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1.
Stroke ; : STROKEAHA119024150, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752610
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4.
J Neurol ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Silent brain infarction (SBI) may be associated with cognitive decline in the general population. We systematically reviewed prior literature on: (1) SBI and cognition cross-sectionally; (2) baseline SBI and future cognitive decline and risk for cognitive disorders including dementia, and (3) incident SBI and the emergence of cognitive decline or cognitive disorders. METHODS: The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for relevant studies. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers. Quality was assessed using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale. Data were pooled using a random effects model when more than two comparable estimates were found. RESULTS: Thirty relevant studies were identified: 17 had a cross-sectional design, 10 evaluated the association of baseline SBI with future cognitive decline, and 5 evaluated the association of incident SBI with cognitive decline. Most cross-sectional studies reported lower cognitive performance in persons with SBI. The pooled risk for incident dementia in persons with SBI was 1.48 (95% CI 1.12-1.97), but there was significant heterogeneity (p = 0.009); removing one outlier eliminated the heterogeneity (p = 0.53), giving a lower but still significant estimate (hazard ratio 1.27, 95% CI 1.06-1.51). The pooled risk for incident MCI was not increased in persons with SBI (hazard ratio 0.83, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.72), but there was significant heterogeneity (p < 0.001). The appearance of new SBI was associated with steeper rate of cognitive decline and the appearance of dementia. CONCLUSIONS: SBI are associated with worse cognition and increased risk for dementia. More standardization of cognitive assessment methods would facilitate future cross-study comparisons.

5.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e031379, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719083

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Home-time is an emerging patient-centred stroke outcome metric, but it is not well described in the population. We aimed to determine the association between 90-day home-time and global disability after stroke. We hypothesised that longer home-time would be associated with less disability. DESIGN: Hospital-based cohort study of patients with ischaemic stroke or intracerebral haemorrhage admitted to an acute care hospital between 1 April 2002 and 31 March 2013. SETTING: All regional stroke centres and a simple random sample of patients from all other hospitals across the province of Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: We included 39 417 adult patients (84% ischaemic, 16% haemorrhage), 53% male, with a median age of 74 years. We excluded non-residents of Ontario, patients without a valid health insurance number, patients discharged against medical advice or those who failed to return from a pass, patients living in a long-term care centre at baseline and stroke events occurring in-hospital. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Association between 90-day home-time, defined as the number of days spent at home in the first 90 days after stroke, obtained using linked administrative data and modified Rankin Scale score at discharge. RESULTS: Compared with people with no disability, those with minimal disability had less home-time (adjusted rate ratio (aRR) 0.96, 95% CI 0.93 to 0.98) and those with the most severe disability had the least home-time (aRR 0.05, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.05). We found no clinically relevant modification by stroke type, sex or study year. However, for a given level of disability, older patients experienced less home-time compared with younger patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide content validity for home-time to be used to monitor stroke outcomes in large populations or to study temporal trends. Older patients experience less home-time for a given level of disability, suggesting the need for stratification by age.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565735

RESUMO

AIMS: Cardiovascular risk factors are used for risk stratification in primary prevention. We sought to determine if simple cardiac risk scores are associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected subclinical cerebrovascular disease including carotid wall volume (CWV), carotid intraplaque haemorrhage (IPH), and silent brain infarction (SBI). METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 7594 adults with no history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) underwent risk factor assessment and a non-contrast enhanced MRI of the carotid arteries and brain using a standardized protocol in a population-based cohort recruited between 2014 and 2018. The non-lab-based INTERHEART risk score (IHRS) was calculated in all participants; the Framingham Risk Score was calculated in a subset who provided blood samples (n = 3889). The association between these risk scores and MRI measures of CWV, carotid IPH, and SBI was determined. The mean age of the cohort was 58 (8.9) years, 55% were women. Each 5-point increase (∼1 SD) in the IHRS was associated with a 9 mm3 increase in CWV, adjusted for sex (P < 0.0001), a 23% increase in IPH [95% confidence interval (CI) 9-38%], and a 32% (95% CI 20-45%) increase in SBI. These associations were consistent for lacunar and non-lacunar brain infarction. The Framingham Risk Score was also significantly associated with CWV, IPH, and SBI. CWV was additive and independent to the risk scores in its association with IPH and SBI. CONCLUSION: Simple cardiovascular risk scores are significantly associated with the presence of MRI-detected subclinical cerebrovascular disease, including CWV, IPH, and SBI in an adult population without known clinical CVD.

