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1.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 147: 106770, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084510

RESUMO

New world coralsnakes of the genus Micrurus are a diverse radiation of highly venomous and brightly colored snakes that range from North Carolina to Argentina. Species in this group have played central roles in developing and testing hypotheses about the evolution of mimicry and aposematism. Despite their diversity and prominence as model systems, surprisingly little is known about species boundaries and phylogenetic relationships within Micrurus, which has substantially hindered meaningful analyses of their evolutionary history. Here we use mitochondrial genes together with thousands of nuclear genomic loci obtained via ddRADseq to study the phylogenetic relationships and population genomics of a subclade of the genus Micrurus: The M. diastema species complex. Our results indicate that prior species and species-group inferences based on morphology and color pattern have grossly misguided taxonomy, and that the M. diastema complex is not monophyletic. Based on our analyses of molecular data, we infer the phylogenetic relationships among species and populations, and provide a revised taxonomy for the group. Two non-sister species-complexes with similar color patterns are recognized, the M. distans and the M. diastema complexes, the first being basal to the monadal Micrurus and the second encompassing most North American monadal taxa. We examined all 13 species, and their respective subspecies, for a total of 24 recognized taxa in the M. diastema species complex. Our analyses suggest a reduction to 10 species, with no subspecific designations warranted, to be a more likely estimate of species diversity, namely, M. apiatus, M. browni, M. diastema, M. distans, M. ephippifer, M. fulvius, M. michoacanensis, M. oliveri, M. tener, and one undescribed species.

2.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 145: 106723, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891757

RESUMO

The high levels of Neotropical biodiversity are commonly associated with the intense Neogene-Quaternary geological events and climate dynamics. Here, we investigate the evolutionary history of two species of Neotropical closely related amphibians (R. horribilis and R. marina). We combine published data with new mitochondrial DNA sequences and multiple nuclear markers, including 12 microsatellites. The phylogenetic analyses showed support for grouping the samples in two main clades; R. horribilis (Central America and Mexico) and R. marina (South America east of the Andes). However, the phylogenetic inferences also show an evident mito-nuclear discordance. We use Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) to test the role of different events in the diversification between the two groups recovered. We found that both species were affected primarily by a recent Pleistocene divergence, which was similar to the divergence estimate revealed by the Isolation-with-Migration model, under persistent bidirectional gene flow through time. We provide the first evidence that R. horribilis is differentiated from the South American R. marina at the nuclear level supporting the taxonomic status of R. horribilis, which has been controversial for more than a century.

3.
Zootaxa ; 4679(2): zootaxa.4679.2.9, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715964

RESUMO

Using a combination of morphological and molecular data we recognize three new species of Puppet Toad, Sigalegalephrynus Smart, Sarker, Arifin, Harvey, Sidik, Hamidy, Kurniawan Smith, a recently described genus endemic to the highland forests of Sumatra, Indonesia. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences recovered a monophyletic relationship among all Puppet Toads, with two distinct evolutionary clades, a northern and a southern. The northern clade includes Sigalegalephrynus gayoluesensis sp. nov., and S. burnitelongensis sp. nov., and the southern clade includes S. harveyi sp. nov., S. mandailinguensis, and S. minangkabauensis. With the discovery of these three new species, Sigalegalephrynus contains more endemic species than any other genus of toad in Indonesia. We used maximum entropy, implemented in MaxEnt, to identify suitable habitats and occurrence probability of additional undescribed new species from the island. The most important predictors of Sigalegalephrynus distribution were elevation (64.5%) and land cover (7.11%). Based on the probability of presence, it is likely that there are many more species of the genus awaiting discovery in Sumatra. Our analysis, based on IUCN Red List of Threatened Species category and criteria, shows that all of the five species of Sigalegalephrynus are in great risk of extinction and should be placed into the Endangered (EN) category of IUCN Red List.


Assuntos
Anuros , Bufonidae , Animais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Indonésia , Filogenia
4.
Zootaxa ; 4613(1): zootaxa.4613.1.5, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716427

RESUMO

Micryletta inornata (Boulenger 1890), the type species of the genus Micryletta, was originally described from the island of Sumatra in Indonesia. Subsequently, this species has been widely reported from Sundaland (Sumatra and Malay Peninsula), Indo-China, Northeast India and South Andaman, up to southern China and Taiwan. However, since the original description there has been no further report of this species from the type locality or the island. During a herpetofaunal survey in Sumatra, several specimens that are morphologically concordant with the original description and the syntypes of M. inornata were found, and thus the species was rediscovered after 125 years. Here, we provide a redescription of the species based on the freshly collected specimens, along with a detailed morphological and molecular comparison with known congeners. Further, using molecular data from the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene, our study recovered the Sumatran M. inornata as a phylogenetically distinct lineage from all other populations previously referred to this species. This confirms that all known Micryletta 'inornata' populations from regions outside Sumatra constitute several other lineages representing either new species or previously available names currently considered as synonyms, consequently requiring taxonomic validation in the future.


