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1.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 23, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The U.S. lacks a stroke surveillance system. This study develops a method to transform an existing registry into a nationally representative database to evaluate acute ischemic stroke care quality. METHODS: Two statistical approaches are used to develop post-stratification weights for the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke registry by anchoring population estimates to the National Inpatient Sample. Post-stratification survey weights are estimated using a raking procedure and Bayesian interpolation methods. Weighting methods are adjusted to limit the dispersion of weights and make reasonable epidemiologic estimates of patient characteristics, quality of hospital care, and clinical outcomes. Standardized differences in national estimates are reported between the two post-stratification methods for anchored and non-anchored patient characteristics to evaluate estimation quality. Primary measures evaluated are patient and hospital characteristics, stroke severity, vital and laboratory measures, disposition, and clinical outcomes at discharge. RESULTS: A total of 1,388,296 acute ischemic strokes occurred between 2012 and 2014. Raking and Bayesian estimates of clinical data not available in administrative data are estimated within 5 to 10% of margin for expected values. Median weight for the raking method is 1.386 and the weights at the 99th percentile is 6.881 with a maximum weight of 30.775. Median Bayesian weight is 1.329 and the 99th percentile weights is 11.201 with a maximum weight of 515.689. CONCLUSIONS: Leveraging existing databases with patient registries to develop post-stratification weights is a reliable approach to estimate acute ischemic stroke epidemiology and monitoring for stroke quality of care nationally. These methods may be applied to other diseases or settings to better monitor population health.

2.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mild behavioral impairment (MBI) and subjective cognitive decline (SCD) are dementia risk states, and potentially represent neurobehavioral and neurocognitive manifestations, respectively, of early stage neurodegeneration. Both MBI and SCD predict incident cognitive decline and dementia, are associated with known dementia biomarkers, and are both represented in the NIA-AA research framework for AD in Stage 2 (preclinical disease). OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations of MBI and SCD, alone and in combination, with incident cognitive and functional decline in a population of older adults. We tested the hypothesis that MBI and SCD confer additive risk for decline. METHODS: Cognitively normal participants were followed up annually at Alzheimer's Disease Centers. Logistic regression assessed the relationship between baseline classification (MBI-SCD-, MBI-SCD+, MBI+SCD-, or MBI+SCD+) and 3-year outcome. RESULTS: Of 2,769 participants (mean age=76), 1,536 were MBI-SCD-, 254 MBI-SCD+, 743 MBI+SCD-, and 236 MBI+SCD+. At 3 years, 349 (12.6%) declined to CDR >0, including 23.1% of the MBI+group, 23.5% of the SCD+group, and 30.9% of the intersection group of both MBI+and SCD+participants. Compared to SCD-MBI-, we observed an ordinal progression in risk (ORs [95% CI]): 3.61 [2.42-5.38] for MBI-SCD+ (16.5% progression), 4.76 [3.57-6.34] for MBI+SCD- (20.7%), and 8.15 [5.71-11.64] for MBI+SCD+(30.9%). CONCLUSION: MBI and SCD together were associated with the greatest risk of decline. These complementary dementia risk syndromes can be used as simple and scalable methods to identify high-risk patients for workup or for clinical trial enrichment.

3.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590967

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gait impairment is common in neurodegenerative disorders. Specifically, gait variability-the stride-to-stride fluctuations in distance and time-has been associated with neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment. However, quantitative comparisons of gait impairments across the cognitive spectrum of dementias have not been systematically investigated. METHODS: Older adults (N = 500) with subjective cognitive impairment, Parkinson disease (PD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), PD-MCI, Alzheimer's disease (AD), PD-dementia, Lewy body dementia, and frontotemporal dementia, as well cognitive normal controls, who were assessed for their gait and cognitive performance. RESULTS: Factor analyses grouped 11 quantitative gait parameters and identified four independent gait domains: rhythm, pace, variability, and postural control, for group comparisons and classification analysis. Among these domains, only high gait variability was associated with lower cognitive performance and accurately discriminated AD from other neurodegenerative and cognitive conditions. DISCUSSION: Our findings indicate that high gait variability is a marker of cognitive-cortical dysfunction, which can help to identify Alzheimer's disease dementia.