7.
Int J Stroke ; : 1747493019855888, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514686

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The Boston criteria are used worldwide for the in vivo diagnosis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and are the basis for clinical decision-making and research in the field. Given substantial advances in cerebral amyloid angiopathy's clinical aspects and MRI biomarkers, we designed a multicenter study within the International cerebral amyloid angiopathy Association aimed at further validating the diagnostic accuracy of the Boston and potentially improving and updating them. AIM: We aim to derive and validate an updated "version 2.0" of the Boston criteria across the spectrum of cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related presentations and MRI biomarkers. SAMPLE SIZE ESTIMATES: Participating centers with suitable available data (see Methods) were identified from existing collaborations and an open invitation to the International Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy Association emailing list. Our study sample will include: (1) a derivation cohort - Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), Boston cases from inception to 2012 (∼150 patients); (2) temporal external validation cohort - MGH, Boston cases from 2012 to 2018 (∼100 patients); and (3) geographical external validation cohort - non-Boston cases (∼85 patients). METHODS AND DESIGN: Multicenter collaborative study. We will collect and analyze data from patients' age ≥ 50 with any potential sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related clinical presentations (spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, transient focal neurological episodes and cognitive impairment), available brain MRI ("index test"), and histopathologic assessment for cerebral amyloid angiopathy ("reference standard" for diagnosis). Trained raters will assess MRI for all prespecified hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic small vessel disease markers of interest, according to validated criteria and a prespecified protocol, masked to clinical and histopathologic features. Brain tissue samples will be rated for cerebral amyloid angiopathy, defined as Vonsattel grade ≥2 for whole brain autopsies and ≥1 for cortical biopsies or hematoma evacuation. Based on our estimated available sample size, we will undertake pre-specified cohort splitting as above. We will: (a) pre-specify variables and statistical cut-offs; (b) examine univariable and multivariable associations; and (c) then assess classification measures (sensitivity, specificity etc.) for each MRI biomarker individually, in relation to the cerebral amyloid angiopathy diagnosis reference standard on neuropathology in a derivation cohort. The MRI biomarkers strongly associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy diagnosis will be selected for inclusion in provisional (probable and possible cerebral amyloid angiopathy) Boston criteria v2.0 and validated using appropriate metrics and models. STUDY OUTCOMES: Boston criteria v2.0 for clinical cerebral amyloid angiopathy diagnosis. DISCUSSION: This work aims to potentially update and improve the diagnostic test accuracy of the Boston criteria for cerebral amyloid angiopathy and to provide wider validation of the criteria in a large sample. We envision that this work will meet the needs of clinicians and investigators and help accelerate progress towards better treatment of cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

8.
Int J Stroke ; : 1747493019873595, 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496438

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Although mild and rapidly improving stroke symptoms are the most common first stroke presentation, this group has been understudied in acute stroke trials. Observational and retrospective studies suggest residual disability in one third of patients. AIMS: To elucidate long-term outcomes of patients with mild and rapidly improving stroke, evaluate the predictors of outcome, and examine the association with alteplase treatment. SAMPLE SIZE: The initial estimate of 2650 participants to detect a 9% difference in non-disabled 90-day outcomes between alteplase-treated and untreated participants was revised to 2000 after a pre-planned re-estimation based on actual treatment rates. METHODS AND DESIGN: Prospective observational study of patients with mild ischemic stroke (NIHSS ≤ 5) or rapidly improving stroke symptoms evaluated within 4.5 h from onset. OUTCOMES: The primary outcome is the proportion of patients with modified Rankin Scale (mRS) ≥ 2 at 90 days; the primary safety outcome is symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation within 36 h among those treated with alteplase. Secondary outcomes include the 90-day Barthel Index, Stroke Impact Scale 16, European Quality of Life scale, mRS at 30 days, and 30- and 90-day mortality. DISCUSSION: MaRISS will define outcomes and their predictors and clarify the effects of alteplase in patients with mild and rapidly improving stroke symptoms, providing clinicians with important information to manage this population.