Assuntos
Anuros , Animais , Anuros/genética , China , Índia , Indonésia , Ilhas , Malásia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Taiwan
5.
PeerJ ; 7: e7012, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223526

RESUMO

We describe a new species of frog in the microhylid genus Micryletta Dubois, 1987 from Northeast India based on molecular and morphological evidence. The new species, formally described as Micryletta aishani sp. nov., is phenotypically distinct from other congeners by a suite of morphological characters such as brown to reddish-brown dorsum; dorsal skin shagreened with minute spinules; snout shape nearly truncate in dorsal and ventral view; a prominent dark streak extending from tip of the snout up to the lower abdomen; ash-grey mottling along the margins of upper and lower lip extending up to the flanks, limb margins and dorsal surfaces of hand and foot; tibiotarsal articulation reaching up to the level of armpits; absence of outer metatarsal tubercles; and absence of webbing between toes. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus are inferred based on mitochondrial data and the new taxon is found to differ from all the recognised Micryletta species by 3.5-5.9% divergence in the mitochondrial 16S rRNA. The new species was found in the states of Assam, Manipur, and Tripura, from low to moderate elevation (30-800 m asl) regions lying south of River Brahmaputra and encompassing the Indo-Burma Biodiversity Hotspot. The discovery validates the presence of genus Micryletta in Northeast India based on genetic evidence, consequently confirming the extension of its geographical range, westwards from Southeast Asia up to Northeast India. Further, for nomenclatural stability of two previously known species, Microhyla inornata (= Micryletta inornata) and Microhyla steinegeri (= Micryletta steinegeri), lectotypes are designated along with detailed descriptions.

6.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 134: 1-11, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703515

RESUMO

Complex geological processes often drive biotic diversification on islands. The islands of Sumatra and Java have experienced dramatic historical changes, including isolation by marine incursions followed by periodic connectivity with the rest of Sundaland across highland connections. To determine how this geological history influenced island invasions, we investigated the colonization history and diversification of bent-toed geckos (genus Cyrtodactylus) on Sumatra and west Java. We used mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data to explore species boundaries, estimate phylogenetic relationships and divergence times, and to reconstruct ancestral range evolution. We found that Sumatran and Javan Cyrtodactylus were closely related to species from the Thai-Malay Peninsula, rather than from Borneo, and that Cyrtodactylus most likely dispersed to Sumatra three times during the late Oligocene and early Miocene. Similarly, Cyrtodactylus invaded west Java from Sumatra once in the early Miocene. Our results suggest that despite isolation by marine incursions during much of the Miocene, Cyrtodactylus dispersed to and from Sumatra and west Java likely via land bridges, and that in situ diversification occurred several times on Sumatra.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Lagartos/classificação , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Calibragem , Fósseis , Geografia , Indonésia , Ilhas , Funções Verossimilhança , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
Zootaxa ; 4422(3): 366-384, 2018 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30313491

RESUMO

A new species of hylid frog is described from the southwestern edge of the Mexican Plateau from the states of Morelos and Mexico through Michoacán and Jalisco, reaching the Sierra Madre Occidental in Sinaloa and western Durango. The new species is part of the widespread Mexican hylid Sarcohyla bistincta (sensu amplo) complex, comprised of S. bistincta, S. pentheter, S. calthula, and S. ephemera. One subspecies of S. bistincta (labeculata) was proposed for an isolated population in Oaxaca. We restrict the group's nominal species, S. bistincta (sensu stricto), to the Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico and southward into the Sierra Madre del Sur of Guerrero and Oaxaca. Examination of type material places S. calthula and S. ephemera in the synonymy of S. labeculata (new combination). The species allied to S. bistincta, namely, S. bistincta, S. labeculata, S. pentheter, and the new species described herein, are diagnosed and described following recent suggested taxonomic changes and new available material.