4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2037438, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591368

RESUMO

Importance: Although the use of factor Xa (FXa) inhibitors has increased substantially over the past decade, there are limited data on characteristics and outcomes of FXa inhibitor-associated intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Objective: To investigate the association between prior oral anticoagulant use (FXa inhibitors, warfarin, or none) and in-hospital outcomes among patients with nontraumatic ICH. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a cohort study of 219 701 patients with nontraumatic ICH admitted to 1870 hospitals in the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke registry between October 2013 and May 2018. Data analysis was performed in December 2019. Exposures: Anticoagulation therapy before ICH. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were a composite measure of in-hospital mortality or discharge to hospice, discharge home, independent ambulation, and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at discharge. Results: Of 219 701 patients (mean [SD] age, 68.2 [15.3] years; 104 940 women [47.8%]), 9202 (4.2%) were taking FXa inhibitors, 21 430 (9.8%) were taking warfarin, and 189 069 (86.0%) were not taking any oral anticoagulant before ICH. Patients taking FXa inhibitors or warfarin were older and had higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Compared with those not taking an oral anticoagulant (42 660 of 189 069 patients [22.6%]), the in-hospital mortality risk was higher for both FXa inhibitors (2487 of 9202 patients [27.0%]; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.20-1.34; P < .001) and warfarin (7032 of 21 430 patients [32.8%]; aOR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.60-1.74; P < .001). Both FXa inhibitors (3478 of 9202 patients [37.8%]; aOR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.13-1.26; P < .001) and warfarin (9151 of 21 430 patients [42.7%]; aOR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.44-1.56; P < .001) were associated with higher odds of death or discharge to hospice compared with not taking oral anticoagulation (58 022 of 189 069 patients [30.7%]). Although the rates of discharge home, independent ambulation, mRS scores of 0 or 1, and mRS scores of 0 to 2 were numerically lower among patients taking FXa inhibitors, these differences were not significant compared with patients not taking oral anticoagulants. In contrast, patients taking FXa inhibitors were less likely to die (aOR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.72-0.81; P < .001) or to experience death or discharge to hospice (aOR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.75-0.84; P < .001), more likely to be discharged home (aOR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.10-1.26; P < .001), and had better mRS scores at discharge (eg, mRS scores of 0-1: aOR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.09-1.40; P < .001) than those treated with warfarin. Concomitant warfarin and antiplatelet therapy (either single or dual) was associated with worse outcomes compared with taking warfarin alone (eg, in-hospital mortality for dual-antiplatelet agents: aOR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.72-2.50; P < .001). However, such incremental risk was not significant in patients taking FXa inhibitors. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, FXa inhibitor-associated ICH was associated with higher risk of mortality or death or discharge to hospice than not taking an oral anticoagulant, but patients taking FXa inhibitors had better outcomes than those with warfarin-related ICH.

5.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Depression is common after stroke and is often treated with antidepressant medications (AD). ADs have also been hypothesised to improve stroke recovery, although recent randomised trials were neutral. We investigated the patterns of in-hospital AD initiation after ischaemic stroke and association with clinical and readmission outcomes. METHODS: All Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged 65 or older hospitalised for ischaemic stroke in participating Get With The Guidelines-Stroke hospitals between April and December 2014 were eligible for this analysis. Outcome measures included days alive and not in a healthcare institution (home time), all-cause mortality and readmission within 1-year postdischarge. Propensity score (PS)-adjusted logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between AD use and each outcome measure. We also compared outcomes in patients prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) AD versus those prescribed non-SSRI ADs. RESULTS: Of 21 805 AD naïve patients included in this analysis, 1835 (8.4%) were started on an AD at discharge. Patients started on an AD had higher rates of depression and prior ischaemic stroke, presented with higher admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and were less likely to be discharged home. Similarly, patients started on an SSRI had lower rates of discharge to home. Adjusting for stroke severity, patients started on an AD had worse all-cause mortality, all-cause readmission, major adverse cardiac events, readmission for depression and decreased home-time. However, AD use was also associated with an increased risk for the sepsis, a falsification endpoint, suggesting the presence of residual confounding. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ischaemic stroke initiated on AD therapy are at increased risk of poor clinical outcomes and readmission even after PS adjustment, suggesting that poststroke depression requiring medication is a poor prognostic sign. Further research is needed to explore the reasons why depression is associated with worse outcome, and whether AD treatment modifies this risk or not.

