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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 324, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 outbreaks still occur in English care homes despite the interventions in place. METHODS: We developed a stochastic compartmental model to simulate the spread of SARS-CoV-2 within an English care home. We quantified the outbreak risk with baseline non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) already in place, the role of community prevalence in driving outbreaks, and the relative contribution of all importation routes into a fully susceptible care home. We also considered the potential impact of additional control measures in care homes with and without immunity, namely: increasing staff and resident testing frequency, using lateral flow antigen testing (LFD) tests instead of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), enhancing infection prevention and control (IPC), increasing the proportion of residents isolated, shortening the delay to isolation, improving the effectiveness of isolation, restricting visitors and limiting staff to working in one care home. We additionally present a Shiny application for users to apply this model to their facility of interest, specifying care home, outbreak and intervention characteristics. RESULTS: The model suggests that importation of SARS-CoV-2 by staff, from the community, is the main driver of outbreaks, that importation by visitors or from hospitals is rare, and that the past testing strategy (monthly testing of residents and daily testing of staff by PCR) likely provides negligible benefit in preventing outbreaks. Daily staff testing by LFD was 39% (95% 18-55%) effective in preventing outbreaks at 30 days compared to no testing. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing the frequency of testing in staff and enhancing IPC are important to preventing importations to the care home. Further work is needed to understand the impact of vaccination in this population, which is likely to be very effective in preventing outbreaks.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Vacinação
2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1713, 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361758

RESUMO

We present wave-based signal differentiation with unprecedented fidelity and flexibility by purposefully perturbing overmoded random scattering systems such that zeros of their scattering matrices lie exactly at the desired locations on the real frequency axis. Our technique overcomes limitations of hitherto existing approaches based on few-mode systems, both regarding their extreme vulnerability to fabrication inaccuracies or environmental perturbations and their inability to maintain high fidelity under in-situ adaptability. We demonstrate our technique experimentally by placing a programmable metasurface with hundreds of degrees of freedom inside a 3D disordered metallic box. Regarding the integrability of wave processors, such repurposing of existing enclosures is an enticing alternative to fabricating miniaturized devices. Our over-the-air differentiator can process in parallel multiple signals on distinct carriers and maintains high fidelity when reprogrammed to different carriers. We also perform programmable higher-order differentiation. Conceivable applications include segmentation or compression of communication or radar signals and machine vision.

3.
EMBO Rep ; 23(5): e55114, 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35357757

RESUMO

"The soul never thinks without a picture." - Aristotle.

5.
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus ; : 1-6, 2022 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192384

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the surgical outcomes of unilateral lateral rectus recession to bilateral lateral rectus recession for small angle intermittent exotropia. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients with an intermittent exotropia between 16 and 20 prism diopters (PD) who underwent unilateral lateral rectus recession or bilateral lateral rectus recession at a single tertiary care pediatric hospital. The primary outcome was success (exotropia < 10 PD of esotropia < 5 PD, no decrease in stereopsis > 0.6 log arcsec, and no reoperation) at 12 months postoperatively. Secondary outcomes included survival analysis of time to surgical failure, surgical dose-response, and improvement in central fusion or stereopsis. RESULTS: At 12 months, successful outcomes were achieved in 13 of 27 patients (46%) in the bilateral lateral rectus recession group and 19 of 28 patients (70%) in the unilateral lateral rectus recession group, which was not a statistically significant difference (P = .10). Survival analysis showed a trend toward a higher rate of failure in the bilateral lateral rectus recession group compared to the unilateral lateral rectus recession group (P = .04). The mean surgical dose-response was 1.7 PD/mm at 1 week and 1.0 PD/mm at 12 months for the bilateral lateral rectus recession group, and 2.0 PD/mm at 1 week postoperatively and 1.4 PD/mm at 12 months postoperatively for the unilateral lateral rectus recession group. There were no cases of long-term postoperative lateral incomitance in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Unilateral lateral rectus recession and bilateral lateral rectus recession have similar success rates for small angle intermittent exotropia after at least 12 months of follow-up. Randomized controlled trials in surgical management of intermittent exotropia should consider unilateral lateral rectus recession as a treatment arm. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 20XX;XX(X):XX-XX.].