Assuntos
Anuros , Animais , México
8.
Zootaxa ; 4442(3): 389-412, 2018 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30313971

RESUMO

Megophrys lancip sp. nov., from the Bukit Barisan mountain range of southwestern Sumatra, Indonesia, is described on the basis of molecular and morphological evidence. The new species is distinguished from its congeners in Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and the Philippines by having a medium-sized body, snout with an extremely pointed rostral appendage, a medium-sized triangular eyelid appendage, a dorsolateral fold extending from just behind the eye to the groin, vomerine teeth, vocal slits, nuptial pads on the dorsomedial surface of the first and second fingers in males, and in lacking a Y, X, or H-shaped fold on the dorsum. Morphologically, the new species is most similar to M. montana, but it has a longer rostral appendage, shorter eyelid appendages, and less developed toe webbing. We also evaluate the taxonomic status of M. parallela and comment on the occurrence of M. aceras in Sumatra.


Assuntos
Anfíbios , Animais , Bornéu , Indonésia , Masculino , Filipinas , Filogenia
9.
Data Brief ; 18: 1995-1999, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29904706

RESUMO

In this data article we present species trees based on coalescent species delimitation results for North American whipsnakes, as well as metadata pertaining to the article "The effect of missing data on coalescent species delimitation and a taxonomic revision of whipsnakes (Colubridae: Masticophis)" (MPE-2017-76-R1). Species trees were constructed using SNP data generated from double-digest RADseq, filtered to 80% completeness between species. Tables correspond with the primary manuscript and serve as a repository of genetic sequence information for whipsnakes. These data can be downloaded and combined with future whipsnake datasets.

10.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 127: 356-366, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29567505

RESUMO

A stable alpha taxonomy is essential to understanding evolutionary processes and achieving effective conservation aims. Taxonomy depends on the identification of independently evolving lineages, and the delimitation of these lineages based on multiple lines of evidence. Coalescent species delimitation within an integrative framework has increased the rigor of the delimitation process. Here we use genome-wide SNP data and coalescent species delimitation to explore lineage relationships within several North American whipsnake species, test the species status of several lineages, and test the effect of missing data on species delimitation. We find support for the elevation of several previously recognized subspecies to full species status, and formally elevate two species. This study demonstrates the power of molecular data and model-based delimitation methods to identify evolutionary relationships, and finds that missing data have little impact on the outcome of delimitation analyses.


Assuntos
Colubridae/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Biodiversidade , Núcleo Celular/genética , Citocromos c/genética , Geografia , Mitocôndrias/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 123: 101-112, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29496542

RESUMO

Geological and climatological processes can drive the synchronous diversification of co-distributed species. The islands of Sumatra and Java have experienced complex geological and climatological histories, including extensive sea-level changes and the formation of valleys between northern, central, and southern components of the Barisan Mountain Range, which may have promoted diversification of their resident species. We investigate diversification on these islands using 13 species of the parachuting frog genus Rhacophorus. We use both mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data, along with genome-wide SNPs to estimate phylogenetic structure and divergence times, and to test for synchronous diversification. We find support for synchronous divergence among sister-species pairs from Sumatra and Java ∼9 Ma, as well as of populations of four co-distributed taxa on Sumatra ∼5.6 Ma. We found that sister species diverged in allopatry on Sumatra and conclude that divergence on Sumatra and Java was affected by sea-level fluctuations that promoted isolation in allopatry.


Assuntos
Anuros/classificação , Ilhas , Filogenia , Animais , Anuros/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Biodiversidade , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Indonésia , Funções Verossimilhança , Filogeografia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
Emotion ; 18(6): 781-788, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29265838

RESUMO

Individuals' theories about emotions-the beliefs about the nature of emotions and the ability to influence them-have been linked to well-being. However, their causal role is not clear. To address this issue, we delivered a randomized controlled intervention to 1,645 middle school students that targeted their theories of emotion through interactive online modules. Students were taught that they could modify their emotions, get better at modifying their emotions with practice, and use strategies to improve their well-being. One month later, we found that students assigned to the intervention condition (compared to an active control condition) reported more adaptive theories of emotion and greater emotional well-being in school, although well-being outside of school was unchanged. Secondary analyses showed that these effects were present regardless of students' race, gender, or grade level. These findings suggest that theories of emotion may be a promising target for improving adolescent well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Bem-Estar da Criança , Emoções , Internet , Psicologia do Adolescente , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos
13.
Mol Ecol ; 26(20): 5729-5751, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28802078