7.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persons with dementia have higher mortality than the general population. Objective, standardized predictions of mortality risk in persons with dementia could help with planning resources for care close to the end of life. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review prediction models for risk of death in persons with dementia. METHODS: The Medline and PsycInfo databases were searched on November 29, 2020, for prediction models estimating the risk of death in persons with dementia. Study quality was assessed using the Prediction model Risk Of Bias ASsessment Tool. RESULTS: The literature search identified 2,828 studies, of which 18 were included. These studies described 16 different prediction models with c statistics mostly ranging from 0.67 to 0.79. Five models were externally validated, of which four were applicable. There were two models that were both applicable and had reasonably low risk of bias. One model predicted risk of death at six months in persons with advanced dementia residing in a nursing home. The other predicted risk of death at three years in persons seen in primary care practice or a dementia specialty clinic, derived from a nationwide registry in Sweden but not externally validated. CONCLUSION: Valid, applicable models with low risk of bias were found in two settings: advanced dementia in a nursing home and outpatient practices. The outpatient model requires external validation. Better models are needed for persons with mild to moderate dementia in nursing homes, a common demographic. These models may be useful for educating persons living with dementia and care partners and directing resources for end of life care.Registration:The study protocol is registered on PROSPERO as RD4202018076.

8.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480157

RESUMO

The MarkVCID consortium was formed under cooperative agreements with the National Institute of Neurologic Diseases and Stroke (NINDS) and National Institute on Aging (NIA) in 2016 with the goals of developing and validating biomarkers for the cerebral small vessel diseases associated with the vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID). Rigorously validated biomarkers have consistently been identified as crucial for multicenter studies to identify effective strategies to prevent and treat VCID, specifically to detect increased VCID risk, diagnose the presence of small vessel disease and its subtypes, assess prognosis for disease progression or response to treatment, demonstrate target engagement or mechanism of action for candidate interventions, and monitor disease progression during treatment. The seven project sites and central coordinating center comprising MarkVCID, working with NINDS and NIA, identified a panel of 11 candidate fluid- and neuroimaging-based biomarker kits and established harmonized multicenter study protocols (see companion paper "MarkVCID cerebral small vessel consortium: I. Enrollment, clinical, fluid protocols" for full details). Here we describe the MarkVCID neuroimaging protocols with specific focus on validating their application to future multicenter trials. MarkVCID procedures for participant enrollment; clinical and cognitive evaluation; and collection, handling, and instrumental validation of fluid samples are described in detail in a companion paper. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has long served as the neuroimaging modality of choice for cerebral small vessel disease and VCID because of its sensitivity to a wide range of brain properties, including small structural lesions, connectivity, and cerebrovascular physiology. Despite MRI's widespread use in the VCID field, there have been relatively scant data validating the repeatability and reproducibility of MRI-based biomarkers across raters, scanner types, and time intervals (collectively defined as instrumental validity). The MRI protocols described here address the core MRI sequences for assessing cerebral small vessel disease in future research studies, specific sequence parameters for use across various research scanner types, and