9.
Lancet Neurol ; 18(10): 905-906, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401076
10.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(8): e005609, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The necessity for rapid evaluation and treatment of acute ischemic stroke with intravenous tPA (tissue-type plasminogen activator) may increase the risk of administrating tPA to patients presenting with noncerebrovascular conditions that closely resemble stroke (stroke mimics). However, there are limited data on thrombolysis safety in stroke mimics. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using data from the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke Registry, we identified 72 582 patients with suspected ischemic stroke treated with tPA from 485 US hospitals between January 2010 and December 2017. We documented the use of tPA in stroke mimics, defined as patients who present with stroke-like symptoms, but after workup are determined not to have suffered from a stroke or transient ischemic attack, and compared characteristics and outcomes in stroke mimics versus those with ischemic stroke. Overall, 3.5% of tPA treatments were given to stroke mimics. Among them, 38.2% had a final nonstroke diagnoses of migraine, functional disorder, seizure, and electrolyte or metabolic imbalance. Compared with tPA-treated true ischemic strokes, tPA-treated mimics were younger (median 54 versus 71 years), had a less severe National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (median 6 versus 8), and a lower prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, except for a higher prevalence of prior stroke/transient ischemic attack (31.3% versus 26.1%, all P<0.001). The rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was lower in stroke mimics (0.4%) as compared with 3.5% in ischemic strokes (adjusted odds ratio, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.17-0.50). In-hospital mortality rate was significantly lower in stroke mimics (0.8% versus 6.2%, adjusted odds ratio, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.20-0.49). Patients with stroke mimics were more likely to be discharged to home (83.8% versus 49.3%, adjusted odds ratio, 2.97; 95% CI, 2.59-3.42) and to ambulate independently at discharge (78.6% versus 50.6%, adjusted odds ratio, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.61-2.14). CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of patients treated with tPA, relatively few patients who received tPA for presumed stroke were ultimately not diagnosed with a stroke or transient ischemic attack. The complication rates associated with tPA in stroke mimics were low. Despite the potential risk of administering tPA to stroke mimics, opportunity remains for continued improvement in the rapid and accurate diagnosis and treatment of ischemic stroke.

11.
J Gen Intern Med ; 34(12): 2740-2748, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-stroke care delivery may be affected by provider participation in Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP) Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) through systematic changes to discharge planning, care coordination, and transitional care. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of MSSP with patient outcomes in the year following hospitalization for ischemic stroke. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort SETTING: Get With The Guidelines (GWTG)-Stroke (2010-2014) PARTICIPANTS: Hospitalizations for mild to moderate incident ischemic stroke were linked with Medicare claims for fee-for-service beneficiaries ≥ 65 years (N = 251,605). MAIN MEASURES: Outcomes included discharge to home, 30-day all-cause readmission, length of index hospital stay, days in the community (home-time) at 1 year, and 1-year recurrent stroke and mortality. A difference-in-differences design was used to compare outcomes before and after hospital MSSP implementation for patients (1) discharged from hospitals that chose to participate versus not participate in MSSP or (2) assigned to an MSSP ACO versus not or both. Unique estimates for 2013 and 2014 ACOs were generated. KEY RESULTS: For hospitals joining MSSP in 2013 or 2014, the probability of discharge to home decreased by 2.57 (95% confidence intervals (CI) = - 4.43, - 0.71) percentage points (pp) and 1.84 pp (CI = - 3.31, - 0.37), respectively, among beneficiaries not assigned to an MSSP ACO. Among discharges from hospitals joining MSSP in 2013, beneficiary ACO alignment versus not was associated with increased home discharge, reduced length of stay, and increased home-time. For patients discharged from hospitals joining MSSP in 2014, ACO alignment was not associated with changes in utilization. No association between MSSP and recurrent stroke or mortality was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with mild to moderate ischemic stroke, meaningful reductions in acute care utilization were observed only for ACO-aligned beneficiaries who were also discharged from a hospital initiating MSSP in 2013. Only 1 year of data was available for the 2014 MSSP cohort, and these early results suggest further study is warranted. REGISTRATION: None.

