for 59%, and mycobacterial culture results were available for 29% of the cohort. Inhaled antibiotics were used in half of potentially eligible patients. Despite guideline recommendations against routine use, inhaled corticosteroids were used in 48% of patients. Long-term macrolides were used in 28% of participants. CONCLUSIONS: Discrepancies exist between guideline recommendations and real-world treatment of bronchiectasis in Australia, even in tertiary centres. These findings suggest the need for increased patient referral to pulmonary rehabilitation, increased attention to airway clearance, increased collection of sputum samples (especially for mycobacterial culture) and rationalisation of inhaled corticosteroid use. These findings encourage a review of treatment access and will inform ongoing education to promote evidence-based care for people living with bronchiectasis.

12.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e024433, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575565

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess whether a history of major depressive disorder (MDD) in middle-aged individuals with hypertension influences first-onset cardiovascular disease outcomes. DESIGN: Prospective cohort survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards regression with a median follow-up of 63 months (702 902 person-years). Four mutually exclusive groups were compared: hypertension only (n=56 035), MDD only (n=15 098), comorbid hypertension plus MDD (n=12 929) and an unaffected (no hypertension, no MDD) comparison group (n=50 798). SETTING: UK Biobank. PARTICIPANTS: UK Biobank participants without cardiovascular disease aged 39-70 who completed psychiatric questions relating International Classification of Diseases-10 Revision (ICD-10) diagnostic criteria on a touchscreen questionnaire at baseline interview in 2006-2010 (n=134 860). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: First-onset adverse cardiovascular outcomes leading to hospital admission or death (ICD-10 codes I20-I259, I60-69 and G45-G46), adjusted in a stepwise manner for sociodemographic, health and lifestyle features. Secondary analyses were performed looking specifically at stroke outcomes (ICD-10 codes I60-69 and G45-G46) and in gender-separated models. RESULTS: Relative to controls, adjusted HRs for adverse cardiovascular outcomes were increased for the hypertension only group (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.52) and were higher still for the comorbid hypertension plus MDD group (HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.45 to 1.9). HRs for the comorbid hypertension plus MDD group were significantly raised compared with hypertension alone (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.35). Interaction measured using relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) and likelihood ratios (LRs) were identified at baseline (RERI 0.563, 95% CI 0.189 to 0.938; LR p=0.0116) but not maintained during the follow-up. LIMITATIONS: Possible selection bias in UK Biobank and inability to assess for levels of medication adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Comorbid hypertension and MDD conferred greater hazard than hypertension alone for adverse cardiovascular outcomes, although evidence of interaction between hypertension and MDD was inconsistent over time. Future cardiovascular risk prediction tools may benefit from the inclusion of questions about prior history of depressive disorders.

13.
Psychooncology ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663185

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the cross-sectional and prospective associations between depressive symptoms, neuroticism, and participation in breast and cervical screening in the UK. METHODS: Women in the UK Biobank cohort with complete data who were eligible for breast cancer screening (aged 50-70 years, N = 143 461) and/or cervical screening (<65 years, N = 141 753) at baseline recruitment (2006-2010) and those with follow-up data (2014-2019) were identified (N = 11 050 and N = 9780 for breast and cervical screening). Depressive symptoms and neuroticism were self-reported at baseline (range 0-12 with higher scores reflecting greater severity). Primary outcomes were reporting being up to date with breast and cervical screening. For prospective analyses, patterns of screening participation from baseline to follow-up were identified. Logistic regression was used to analyse associations, adjusted for potential confounding factors. RESULTS: More severe depressive symptoms were associated with reduced likelihood of breast (OR = 0.960, 95% CI: 0.950,0.970) and cervical (OR = 0.958, 95% CI: 0.950,0.966) screening participation, in cross-sectional analyses. Higher neuroticism scores were associated with reduced cervical screening participation, but the opposite was found for breast cancer screening. Examination of individual neuroticism items revealed that anxiety and worry were associated with increased breast screening. At follow-up, higher baseline depressive symptoms were related to decreased cervical screening (OR = 0.955, 95% CI: 0.913,0.999), but not with breast screening. CONCLUSIONS: More severe depressive symptoms may be a barrier for breast and cervical screening and could be an indicator for more proactive strategies to improve uptake.