rigorous procedures for determining instrumental validity. Another candidate neuroimaging modality considered by MarkVCID is optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), a non-invasive technique for directly visualizing retinal capillaries as a marker of the cerebral capillaries. OCTA has theoretical promise as a unique opportunity to visualize small vessels derived from the cerebral circulation, but at a considerably earlier stage of development than MRI. The additional OCTA protocols described here address procedures for determining OCTA instrumental validity, evaluating sources of variability such as pupil dilation, and handling data to maintain participant privacy. MRI protocol and instrumental validation The core sequences selected for the MarkVCID MRI protocol are three-dimensional T1-weighted multi-echo magnetization-prepared rapid-acquisition-of-gradient-echo (ME-MPRAGE), three-dimensional T2-weighted fast spin echo fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery (FLAIR), two-dimensional diffusion-weighted spin-echo echo-planar imaging (DWI), three-dimensional T2*-weighted multi-echo gradient echo (3D-GRE), three-dimensional T2 -weighted fast spin-echo imaging (T2w), and two-dimensional T2*-weighted gradient echo echo-planar blood-oxygenation-level-dependent imaging with brief periods of CO2 inhalation (BOLD-CVR). Harmonized parameters for each of these core sequences were developed for four 3 Tesla MRI scanner models in widespread use at academic medical centers. MarkVCID project sites are trained and certified for their instantiation of the consortium MRI protocols. Sites are required to perform image quality checks every 2 months using the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative phantom. Instrumental validation for MarkVCID MRI-based biomarkers is operationally defined as inter-rater reliability, test-retest repeatability, and inter-scanner reproducibility. Assessments of these instrumental properties are performed on individuals representing a range of cerebral small vessel disease from mild to severe. Inter-rater reliability is determined by distribution of an independent dataset of MRI scans to each analysis site. Test-retest repeatability is determined by repeat MRI scans performed on individual participants on a single MRI scanner after a short (1- to 14-day) interval. Inter-scanner reproducibility is determined by repeat MRI scans performed on individuals performed across four MRI scanner models. OCTA protocol and instrumental validation The MarkVCID OCTA protocol uses a commercially available, Food and Drug Administration-approved OCTA apparatus. Imaging is performed on one dilated and one undilated eye to assess the need for dilation. Scans are performed in quadruplicate. MarkVCID project sites participating in OCTA validation are trained and certified by this biomarker's lead investigator. Inter-rater reliability for OCTA is assessed by distribution of OCTA datasets to each analysis site. Test-retest repeatability is assessed by repeat OCTA imaging on individuals on the same day as their baseline OCTA and a different-day repeat session after a short (1- to 14-day) interval. Methods were developed to allow the OCTA data to be de-identified by the sites before transmission to the central data management system. The MarkVCID neuroimaging protocols, like the other MarkVCID procedures, are designed to allow translation to multicenter trials and as a template for outside groups to generate directly comparable neuroimaging data. The MarkVCID neuroimaging protocols are available to the biomedical community and intended to be shared. In addition to the instrumental validation procedures described here, each of the neuroimaging MarkVCID kits will undergo biological validation to determine its ability to measure important aspects of VCID such as cognitive function. The analytic methods for the neuroimaging-based kits and the results of these validation studies will be published separately. The results will ultimately determine the neuroimaging kits' potential usefulness for multicenter interventional trials in small vessel disease-related VCID.

