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1.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(3): 880-885, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687503

RESUMO

Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) frequently present to rehabilitation care facilities for various conditions, including boat strike trauma, cold stress syndrome, and brevetoxicosis. Throughout the course of treatment, antimicrobial use to treat respiratory disease is frequently warranted. To date, clinicians have extrapolated dosages based on established information available in bovine and equine medicine. The routes of administration, efficacy, and treatment intervals are considerations in dealing with critical wild animals. The use of tulathromycin, a triamilide antibiotic, has been studied in multiple domestic species of economic importance, including cattle, small ruminants, and swine, and has revealed efficacy against respiratory diseases. Given this information, this antibiotic has also been used in manatees with positive clinical outcomes. This study employed sparse sampling and evaluated banked plasma samples at various time intervals post-tulathromycin administration obtained during the clinical treatment course of nine animals during their rehabilitation. Preliminary pharmacokinetic analysis following administration of a single dose estimated a half-life of 33.75 h and volume of distribution per fraction absorbed (Vz/F = 4.29 L/kg). The pharmacokinetic behavior of tulathromycin in Florida manatees can be used to optimize dosage regimens in this species.


Assuntos
Trichechus manatus , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Bovinos , Dissacarídeos , Compostos Heterocíclicos , Cavalos , Suínos , Trichechus
2.
Vet Comp Oncol ; 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655275

RESUMO

Radiation is the standard of care for dogs with nasal tumours. The addition of another therapy that could improve outcome without increasing toxicity is attractive. Medical therapy that could offer better outcome than maximally tolerated dose chemotherapy when radiation therapy (RT) is not possible or is declined is also attractive. This article reports the findings from a prospective, multi-centre, non-randomized, Veterinary Radiation Therapy Oncology Group clinical trial designed to evaluate whether toceranib phosphate (toceranib) has primary activity and if the addition of toceranib to RT could positively impact outcome. Owner's discretion determined enrolment in toceranib alone or toceranib + RT arm. Historical controls for radiation alone were selected from patients treated with identical RT and imaging protocols. Responses were evaluated with pre-treatment and week-16 CT scans. RT total dose of 42 Gy was completed in 10 fractions. Sixty-three dogs enrolled from 10 study sites. Overall response rates (CR + PR) were significantly improved in the toceranib + RT (79.4%) and RT alone (68.9%) arms over toceranib alone (22%) (p = .011). Clinical benefit rates (CR + PR + SD) were significantly improved in the toceranib + RT arm over the RT alone arm at 97.3% and 79.2% respectively (p = .036). Treatment with toceranib alone, toceranib + RT and RT alone resulted in median survival times of 298, 615 and 368 days respectively, but were not statistically significantly different (p = .0502). Adverse events associated with toceranib administration did not potentiate the RT side effect profile. Toceranib appears to have primary activity against nasal carcinoma.

3.
Am J Ind Med ; 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mining is a significant economic force in the United States but has historically had among the highest nonfatal injury rates across all industries. Several factors, including workplace hazards and psychosocial stressors, may increase injury and fatality risk. Mining is one of the noisiest industries; however, the association between injury risk and noise exposure has not been evaluated in this industry. In this ecological study, we assessed the association between noise exposure and nonfatal and fatal occupational injury rates among miners. METHODS: Federal US mining accident, injury, and illness data sets from 1983 to 2014 were combined with federal quarterly mining employment and production reports to quantify annual industry rates of nonfatal injuries and fatalities. An existing job-exposure matrix for occupational noise was used to estimate annual industry time-weighted average (TWA, dBA) exposures. Negative binomial models were used to assess relationships between noise, hearing conservation program (HCP) regulation changes in 2000, year, and mine type with incidence rates of injuries and fatalities. RESULTS: Noise, HCP regulation changes, and mine type were each independently associated with nonfatal injuries and fatalities. In multivariate analysis, each doubling (5 dB increase) of TWA was associated with 1.08 (95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.11) and 1.48 (1.23, 1.78) times higher rate of nonfatal injuries and fatalities, respectively. HCP regulation changes were associated with 0.61 (0.54, 0.70) and 0.49 (0.34, 0.71) times lower nonfatal injury and fatality rates, respectively. CONCLUSION: Noise may be a significant independent risk factor for injuries and fatalities in mining.