6.
EMBO Rep ; 23(3): e54643, 2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35083853

RESUMO

David Smith argues against the prevalent practice of naming newly discovered species after human beings.

7.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 236, 2022 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017499

RESUMO

Healthcare facilities are vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 introductions and subsequent nosocomial outbreaks. Antigen rapid diagnostic testing (Ag-RDT) is widely used for population screening, but its health and economic benefits as a reactive response to local surges in outbreak risk are unclear. We simulate SARS-CoV-2 transmission in a long-term care hospital with varying COVID-19 containment measures in place (social distancing, face masks, vaccination). Across scenarios, nosocomial incidence is reduced by up to 40-47% (range of means) with routine symptomatic RT-PCR testing, 59-63% with the addition of a timely round of Ag-RDT screening, and 69-75% with well-timed two-round screening. For the latter, a delay of 4-5 days between the two screening rounds is optimal for transmission prevention. Screening efficacy varies depending on test sensitivity, test type, subpopulations targeted, and community incidence. Efficiency, however, varies primarily depending on underlying outbreak risk, with health-economic benefits scaling by orders of magnitude depending on the COVID-19 containment measures in place.


Assuntos
Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , SARS-CoV-2 , Antígenos Virais , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Análise Custo-Benefício , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Hospitais , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Vacinação
8.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 7(1): 106-107, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34993327

RESUMO

Here, we used RNA-seq reads to assemble the complete mitochondrial genomes of the spring field cricket, Gryllus veletis, and the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps. The mitochondrial genomes of G. veletis (15,686 bp, MW322713) and G. lineaticeps (15,607 bp, MW315773) each contain the expected 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a large control (D-loop) region. The arrangements of these features were similar for both species and consistent with other closely related Orthoptera. A phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial genome sequences revealed that G. veletis and G. lineaticeps cluster with the other Gryllus species and all reside in a clade with the Gryllidae.

9.
Plant Cell Environ ; 45(1): 156-177, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664276

RESUMO

The Antarctic green alga Chlamydomonas sp. UWO241 is an obligate psychrophile that thrives in the cold (4-6°C) but is unable to survive at temperatures ≥18°C. Little is known how exposure to heat affects its physiology or whether it mounts a heat stress response in a manner comparable to mesophiles. Here, we dissect the responses of UWO241 to temperature stress by examining its growth, primary metabolome and transcriptome under steady-state low temperature and heat stress conditions. In comparison with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, UWO241 constitutively accumulates metabolites and proteins commonly considered as stress markers, including soluble sugars, antioxidants, polyamines, and heat shock proteins to ensure efficient protein folding at low temperatures. We propose that this results from life at extreme conditions. A shift from 4°C to a non-permissive temperature of 24°C alters the UWO241 primary metabolome and transcriptome, but growth of UWO241 at higher permissive temperatures (10 and 15°C) does not provide enhanced heat protection. UWO241 also fails to induce the accumulation of HSPs when exposed to heat, suggesting that it has lost the ability to fine-tune its heat stress response. Our work adds to the growing body of research on temperature stress in psychrophiles, many of which are threatened by climate change.


Assuntos
Chlamydomonas/fisiologia , Clorófitas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Regiões Antárticas , Chlamydomonas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Temperatura
10.
EMBO Rep ; 23(2): e54434, 2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914862

RESUMO

David Smith will not again declare the genome paper as dead. But does its existence as a zombie still serve science?