10.
Can Geriatr J ; 23(4): 297-328, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33282050

RESUMO

Background: Studies of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) employ rigorous eligibility criteria, resulting in sampling that may not be representative of the broader clinical population. Objective: To compare the characteristics of MCI patients in a Calgary memory clinic to those of MCI participants in published Canadian studies. Methods: Clinic participants included 555 MCI patients from the PROspective Registry of Persons with Memory SyMPToms (PROMPT) registry in Calgary. Research participants included 4,981 individuals with MCI pooled from a systematic literature review of 112 original, English-language peer-reviewed Canadian studies. Both samples were compared on baseline sociodemographic variables, medical and psychiatric comorbidities, and cognitive performance for MCI due to Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Results: Overall, clinic patients tended to be younger, more often male, and more educated than research participants. Psychiatric disorders, traumatic brain injury, and sensory impairment were commonplace in PROMPT (up to 83% affected) but > 80% studies in the systematic review excluded these conditions. PROMPT patients also performed worse on global cognition measures than did research participants. Conclusion: Stringent eligibility criteria in Canadian research studies excluded a considerable subset of MCI patients with comorbid medical or psychiatric conditions. This exclusion may contribute to differences in cognitive performance and outcomes compared to real-world clinical samples.

11.
Neurol Clin Pract ; 10(5): 396-405, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299667

RESUMO

Background: Nationwide data on patients with cryptogenic stroke (CS) are lacking. We evaluated patient and hospital characteristics, in-hospital treatments, and discharge outcomes among patients with CS compared with other subtypes in the Get With The Guidelines (GWTG)-Stroke registry. Methods: We identified patients with ischemic stroke (IS) admitted to GWTG-Stroke participating hospitals between January 1, 2016, and September 30, 2017, with documented National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scale and stroke etiology (cardioembolic [CE], large artery atherosclerosis [LAA], small vessel occlusion [SVO], other determined etiology [OTH], or CS). Using multivariable logistic regression, we compared hospital treatments and discharge outcomes by subtype, adjusted for patient and hospital characteristics. Results: Among 316,623 patients from 1,687 hospitals, there were 63,301 (20.0%) patients with CS. In multivariable analysis, patients with CS received IV thrombolysis more often than other subtypes and had lower mortality than CE, LAA, and OTH but higher mortality than SVO. They were more likely to be discharged home than all other subtypes and be independent at discharge than LAA, OTH, or SVO. Conclusions: In a large contemporary nationwide registry, CS accounted for 20% of ISs among patients with a documented stroke etiology. Patients with CS had a distinct profile of treatments and outcomes relative to other subtypes. Improved subtype documentation and further research into CS are warranted to improve care and outcomes for patients with stroke.

12.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; : CIRCOUTCOMES120007150, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302714

RESUMO

Background The benefit of intravenous thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke is time dependent. To assist hospitals in providing faster thrombolytic treatment, the American Heart Association launched target: stroke quality initiative in January 2010 which disseminated feasible strategies to shorten door-to-needle times for thrombolytic therapy. This study aimed to examine whether target: stroke was associated with improved door-to-needle times and 1-year outcomes. Methods We analyzed Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥65 years receiving intravenous thrombolytic treatment for acute ischemic stroke at 1490 Get With The Guidelines-Stroke hospitals during January 2006 and December 2009 (preintervention, n=10 804) and January 2010 and December 2014 (postintervention, n=31 249). The median age was 80 years and 42.7% were male. Results The median door-to-needle times decreased from 80 minutes for the preintervention to 68 minutes for the postintervention (P<0.001). The proportion of patients receiving intravenous thrombolysis with door-to-needle times 45 minutes and 60 minutes increased from 9.6% and 24.8% for preintervention to 17.1% and 40.6% for postintervention, respectively (P<0.001). The annual rate of increase in the door-to-needle times of 60 minutes or less accelerated from 0.20% (95% CI, -0.43% to 0.83%) per each 4 quarters for preintervention to 5.68% (95% CI, 5.23%-6.13%) for postintervention (P<0.001) which was further confirmed in piecewise multivariable generalized estimating analysis (adjusted odds ratio, 1.27 [95% CI, 1.19-1.35]). Cox proportional hazards analysis, after adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics and within-hospital clustering, showed that target: stroke was associated with lower all-cause readmission (40.4% versus 44.1%; hazard ratio, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.88-0.95]), cardiovascular readmission (19.7% versus 22.9%; hazard ratio, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.80-0.89]), and composite of all-cause mortality or readmission (56.0% versus 58.4%; hazard ratio, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.93-1.00]). The risk decline in all-cause mortality dissipated after risk adjustment (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.94-1.02]). Conclusions Target: stroke quality initiative was associated with faster thrombolytic treatment times for acute ischemic stroke and modestly lower 1-year all-cause and cardiovascular readmissions.

13.
Dementia (London) ; : 1471301220977639, 2020 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33381996

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated public health measures that have impacted the provision of care for people living with dementia and their families. Additionally, the isolation that results from social distancing may be harming well-being for families as formal and informal supports become less accessible. For those living with dementia and experiencing agitation, social distancing may be even harder to maintain, or social distancing could potentially aggravate dementia-related neuropsychiatric symptoms. To understand the lived experience of social and physical distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada, we remotely interviewed 21 participants who normally attend a dementia specialty clinic in Calgary, Alberta, during a period where essential businesses were closed and health care had abruptly transitioned to telemedicine. A reflexive thematic analysis was used to analyze the interview and field note data. The impacts of the public health measures in response to the pandemic emerged through iterative analysis in three main categories of experience: (1) personal, (2) health services, and (3) health status (of both persons living with dementia and care partner). Isolation and mental health needs emerged as important impacts to family experiences. This in-depth understanding of the needs and experiences of the pandemic for people living with dementia suggests that innovative means are urgently needed to facilitate provision of remote medicine and also social interaction and integration.