13.
JAMA ; 322(3): 252-263, 2019 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310296

RESUMO

Importance: Randomized clinical trials suggest benefit of endovascular-reperfusion therapy for large vessel occlusion in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is time dependent, but the extent to which it influences outcome and generalizability to routine clinical practice remains uncertain. Objective: To characterize the association of speed of treatment with outcome among patients with AIS undergoing endovascular-reperfusion therapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study using data prospectively collected from January 2015 to December 2016 in the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke nationwide US quality registry, with final follow-up through April 15, 2017. Participants were 6756 patients with anterior circulation large vessel occlusion AIS treated with endovascular-reperfusion therapy with onset-to-puncture time of 8 hours or less. Exposures: Onset (last-known well time) to arterial puncture, and hospital arrival to arterial puncture (door-to-puncture time). Main Outcomes and Measures: Substantial reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction score 2b-3), ambulatory status, global disability (modified Rankin Scale [mRS]) and destination at discharge, symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH), and in-hospital mortality/hospice discharge. Results: Among 6756 patients, the mean (SD) age was 69.5 (14.8) years, 51.2% (3460/6756) were women, and median pretreatment score on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was 17 (IQR, 12-22). Median onset-to-puncture time was 230 minutes (IQR, 170-305) and median door-to-puncture time was 87 minutes (IQR, 62-116), with substantial reperfusion in 85.9% (5433/6324) of patients. Adverse events were sICH in 6.7% (449/6693) of patients and in-hospital mortality/hospice discharge in 19.6% (1326/6756) of patients. At discharge, 36.9% (2132/5783) ambulated independently and 23.0% (1225/5334) had functional independence (mRS 0-2). In onset-to-puncture adjusted analysis, time-outcome relationships were nonlinear with steeper slopes between 30 to 270 minutes than 271 to 480 minutes. In the 30- to 270-minute time frame, faster onset to puncture in 15-minute increments was associated with higher likelihood of achieving independent ambulation at discharge (absolute increase, 1.14% [95% CI, 0.75%-1.53%]), lower in-hospital mortality/hospice discharge (absolute decrease, -0.77% [95% CI, -1.07% to -0.47%]), and lower risk of sICH (absolute decrease, -0.22% [95% CI, -0.40% to -0.03%]). Faster door-to-puncture times were similarly associated with improved outcomes, including in the 30- to 120-minute window, higher likelihood of achieving discharge to home (absolute increase, 2.13% [95% CI, 0.81%-3.44%]) and lower in-hospital mortality/hospice discharge (absolute decrease, -1.48% [95% CI, -2.60% to -0.36%]) for each 15-minute increment. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with AIS due to large vessel occlusion treated in routine clinical practice, shorter time to endovascular-reperfusion therapy was significantly associated with better outcomes. These findings support efforts to reduce time to hospital and endovascular treatment in patients with stroke.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Endovasculares , Trombólise Mecânica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Tempo para o Tratamento , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Trombólise Mecânica/efeitos adversos , Trombólise Mecânica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Reperfusão/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
14.
Can J Neurol Sci ; 46(5): 499-511, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Comprehensive Assessment of Neurodegeneration and Dementia (COMPASS-ND) cohort study of the Canadian Consortium on Neurodegeneration in Aging (CCNA) is a national initiative to catalyze research on dementia, set up to support the research agendas of CCNA teams. This cross-country longitudinal cohort of 2310 deeply phenotyped subjects with various forms of dementia and mild memory loss or concerns, along with cognitively intact elderly subjects, will test hypotheses generated by these teams. METHODS: The COMPASS-ND protocol, initial grant proposal for funding, fifth semi-annual CCNA Progress Report submitted to the Canadian Institutes of Health Research December 2017, and other documents supplemented by modifications made and lessons learned after implementation were used by the authors to create the description of the study provided here. RESULTS: The CCNA COMPASS-ND cohort includes participants from across Canada with various cognitive conditions associated with or at risk of neurodegenerative diseases. They will undergo a wide range of experimental, clinical, imaging, and genetic investigation to specifically address the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these conditions in the aging population. Data derived from clinical and cognitive assessments, biospecimens, brain imaging, genetics, and brain donations will be used to test hypotheses generated by CCNA research teams and other Canadian researchers. The study is the most comprehensive and ambitious Canadian study of dementia. Initial data posting occurred in 2018, with the full cohort to be accrued by 2020. CONCLUSION: Availability of data from the COMPASS-ND study will provide a major stimulus for dementia research in Canada in the coming years.