11.
J Plant Physiol ; 268: 153557, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922115

RESUMO

The persistent low temperature that characterize polar habitats combined with the requirement for light for all photoautotrophs creates a conundrum. The absorption of too much light at low temperature can cause an energy imbalance that decreases photosynthetic performance that has a negative impact on growth and can affect long-term survival. The goal of this review is to survey the mechanism(s) by which polar photoautotrophs maintain cellular energy balance, that is, photostasis to overcome the potential for cellular energy imbalance in their low temperature environments. Photopsychrophiles are photosynthetic organisms that are obligately adapted to low temperature (0°- 15 °C) but usually die at higher temperatures (≥20 °C). In contrast, photopsychrotolerant species can usually tolerate and survive a broad range of temperatures (5°- 40 °C). First, we summarize the basic concepts of excess excitation energy, energy balance, photoprotection and photostasis and their importance to survival in polar habitats. Second, we compare the photoprotective mechanisms that underlie photostasis and survival in aquatic cyanobacteria and green algae as well as terrestrial Antarctic and Arctic plants. We show that polar photopsychrophilic and photopsychrotolerant organisms attain energy balance at low temperature either through a regulated reduction in the efficiency of light absorption or through enhanced capacity to consume photosynthetic electrons by the induction of O2 as an alternative electron acceptor. Finally, we compare the published genomes of three photopsychrophilic and one photopsychrotolerant alga with five mesophilic green algae including the model green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We relate our genomic analyses to photoprotective mechanisms that contribute to the potential attainment of photostasis. Finally, we discuss how the observed genomic redundancy in photopsychrophilic genomes may confer energy balance, photoprotection and resilience to their harsh polar environment. Primary production in aquatic, Antarctic and Arctic environments is dependent on diverse algal and cyanobacterial communities. Although mosses and lichens dominate the Antarctic terrestrial landscape, only two extant angiosperms exist in the Antarctic. The identification of a single 'molecular key' to unravel adaptation of photopsychrophily and photopsychrotolerance remains elusive. Since these photoautotrophs represent excellent biomarkers to assess the impact of global warming on polar ecosystems, increased study of these polar photoautotrophs remains essential.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Clorófitas , Cianobactérias , Fotossíntese , Plantas , Regiões Antárticas , Regiões Árticas , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , Temperatura Baixa , Ecossistema
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23877, 2021 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34903778

RESUMO

Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) remains the leading infectious disease in post-weaned beef cattle. The objective of this investigation was to contrast the at-arrival blood transcriptomes from cattle derived from two distinct populations that developed BRD in the 28 days following arrival versus cattle that did not. Forty-eight blood samples from two populations were selected for mRNA sequencing based on even distribution of development (n = 24) or lack of (n = 24) clinical BRD within 28 days following arrival; cattle which developed BRD were further stratified into BRD severity cohorts based on frequency of antimicrobial treatment: treated once (treated_1) or treated twice or more and/or died (treated_2+). Sequenced reads (~ 50 M/sample, 150 bp paired-end) were aligned to the ARS-UCD1.2 bovine genome assembly. One hundred and thirty-two unique differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between groups stratified by disease severity (healthy, n = 24; treated_1, n = 13; treated_2+, n = 11) with edgeR (FDR ≤ 0.05). Differentially expressed genes in treated_1 relative to both healthy and treated_2+ were predicted to increase neutrophil activation, cellular cornification/keratinization, and antimicrobial peptide production. Differentially expressed genes in treated_2+ relative to both healthy and treated_1 were predicted to increase alternative complement activation, decrease leukocyte activity, and increase nitric oxide production. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves generated from expression data for six DEGs identified in our current and previous studies (MARCO, CFB, MCF2L, ALOX15, LOC100335828 (aka CD200R1), and SLC18A2) demonstrated good-to-excellent (AUC: 0.800-0.899; ≥ 0.900) predictability for classifying disease occurrence and severity. This investigation identifies candidate biomarkers and functional mechanisms in at arrival blood that predicted development and severity of BRD.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária
13.
Sci Adv ; 7(51): eabj7906, 2021 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910511