14.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder and neuroticism (Neu) share a large genetic basis. We sought to determine whether this shared basis could be decomposed to identify genetic factors that are specific to depression. METHODS: We analysed summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of depression (from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, 23andMe and UK Biobank) and compared them with GWAS of Neu (from UK Biobank). First, we used a pairwise GWAS analysis to classify variants as associated with only depression, with only Neu or with both. Second, we estimated partial genetic correlations to test whether the depression's genetic link with other phenotypes was explained by shared overlap with Neu. RESULTS: We found evidence that most genomic regions (25/37) associated with depression are likely to be shared with Neu. The overlapping common genetic variance of depression and Neu was genetically correlated primarily with psychiatric disorders. We found that the genetic contributions to depression, that were not shared with Neu, were positively correlated with metabolic phenotypes and cardiovascular disease, and negatively correlated with the personality trait conscientiousness. After removing shared genetic overlap with Neu, depression still had a specific association with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, coronary artery disease and age of first birth. Independent of depression, Neu had specific genetic correlates in ulcerative colitis, pubertal growth, anorexia and education. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that, while genetic risk factors for depression are largely shared with Neu, there are also non-Neu-related features of depression that may be useful for further patient or phenotypic stratification.

15.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 943, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A cancer diagnosis can have a substantial impact on mental health and wellbeing. Depression and anxiety may hinder cancer treatment and recovery, as well as quality of life and survival. We argue that more research is needed to prevent and treat co-morbid depression and anxiety among people with cancer and that it requires greater clinical priority. For background and to support our argument, we synthesise existing systematic reviews relating to cancer and common mental disorders, focusing on depression and anxiety. We searched several electronic databases for relevant reviews on cancer, depression and anxiety from 2012 to 2019. Several areas are covered: factors that may contribute to the development of common mental disorders among people with cancer; the prevalence of depression and anxiety; and potential care and treatment options. We also make several recommendations for future research. Numerous individual, psychological, social and contextual factors potentially contribute to the development of depression and anxiety among people with cancer, as well as characteristics related to the cancer and treatment received. Compared to the general population, the prevalence of depression and anxiety is often found to be higher among people with cancer, but estimates vary due to several factors, such as the treatment setting, type of cancer and time since diagnosis. Overall, there are a lack of high-quality studies into the mental health of people with cancer following treatment and among long-term survivors, particularly for the less prevalent cancer types and younger people. Studies that focus on prevention are minimal and research covering low- and middle-income populations is limited. CONCLUSION: Research is urgently needed into the possible impacts of long-term and late effects of cancer treatment on mental health and how these may be prevented, as increasing numbers of people live with and beyond cancer.

16.
J Chem Inf Model ; 59(10): 4093-4099, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525920

RESUMO

Given the need for modern researchers to produce open, reproducible scientific output, the lack of standards and best practices for sharing data and workflows used to produce and analyze molecular dynamics (MD) simulations has become an important issue in the field. There are now multiple well-established packages to perform molecular dynamics simulations, often highly tuned for exploiting specific classes of hardware, each with strong communities surrounding them, but with very limited interoperability/transferability options. Thus, the choice of the software package often dictates the workflow for both simulation production and analysis. The level of detail in documenting the workflows and analysis code varies greatly in published work, hindering reproducibility of the reported results and the ability for other researchers to build on these studies. An increasing number of researchers are motivated to make their data available, but many challenges remain in order to effectively share and reuse simulation data. To discuss these and other issues related to best practices in the field in general, we organized a workshop in November 2018 ( https://bioexcel.eu/events/workshop-on-sharing-data-from-molecular-simulations/ ). Here, we present a brief overview of this workshop and topics discussed. We hope this effort will spark further conversation in the MD community to pave the way toward more open, interoperable, and reproducible outputs coming from research studies using MD simulations.

17.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; : W1-W9, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532253

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to provide for radiologists an overview of the radiologic, clinical, and pathologic features of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. CONCLUSION. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a rare, life-threatening syndrome characterized by abnormal, excessive activation of the immune system. Imaging plays an important role in determining the extent of involvement of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Knowledge of this entity, including its imaging, clinical, and pathologic findings, is critical to facilitate timely diagnosis.