15.
JAMA Neurol ; 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329212

RESUMO

Importance: Current guidelines recommend direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) over warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who are at high risk. Despite demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials, real-world data of DOACs vs warfarin for secondary prevention in patients with ischemic stroke are largely based on administrative claims or have not focused on patient-centered outcomes. Objective: To examine the clinical effectiveness of DOACs (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or apixaban) vs warfarin after ischemic stroke in patients with AF. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included patients who were 65 years or older, had AF, were anticoagulation naive, and were discharged from 1041 Get With The Guidelines-Stroke-associated hospitals for acute ischemic stroke between October 2011 and December 2014. Data were linked to Medicare claims for long-term outcomes (up to December 2015). Analyses were completed in July 2018. Exposures: DOACs vs warfarin prescription at discharge. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were home time, a patient-centered measure defined as the total number of days free from death and institutional care after discharge, and major adverse cardiovascular events. A propensity score-overlap weighting method was used to account for differences in observed characteristics between groups. Results: Of 11 662 survivors of acute ischemic stroke (median [interquartile range] age, 80 [74-86] years), 4041 (34.7%) were discharged with DOACs and 7621 with warfarin. Except for National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores (median [interquartile range], 4 [1-9] vs 5 [2-11]), baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Patients discharged with DOACs (vs warfarin) had more days at home (mean [SD], 287.2 [114.7] vs 263.0 [127.3] days; adjusted difference, 15.6 [99% CI, 9.0-22.1] days) during the first year postdischarge and were less likely to experience major adverse cardiovascular events (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.89 [99% CI, 0.83-0.96]). Also, in patients receiving DOACs, there were fewer deaths (aHR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.82-0.95]; P < .001), all-cause readmissions (aHR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.88-0.97]; P = .003), cardiovascular readmissions (aHR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.86-0.99]; P = .02), hemorrhagic strokes (aHR, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.50-0.95]; P = .02), and hospitalizations with bleeding (aHR, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.81-0.97]; P = .009) but a higher risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (aHR, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.01-1.30]; P = .03). Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with acute ischemic stroke and AF, DOAC use at discharge was associated with better long-term outcomes relative to warfarin.

16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(15): e012450, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327296

RESUMO

Background Intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA) remains the only medical therapy to improve outcomes for acute ischemic stroke (AIS), but the safety of rtPA in AIS patients with a history of recent myocardial infarction (MI) remains controversial. Methods and Results We sought to determine whether the presence of recent MI would alter the risk of mortality and rtPA-related complications. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to compare in-hospital outcomes between rtPA-treated AIS patients with recent MI within 3 months and those with no history of MI from the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke hospitals between February 2009 and December 2015. Among 40 396 AIS patients aged ≥65 years treated with rtPA, 241 (0.6%) had recent MI, of which 19.5% were ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Patients with recent MI had more severe stroke than those without (median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [interquartile range]: 13.0 [7.0-20.0] versus 11.0 [6.0-18.0]). Recent MI was associated with an increased risk of mortality compared with no history of MI (17.4% versus 9.0%; adjusted odds ratio 1.60 [95% CI, 1.10-2.33]; P=0.014), but no statistically significant differences in rtPA-related complications (13.5% versus 9.4%; adjusted odds ratio 1.28 [0.88-1.86]; P=0.19). Recent ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction was associated with higher risk of death and rtPA-related complications, but non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction was not. Conclusions Among older AIS patients treated with rtPA, recent MI was associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality. Further investigations are necessary to determine whether the benefit of rtPA outweighs its risk among AIS patients with recent MI.

17.
Neurology ; 93(8): e747-e757, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320472

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether lower socioeconomic status (SES) and longer home to hospital driving time are associated with reductions in tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration and timeliness of the treatment. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study using data from the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke Registry (GWTG-Stroke) between January 2015 and March 2017. The study included 118,683 ischemic stroke patients age ≥18 who were transported by emergency medical services to one of 1,489 US hospitals. We defined each patient's SES based on zip code median household income. We calculated the driving time between each patient's home zip code and the hospital where he or she was treated using the Google Maps Directions Application Programing Interface. The primary outcomes were tPA administration and onset-to-arrival time (OTA). Outcomes were analyzed using hierarchical multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: SES was not associated with OTA (p = 0.31) or tPA administration (p = 0.47), but was associated with the secondary outcomes of onset-to-treatment time (OTT) (p = 0.0160) and in-hospital mortality (p = 0.0037), with higher SES associated with shorter OTT and lower in-hospital mortality. Driving time was associated with tPA administration (p < 0.001) and OTA (p < 0.0001), with lower odds of tPA (0.83, 0.79-0.88) and longer OTA (1.30, 1.24-1.35) in patients with the longest vs shortest driving time quartiles. Lower SES quintiles were associated with slightly longer driving time quartiles (p = 0.0029), but there was no interaction between the SES and driving time for either OTA (p = 0.1145) or tPA (p = 0.6103). CONCLUSIONS: Longer driving times were associated with lower odds of tPA administration and longer OTA; however, SES did not modify these associations.