RESUMO

Personal thermal management textile/wearable is an effective strategy to expand the indoor temperature setpoint range to reduce a building's energy consumption. Usually, textiles/wearables that were engineered for controlling conduction, convection, radiation, or sweat evaporation have been developed separately. Here, we demonstrate a multimodal adaptive wearable with moisture-responsive flaps composed of a nylon/metal heterostructure, which can simultaneously regulate convection, sweat evaporation, and mid-infrared emission to accomplish large and rapid heat transfer tuning in response to human perspiration vapor. We show that the metal layer not only plays a crucial role in low-emissivity radiative heating but also enhances the bimorph actuation performance. The multimodal adaptive mechanism expands the thermal comfort zone by 30.7 and 20.7% more than traditional static textiles and single-modal adaptive wearables without any electricity and energy input, making it a promising design paradigm for personal heat management.

14.
Opt Express ; 29(22): 36111-36120, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809030

RESUMO

Capturing polarization information has long been an important topic in the field of detection. In this study, two polarization-dependent broadband absorbers based on a composite metamaterial structure were designed and numerically investigated. Unlike in conventional metamaterial absorbers, the bottom metallic film is functionalized to achieve a polarization response or broadband absorption. The simulation results show that the type I absorber exhibits TM polarization-dependent broadband absorption (absorptivity>80%) from 8.37 µm to 12.12 µm. In contrast, the type II absorber presents TE polarization-dependent broadband absorption (absorptivity>80%) from 8.23 µm to 11.93 µm. These devices are extremely sensitive to the change of polarization angle. The absorptivity changes monotonically with an increase of the polarization angle, but it is insensitive to oblique incidence. This design paves the way for realizing broadband polarization-dependent absorption via a simple configuration. It has bright prospects in thermal detection applications and imaging fields.

15.
Opt Express ; 29(22): 36145-36154, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809033

RESUMO

The atmospheric window in the infrared (IR) band primarily consists of mid-wave (MWIR, 3-5 µm) and long-wave IR (LWIR, 8-12 µm) bands, also known as the working bands in most of the IR devices. The main factor affecting the device capability includes the absorption efficiency, hence, the absorption material. Herein, a dual-band absorber based on the composite cross structure (CCS) in both MWIR and LWIR bands was proposed, with absorption peaks of 4.28 µm and 8.23 µm. The obtained absorber is with high scalability in the MWIR and LWIR region respectively by tuning the structural parameters. A quadrupole polarization model is proposed for further understanding of the uneven distribution of electromagnetic field that was caused by the change of the center spacing of the embedded structure. Meanwhile, it was shown that the two absorption peaks exhibited good incident angle stability. In addition, as the incident angle of the TM mode increases, a waveguide is formed between the embedded structure and the surface structure, leading to another strong absorption in the LWIR band. The results showed that absorption increases as the incident angle increases. The proposed absorber can be a good candidate for applications in thermal emission, detection and solar energy harvesting.

16.
Zootaxa ; 4995(3): 471-491, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810556

RESUMO

The following three Japanese conifer sawflies are described or redescribed with figures of the ovipositors and male genitalia: Gilpinia hakonensis (Matsumura, 1912) from Honshu and Kyushu, Japan and Korea, G. amamiana Okutani, 1965, from Amami Oshima Island and Tokunoshima Island, Japan and G. okinawa sp. nov. from Okinawa Island, Japan. These three species are very similar and belong to the G. socia group. The lectotype for Lophyrus hakonensis Matsumura, 1912 is designated. The males of G. hakonensis and G. amamiana are described for the first time. Gilpinia fukudai (Togashi, 1964) from Honshu, Japan, is a new synonym of G. hakonensis. The host plant of G. hakonensis is Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zucc. Gilpinia amamiana is newly recorded from Tokunoshima Island. For comparison, ovipositors of five European species of the G. socia group, G. abieticola (Dalla Torre, 1894), G. frutetorum (Fabricius, 1793), G. laricis (Jurine, 1807), G. socia (Klug, 1812) and G. variegata (Hartig, 1834), are described and figured. The ovipositors of G. frutetorum, G. laricis and G. variegata are figured for the first time. Gilpinia laricis is newly recorded from Bulgaria.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Pinus , Animais , Himenópteros/genética , Japão
17.
Anim Cogn ; 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34714438