18.
Diabetes Care ; 42(10): 1879-1885, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of type 2 diabetes in people with a history of hospitalization for major mental illness versus no mental illness in Scotland by time period and sociodemographics. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used national Scottish population-based records to create cohorts with a hospital record of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or depression or no mental illness and to ascertain diabetes incidence. We used quasi-Poisson regression models including age, sex, time period, and area-based deprivation to estimate incidence and relative risks (RRs) of diabetes by mental illness status. Estimates are illustrated for people aged 60 years and in the middle deprivation quintile in 2015. RESULTS: We identified 254,136 diabetes cases during 2001-2015. Diabetes incidence in 2015 was 1.5- to 2.5-fold higher in people with versus without a major mental disorder, with the gap having slightly increased over time. RRs of diabetes incidence were greater among women than men for schizophrenia (RR 2.40 [95% CI 2.01, 2.85] and 1.63 [1.38, 1.94]), respectively) and depression (RR 2.10 [1.86, 2.36] and 1.62 [1.43, 1.82]) but similar for bipolar disorder (RR 1.65 [1.35, 2.02] and 1.50 [1.22, 1.84]). Absolute and relative differences in diabetes incidence associated with mental illness increased with increasing deprivation. CONCLUSIONS: Disparities in diabetes incidence between people with and without major mental illness appear to be widening. Major mental illness has a greater effect on diabetes risk in women and people living in more deprived areas, which has implications for intervention strategies to reduce diabetes risk in this vulnerable population.

19.
Adv Skin Wound Care ; 32(11): 512-519, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498171

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To replicate previous research that found four independent and significant predictors of heel pressure injuries (HPIs) in hospitalized patients using a larger and more diverse patient population. METHODS: Researchers conducted a retrospective, case-control study with a main and a validation analysis (N = 1,937). The main analysis had 1,697 patients: 323 patients who had HPIs and 1,374 who did not. The validation analysis had 240 patients: 80 patients who developed HPIs and 160 who did not. Researchers used a series of diagnosis codes to define variables associated with an HPI. Data were extracted from the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System for January 2014 to June 2015. Study authors conducted a series of forward stepwise logistic regression analyses for both samples to select the variables that were significantly and independently associated with the development of an HPI in a multivariable setting. Researchers generated a receiver operating characteristic curve using the final model to assess the regression model's ability to predict HPI development. RESULTS: Seven variables were significant and independent predictors associated with HPIs: diabetes mellitus, vascular disease, perfusion issues, impaired nutrition, age, mechanical ventilation, and surgery. The receiver operating characteristic curve demonstrated predictive accuracy of the model. CONCLUSIONS: Beyond a risk assessment scale, providers should consider other factors, such as comorbidities, which can predispose patients to HPI development.

20.
Water Environ Res ; 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386767

RESUMO

A year-long bioretention container study in Maryland, USA, measured the relationship between three plant species (Eutrochium dubium, Iris versicolor, and Juncus effusus) and N ( NO 3 - , NO 2 - , NH 4 + , total nitrogen [TN], total dissolved nitrogen [TDN], dissolved organic nitrogen, particulate organic nitrogen [PON]) and total phosphorus (TP) removal from synthetic stormwater. Statistically significant removal was only found for NO 3 - and TP. Plant-independent NO 3 - removal occurred 9 months after planting, and then changed to removal only by the least-densely planted Juncus treatment. Removal in higher-density Juncus plantings was suspected to be limited by preferential pathways created by high root density. Juncus' low-density NO 3 - removal success correlates with its high growth rate, root mass and length, and large biomass, matching previous literature. TP removal was plant-independent. Shoot harvesting of one plant of each species after 1 year would remove 0.61 g N. Of the plant species in this study, Juncus effusus is most highly recommended for bioretention for its nutrient removal dynamics and year-round green aesthetics. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Only the one-Juncus density treatment had significant NO 3 - removal. All Juncus treatments as well as non-Juncus treatments prevented the PON, TN, or TDN export seen in the No-plants control. TP removal was plant-independent. Juncus had the greatest biomass increase and biomass N. Shoots contain the majority of biomass N for each plant species. Juncus and Iris had high survivorship. Joe Pye had low survivorship. These, and all other study results, need field-scale verification.

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