14.
J Neurol Sci ; : 117224, 2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183779

RESUMO

Although statins have been associated with increased risk of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, their relationship with cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) formation is poorly understood. We systematically reviewed previously published studies reporting on the association between CMBs presence and current statin use. We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases on October 24, 2019 to identify all cohorts from randomized-controlled clinical trials or observational studies reporting on CMB prevalence and statin use. We extracted cross-sectional data on CMBs presence, as provided by each study, in association to the history of current statin use. Random effects model was used to calculate the pooled estimates. We included 7 studies (n = 3734 participants): unselected general population [n = 1965], ischemic stroke [n = 849], hemorrhagic stroke [n = 252] and patients with hypertension over the age of 60 [n = 668]. Statin use was not associated with CMBs presence in either unadjusted (OR = 1.15, 95%CI: 0.76-1.74) or adjusted analyses (OR = 1.09, 95%CI: 0.64-1.86). Statin use was more strongly related to lobar CMB presence (OR = 2.01, 95%CI: 1.48-2.72) in unadjusted analysis. The effect size of this association was consistent, but no longer statistically significant in adjusted analysis that was confined to two eligible studies (OR = 2.26, 95%CI: 0.86-5.91). Except for the analysis on the unadjusted probability of lobar CMBs presence, considerable heterogeneity was present in all other analyses (I2 > 60%). Our findings suggest that statin treatment seems not to be associated with CMBs overall, but may increase the risk of lobar CMB formation. This hypothesis deserves further investigation within magnetic resonance imaging ancillary studies of randomized trials.

16.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term outcomes for Medicare beneficiaries hospitalised with transient ischaemic attack (TIA) and role of ABCD2 score in identifying high-risk individuals are not studied. METHODS: We identified 40 825 Medicare beneficiaries hospitalised from 2011 to 2014 for a TIA to a Get With The Guidelines (GWTG)-Stroke hospital and classified them using ABCD2 score. Proportional hazards models were used to assess 1-year event rates of mortality and rehospitalisation (all-cause, ischaemic stroke, haemorrhagic stroke, myocardial infarction, and gastrointestinal and intracranial haemorrhage) for high-risk versus low-risk groups adjusted for patient and hospital characteristics. RESULTS: Of the 40 825 patients, 35 118 (86%) were high risk (ABCD2 ≥4) and 5707 (14%) were low risk (ABCD2=0-3). Overall rate of mortality during 1-year follow-up after hospital discharge for the index TIA was 11.7%, 44.3% were rehospitalised for any reason and 3.6% were readmitted due to stroke. Patients with ABCD2 score ≥4 had higher mortality at 1 year than not (adjusted HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.30). Adjusted risks for ischaemic stroke, all-cause readmission and mortality/all-cause readmission at 1 year were also significantly higher for patients with ABCD2 score ≥4 vs 0-3. In contrast, haemorrhagic stroke, myocardial infarction, gastrointestinal bleeding and intracranial haemorrhage risk were not significantly different by ABCD2 score. CONCLUSIONS: This study validates the use of ABCD2 score for long-term risk assessment after TIA in patients aged 65 years and older. Attentive efforts for community-based follow-up care after TIA are needed for ongoing prevention in Medicare beneficiaries who were hospitalised for TIA.

17.
Alzheimers Dement (N Y) ; 6(1): e12056, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209971

RESUMO

Introduction: Vascular disease is a common cause of dementia, and often coexists with other brain pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease to cause mixed dementia. Many of the risk factors for vascular disease are treatable. Our objective was to review evidence for diagnosis and treatment of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) to issue recommendations to clinicians. Methods: A subcommittee of the Canadian Consensus Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia (CCCDTD) reviewed areas of emerging evidence. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system was used to assign the quality of the evidence and strength of the recommendations. Results: Using standardized diagnostic criteria, managing hypertension to conventional blood pressure targets, and reducing risk for stroke are strongly recommended. Intensive blood pressure lowering in middle-aged adults with vascular risk factors, using acetylsalicylic acid in persons with VCI and covert brain infarctions but not if only white matter lesions are present, and using cholinesterase inhibitors are weakly recommended. Conclusions: The CCCDTD has provided evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and management of VCI for use nationally in Canada, that may also be of use worldwide.