18.
Neuroimage Clin ; 24: 101943, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351228

RESUMO

The harmonized Canadian Dementia Imaging Protocol (CDIP) has been developed to suit the needs of a number of co-occurring Canadian studies collecting data on brain changes across adulthood and neurodegeneration. In this study, we verify the impact of CDIP parameters compliance on total brain volume variance using 86 scans of the same individual acquired on various scanners. Data included planned data collection acquired within the Consortium pour l'identification précoce de la maladie Alzheimer - Québec (CIMA-Q) and Canadian Consortium on Neurodegeneration in Aging (CCNA) studies, as well as opportunistic data collection from various protocols. For images acquired from Philips scanners, lower variance in brain volumes were observed when the stated CDIP resolution was set. For images acquired from GE scanners, lower variance in brain volumes were noticed when TE/TR values were within 5% of the CDIP protocol, compared to values farther from that criteria. Together, these results suggest that a harmonized protocol like the CDIP may help to reduce neuromorphometric measurement variability in multi-centric studies.

19.
Clin Nucl Med ; 44(10): 784-788, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348088

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate random forests (RFs) as a supervised machine learning algorithm to classify amyloid brain PET as positive or negative for amyloid deposition and identify key regions of interest for stratification. METHODS: The data set included 57 baseline F-florbetapir (Amyvid; Lilly, Indianapolis, IN) brain PET scans in participants with severe white matter disease, presenting with either transient ischemic attack/lacunar stroke or mild cognitive impairment from early Alzheimer disease, enrolled in a multicenter prospective observational trial. Scans were processed using the MINC toolkit to generate SUV ratios, normalized to cerebellar gray matter, and clinically read by 2 nuclear medicine physicians with interpretation based on consensus (35 negative, 22 positive). SUV ratio data and clinical reads were used for supervised training of an RF classifier programmed in MATLAB. RESULTS: A 10,000-tree RF, each tree using 15 randomly selected cases and 20 randomly selected features (SUV ratio per region of interest), with 37 cases for training and 20 cases for testing, had sensitivity = 86% (95% confidence interval [CI], 42%-100%), specificity = 92% (CI, 64%-100%), and classification accuracy = 90% (CI, 68%-99%). The most common features at the root node (key regions for stratification) were (1) left posterior cingulate (1039 trees), (2) left middle frontal gyrus (1038 trees), (3) left precuneus (857 trees), (4) right anterior cingulate gyrus (655 trees), and (5) right posterior cingulate (588 trees). CONCLUSIONS: Random forests can classify brain PET as positive or negative for amyloid deposition and suggest key clinically relevant, regional features for classification.


Assuntos
Amiloide/metabolismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Compostos de Anilina , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Etilenoglicóis , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Int J Stroke ; : 1747493019847334, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221036

RESUMO

The 2019 update of the Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations (CSBPR) for Mood, Cognition and Fatigue following Stroke is a comprehensive set of evidence-based guidelines addressing three important issues that can negatively impact the lives of people who have had a stroke. These include post-stroke depression and anxiety, vascular cognitive impairment, and post-stroke fatigue. Following stroke, approximately 20% to 50% of all persons may be affected by at least one of these conditions. There may also be overlap between conditions, particularly fatigue and depression. If not recognized and treated in a timely matter, these conditions can lead to worse long-term outcomes. The theme of this edition of the CSBPR is Partnerships and Collaborations, which stresses the importance of integration and coordination across the healthcare system to ensure timely and seamless care to optimize recovery and outcomes. Accordingly, these recommendations place strong emphasis on the importance of timely screening and assessments, and timely and adequate initiation of treatment across care settings. Ideally, when screening is suggestive of a mood or cognition issue, patients and families should be referred for in-depth assessment by healthcare providers with expertise in these areas. As the complexity of patients treated for stroke increases, continuity of care and strong communication among healthcare professionals, and between members of the healthcare team and the patient and their family is an even bigger imperative, as stressed throughout the recommendations, as they are critical elements to ensure smooth transitions from acute care to active rehabilitation and reintegration into their community.

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