RESUMO

Allopatric divergence following the formation of geographical features has been implicated as a major driver of evolutionary diversification. Widespread species complexes provide opportunities to examine allopatric divergence across varying degrees of isolation in both time and space. In North America, several geographical features may play such a role in diversification, including the Mississippi River, Pecos River, Rocky Mountains, Cochise Filter Barrier, Gulf of California and Isthmus of Tehuantepec. We used thousands of nuclear single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and mitochondrial DNA from several species of whipsnakes (genera Masticophis and Coluber) distributed across North and Central America to investigate the role that these geographical features have played on lineage divergence. We hypothesize that these features restrict gene flow and separate whipsnakes into diagnosable genomic clusters. We performed genomic clustering and phylogenetic reconstructions at the species and population levels using Bayesian and likelihood analyses and quantified migration levels across geographical features to assess the degree of genetic isolation due to allopatry. Our analyses suggest that (i) major genetic divisions are often consistent with isolation by geographical features, (ii) migration rates between clusters are asymmetrical across major geographical features, and (iii) areas that receive proportionally more migrants possess higher levels of genetic diversity. Collectively, our findings suggest that multiple features of the North American landscape contributed to allopatric divergence in this widely distributed snake group.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Colubridae/classificação , Genética Populacional , Animais , América Central , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Geografia , América do Norte , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
14.
Zootaxa ; 4276(2): 215-232, 2017 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28610206

RESUMO

We describe a new species of Pseudocalotes from montane forests of the central, western coast of Sumatra. The combination of 3 or 4 interoculabials, slightly enlarged and heavily keeled scales on the lower flanks, a white scapular spot, a relatively long fifth toe, bicarinate lamellae at the base of Toe III, absence of a postrictal modified scale, and three rows of paravertebrals directed dorsally and posteriorly distinguishes the new species from its congeners on Sumatra and Java. Among the new characters defined in this study, counts of subdigital lamellae within the "span of Toe V" proved particularly useful for diagnosing species of Pseudocalotes. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences identified a monophyletic group containing the Sumatran and Javan Pseudocalotes. Based on the phylogeny, we define a P. cybelidermus Group containing P. cybelidermus and P. guttalineatus and a P. tympanistriga Group containing P. tympanistriga, P. rhammanotus, and the new species. Combinations of five morphological characters define each of these two clades. As currently defined, Pseudocalotes is polyphyletic; Javan and Sumatran species are more closely related to other draconines such as Dendragama boulengeri than they are to some mainland species.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Indonésia , Tamanho do Órgão , Filogenia
15.
Integr Zool ; 12(5): 379-395, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28058803

RESUMO

Sceloporus lizards depend on external heat to achieve their preferred temperature (Tsel ) for performing physiological processes. Evidence both in the field and laboratory indicates that pregnant females of this Genus select body temperatures (Tb ) lower than 34 °C as higher temperatures may be lethal to embryos. Therefore, thermoregulation is crucial for successful embryo development. Given the increase in global air temperature, it is expected that the first compensatory response of species that inhabit tropical climates will be behavioral thermoregulation. We tested whether viviparous Sceloporus formosus group lizards in the wild exhibited differences in thermoregulatory behavior to achieve the known Tsel for developing embryos regardless of local thermal conditions. We quantified field active body temperature, thermoregulatory behavior mechanisms (time of sighting, microhabitat used and basking time) and available microhabitat thermal conditions (i.e. operative temperature) for 10 lizard species during gestation, distributed along an altitudinal gradient. We applied both conventional and phylogenic analyses to explore whether Tb or behavioral thermoregulation could be regulated in response to different thermal conditions. These species showed no significant differences in field Tb during gestation regardless of local thermal conditions. In contrast, they exhibited significant differences in their behavioral thermoregulation associated with local environmental conditions. Based on these observations, the differences in thermoregulatory behavior identified are interpreted as compensatory adjustments to local thermal conditions. We conclude that these species may deal with higher temperatures predicted for the tropics by modulating their thermoregulatory behavior.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Lagartos , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Feminino , Temperatura Ambiente
16.
Zootaxa ; 4107(4): 517-40, 2016 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27394838

RESUMO

We redescribe Cyrtodactylus lateralis (Werner) on the basis of new specimens. Cyrtodactylus lateralis is a prehensile-tailed species, known from scattered lowland to mid-elevation localities in northern Sumatra. The prehensile-tailed Cyrtodactylus are more speciose and have a wider distribution than previously thought. This group includes a mainland SE Asian clade consisting of C. elok, C. interdigitalis, and C. brevipalmatus and an insular clade containing C. durio, C. lateralis, C. nuaulu, C. serratus, C. spinosus, and C. stresemanni. However, a distinctive color pattern in the Wallacean and Papuan species and uncertainty surrounding the type locality of C. stresemanni raise unresolved questions about the inclusiveness of the insular clade. DNA sequence data supports a close relationship between C. elok and C. interdigitalis, but also reveals that C. lateralis and C. durio are not closely related to these species.