RESUMO

The perceived pitch of human voices is highly correlated with the fundamental frequency (f0) of the laryngeal source, which is determined largely by the length and mass of the vocal folds. The vocal folds are larger in adult males than in adult females, and men's voices consequently have a lower pitch than women's. The length of the supralaryngeal vocal tract (vocal-tract length; VTL) affects the resonant frequencies (formants) of speech which characterize the timbre of the voice. Men's longer vocal tracts produce lower frequency, and less dispersed, formants than women's shorter vocal tracts. Pitch and timbre combine to influence the perception of speaker characteristics such as size and age. Together, they can be used to categorize speaker sex with almost perfect accuracy. While it is known that domestic dogs can match a voice to a person of the same sex, there has been no investigation into whether dogs are sensitive to the correlation between pitch and timbre. We recorded a female voice giving three commands ('Sit', 'Lay down', 'Come here'), and manipulated the recordings to lower the fundamental frequency (thus lowering pitch), increase simulated VTL (hence affecting timbre), or both (synthesized adult male voice). Dogs responded to the original adult female and synthesized adult male voices equivalently. Their tendency to obey the commands was, however, reduced when either pitch or timbre was manipulated alone. These results suggest that dogs are sensitive to both the pitch and timbre of human voices, and that they learn about the natural covariation of these perceptual attributes.

18.
EMBO Rep ; 22(11): e54024, 2021 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605599

RESUMO

Many people have discovered new hobbies and pastimes during the COVID crisis. David Smith describes how he developed an obsession with rescuing old microscopes.


Assuntos
Passatempos , Microscopia , COVID-19 , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
19.
JMIR Form Res ; 5(9): e31185, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Justice-involved youth are especially vulnerable to mental health distress, substance misuse, and risky sexual activity, amplifying the need for evidence-based programs (EBPs). Yet, uptake of EBPs in the justice system is challenging because staff training is costly in time and effort. Hence, justice-involved youth experience increasing health disparities despite the availability of EBPs. OBJECTIVE: To counter these challenges, this study develops and pilot-tests a prototype of a technology-based training tool that teaches juvenile justice staff to deliver a uniquely tailored EBP for justice-involved youth-PHAT (Preventing HIV/AIDS Among Teens) Life. PHAT Life is a comprehensive sex education, mental health, and substance use EBP collaboratively designed and tested with guidance from key stakeholders and community members. The training tool addresses implementation barriers that impede uptake and sustainment of EBPs, including staff training and support and implementation costs. METHODS: Staff (n=11) from two juvenile justice settings pilot-tested the technology-based training tool, which included five modules. Participants completed measures of HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) knowledge, sex education confidence, and implementation outcomes such as training satisfaction, adoption, implementation, acceptability, appropriateness, and sustainability. PHAT Life trainers assessed fidelity through two activity role plays participants submitted upon completing the training modules. RESULTS: Participants demonstrated increases in HIV and STI knowledge (t10=3.07; P=.01), and were very satisfied (mean 4.42, SD 0.36) with the training tool and the PHAT Life curriculum. They believed that the training tool and curriculum could be adopted, implemented, and sustained within their settings as an appropriate and acceptable intervention and training. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results from this pilot test demonstrate feasibility and support continuing efforts toward completing the training tool and evaluating it within a fully powered randomized controlled trial. Ultimately, this study will provide a scalable option for disseminating an EBP and offers a more cost-effective and sustainable way to train staff in an EBP.

20.
EMBO Rep ; 22(10): e53789, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423895

RESUMO

COVID-19 has forced us into social distancing against humans' need for physical contact. Will we return to consensual embrace after the pandemic or still keep our distance?


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Tato , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
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