18.
Alzheimers Dement (N Y) ; 6(1): e12057, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209972

RESUMO

Introduction: Earlier diagnosis of neurocognitive disorders and neurodegenerative disease is needed to implement preventative interventions, minimize harm, and reduce risk of exploitation in the context of undetected disease. Along the spectrum from subjective cognitive decline (SCD) to dementia, evidence continues to emerge with respect to detection, staging, and monitoring. Updates to previous guidelines are required for clinical practice. Methods: A subcommittee of the 5th Canadian Consensus Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia (CCCDTD) reviewed emerging evidence to address the following: (1) Is there a role for screening at-risk patients without clinical concerns? In what context is assessment for dementia appropriate? (2) What tools can be used to evaluate patients in whom cognitive decline is suspected? (3) What important information can be gained from an informant, using which measures? (4) What instruments can be used to get more in-depth information to diagnose mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia? (5) What is the approach to those with cognitive concerns but without objective changes (ie, SCD)? (6) How do we track response to treatment and change over time? The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system was used to rate quality of the evidence and strength of the recommendations. Results: We recommend instruments to assess and monitor cognition, behavior, and function across the cognitive spectrum, including reports from patient and informant. We recommend against screening asymptomatic older adults but recommend investigation for self- or informant reports of changes in cognition, emergence of behavioral or psychiatric symptoms, or decline in function or self-care. Standardized assessments should be used for cognitive and behavioral change that have sufficient validity for use in clinical practice. Discussion: The CCCDTD5 provides evidence-based recommendations for detection, assessment, and monitoring of neurocognitive disorders. Although these guidelines were developed for use in Canada, they may also be useful in other jurisdictions.

19.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147067

RESUMO

Rationale: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with an increased risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) within the general population. However, MCI risk in sleep-clinic populations of OSA patients is poorly characterized. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of MCI in a sleep-clinic population of OSA patients and which patients are at the greatest risk for this complication. Methods: Adults (n=1084) referred to three academic sleep centers for suspected OSA who had home sleep apnea testing or in-laboratory polysomnography were recruited. Patients completed sleep and medical history questionnaires, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Test (MoCA) of global cognition, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) of memory and WAIS-IV Digit-Symbol Coding (DSC) subtest of information processing speed. Results: A MoCA score<26 (range 0-30) was operationally defined as MCI. MCI was present in 47.9% of our entire patient cohort; increasing to >55.3% in patients with moderate and severe OSA. Patients with a MoCA<26 were predominantly older males with more severe OSA, hypoxemia and vascular comorbidities. Moderate and severe OSA were independently associated with >70% higher odds for MCI compared to patients with no OSA (p=0.003). Memory and information processing speed was lower than age-matched normal values (p<0.001) with lower MoCA and DSC scores associated with a higher oxygen desaturation index and nocturnal hypoxemia. Conclusion: Cognitive impairment is highly prevalent in patients referred to sleep clinics for suspected OSA, occurring predominantly in older males with moderate-to-severe OSA and concurrent vascular comorbidities. Moderate-to-severe OSA is an independent risk factor for MCI.

20.
Int J Stroke ; : 1747493020968424, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174815

RESUMO

Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is a particularly devastating type of stroke with greater morbidity and mortality compared with ischemic stroke and can account for half or more of all deaths from stroke. The seventh update of the Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations includes a new stand-alone module on intracerebral hemorrhage, with a focus on elements of care that are unique or affect persons disproportionately relative to ischemic stroke. Prior to this edition, intracerebral hemorrhage was included in the Acute Stroke Management module and was limited to its management during the first 12 h. With the growing evidence on intracerebral hemorrhage, a separate module focused on this topic across the care continuum was added. In addition to topics related to initial clinical management, neuroimaging, blood pressure management, and surgical management, new sections have been introduced addressing topics surrounding inpatient complications such as venous thromboembolism, seizure management, and increased intracranial pressure, rehabilitation as well as issues related to secondary management including lifestyle management, maintaining a normal blood pressure and antithrombotic therapy, are addressed. The Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations (CSBPR) are intended to provide up-to-date evidence-based guidelines for the prevention and management of stroke and to promote optimal recovery and reintegration for people who have experienced stroke, including patients, families, and informal caregivers.

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