Assuntos
Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/classificação , Filogenia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Indonésia , Lagartos/genética , Lagartos/fisiologia , Masculino , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Evolution ; 70(7): 1435-49, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27251954

RESUMO

Strong spatial sorting of genetic variation in contiguous populations is often explained by local adaptation or secondary contact following allopatric divergence. A third explanation, spatial sorting by stochastic effects of range expansion, has been considered less often though theoretical models suggest it should be widespread, if ephemeral. In a study designed to delimit species within a clade of venomous coralsnakes, we identified an unusual pattern within the Texas coral snake (Micrurus tener): strong spatial sorting of divergent mitochondrial (mtDNA) lineages over a portion of its range, but weak sorting of these lineages elsewhere. We tested three alternative hypotheses to explain this pattern-local adaptation, secondary contact following allopatric divergence, and range expansion. Collectively, near panmixia of nuclear DNA, the signal of range expansion associated sampling drift, expansion origins in the Gulf Coast of Mexico, and species distribution modeling suggest that the spatial sorting of divergent mtDNA lineages within M. tener has resulted from genetic surfing of standing mtDNA variation-not local adaptation or allopatric divergence. Our findings highlight the potential for the stochastic effects of recent range expansion to mislead estimations of population divergence made from mtDNA, which may be exacerbated in systems with low vagility, ancestral mtDNA polymorphism, and male-biased dispersal.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Elapidae/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Haplótipos , Animais , Evolução Molecular , México , Filogenia , Estados Unidos
18.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 102: 104-16, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27241629

RESUMO

Boa is a Neotropical genus of snakes historically recognized as monotypic despite its expansive distribution. The distinct morphological traits and color patterns exhibited by these snakes, together with the wide diversity of ecosystems they inhabit, collectively suggest that the genus may represent multiple species. Morphological variation within Boa also includes instances of dwarfism observed in multiple offshore island populations. Despite this substantial diversity, the systematics of the genus Boa has received little attention until very recently. In this study we examined the genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships of Boa populations using mitochondrial sequences and genome-wide SNP data obtained from RADseq. We analyzed these data at multiple geographic scales using a combination of phylogenetic inference (including coalescent-based species delimitation) and population genetic analyses. We identified extensive population structure across the range of the genus Boa and multiple lines of evidence for three widely-distributed clades roughly corresponding with the three primary land masses of the Western Hemisphere. We also find both mitochondrial and nuclear support for independent origins and parallel evolution of dwarfism on offshore island clusters in Belize and Cayos Cochinos Menor, Honduras.


Assuntos
Boidae/genética , Genética Populacional , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Evolução Biológica , Boidae/classificação , Boidae/fisiologia , DNA/química , DNA/isolamento & purificação , DNA/metabolismo , DNA Mitocondrial/química , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Nanismo/patologia , Nanismo/veterinária , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Zootaxa ; 4020(3): 495-516, 2015 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26624112

RESUMO

We describe Cyrtodactylus psarops sp. nov. and C. semicinctus sp. nov., two new species of bent-toed geckos from montane forests in the southern Bukit Barisan Range of Sumatra, Indonesia. The new species are closely related to one another and to C. semenanjungensis, a lowland species currently known only from Peninsular Malaysia. Three characters of the new species immediately distinguish them from most congeners in the Sunda Region: they lack transversely enlarged subcaudals, have a precloacal depression, and have a greatly enlarged scale positioned at the apex of a continuous series of femoral and precloacal pore-bearing scales. They differ from one another in cephalic pattern, tuberculation of the brachium, and in numbers of cloacal tubercles, dorsal bands, and ventrals in a transverse row. The greatly enlarged scale at the apex of the precloacal pores appears to be a rare apomorphy of these two species and C. agamensis.


Assuntos
Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/classificação , Animais , Feminino , Indonésia , Masculino , Filogenia
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