4.
Occup Environ Med ; 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697222

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The contribution of hazardous noise-a ubiquitous exposure in workplaces-to occupational injury risk is often overlooked. In this ecological study, the fraction of US workplace acute injuries resulting in days away from work in 2019 attributable to hazardous occupational noise exposure was estimated. METHODS: Using the NoiseJEM, a job exposure matrix of occupational noise, and 2019 Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics data, the proportion of workers experiencing hazardous occupational noise (≥85 dBA) was estimated for every major US Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) group. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated for each major SOC group using the relative risk (RR) taken from a published 2017 meta-analysis on this relationship. RESULTS: About 20.3 million workers (13.8%) are exposed to hazardous levels of occupational noise. Nearly 3.4% of acute injuries resulting in days away from work in 2019 (95% CI 2.4% to 4.4%) were attributable to hazardous occupational noise, accounting for roughly 14 794 injuries (95% CI 10 367 to 18 994). The occupations with the highest and the lowest PAFs were production (11.9%) and office and administrative support (0.0%), respectively. DISCUSSION: Hazardous noise exposure at work is an important and modifiable factor associated with a substantial acute occupational injury burden.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543235

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study sought to determine (1) incident risk, (2) chief report, (3) risk factors, and (4) total cost of unplanned healthcare visits to an emergency and/or urgent care (ED/UC) facility within 30 days of an outpatient orthopaedic procedure. METHODS: This was a retrospective database review of 5,550 outpatient surgical encounters from a large metropolitan healthcare system between 2012 and 2016. Statistical analysis consisted of measuring the ED/UC incident risk, respective to the procedures and anatomical region. Patient-specific risk factors were evaluated through multigroup comparative statistics. RESULTS: Of the 5,550 study patients, 297 (5.4%) presented to an ED/UC within 30 days of their index procedure, with 23 (0.4%) needing to be readmitted. Native English speakers, patients older than 45 years, and nonsmokers had significant reduced relative risk of unplanned ED or UC visit within 30 days of index procedure (P < 0.01). In addition, hand tendon repair/graft had the greatest risk incidence for ED/UC visit (11.0%). Unplanned ED/UC reimbursements totaled $146,357.34, averaging $575.65 per visit. DISCUSSION: This study provides an evaluation of outpatient orthopaedic procedures and their relationship to ED/UC visits. Specifically, this study identifies patient-related and procedural-related attributes that associate with an increased risk for unplanned healthcare utilization.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Assistência Ambulatorial , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Physiotherapy ; 113: 88-99, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563917

RESUMO

Evidence supports the benefits of exercise-based rehabilitation in promoting recovery in myeloma patients following autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT). However, 'prehabilitation' has never been evaluated prior to ASCT, despite evidence of effectiveness in other cancers. Utilising a mixed method approach the authors investigated the feasibility of a mixed strength and cardiovascular exercise intervention pre-ASCT. Quantitative data were collected to determine feasibility targets; rates of recruitment, adherence and adverse events, including 6minute walking distance (6MWD) test and patient reported outcome measures (PROMs). Qualitative interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of patients to capture their experiences of the study and the intervention. The authors recruited 23 patients who attended a mean percentage of 75% scheduled exercise sessions. However, retention rates were limited, with only 14/23 (62%) completing the programme. In these patients, the 6MWD increased from a mean of 346 to 451m (i.e. by 105m, 95% CI 62 to 148m) with no serious adverse events. Whist participants found the exercise programme acceptable and reported improvement in their physical fitness and overall mental health and wellbeing prior to ASCT, the study identified challenges in hospital attendance for the prehabilitation schedule whilst receiving induction or re-induction chemotherapy. Evaluation of digitally-enhanced directed but remote prehabilitation models for this patient group is warranted. Trial registration number NCT03135925.

7.
eNeuro ; 8(6)2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580158

RESUMO

Numerous brain regions have been identified as contributing to withdrawal behaviors, but it is unclear the way in which these brain regions as a whole lead to withdrawal. The search for a final common brain pathway that is involved in withdrawal remains elusive. To address this question, we implanted osmotic minipumps containing either saline, nicotine (24 mg/kg/d), cocaine (60 mg/kg/d), or methamphetamine (4 mg/kg/d) for one week in male C57BL/6J mice. After one week, the minipumps were removed and brains collected 8 h (saline, nicotine, and cocaine) or 12 h (methamphetamine) after removal. We then performed single-cell whole-brain imaging of neural activity during the withdrawal period when brains were collected. We used hierarchical clustering and graph theory to identify similarities and differences in brain functional architecture. Although methamphetamine and cocaine shared some network similarities, the main common neuroadaptation between these psychostimulant drugs was a dramatic decrease in modularity, with a shift from a cortical-driven to subcortical-driven network, including a decrease in total hub brain regions. These results demonstrate that psychostimulant withdrawal produces the drug-dependent remodeling of functional architecture of the brain and suggest that the decreased modularity of brain functional networks and not a specific set of brain regions may represent the final common pathway associated with withdrawal.

8.
J Arthroplasty ; 36(11): 3773-3780, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that the patella, working in conjunction with both medial and lateral femoral condyles, can influence kinematic parameters such as posterior femoral rollback and axial rotation. The objective of this study is to determine the in vivo kinematics of subjects implanted with a fixed-bearing (FB) or mobile-bearing (MB) posterior-stabilized (PS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA), with a specific focus on evaluating the impact that Anatomic and Medialized Dome patellar components have on tibiofemoral kinematic patterns. METHODS: Tibiofemoral kinematics were assessed for 40 subjects; 20 with an anatomic patella and 20 with a dome patella. Within these groups, 10 subjects received an FB PS TKA and 10 subjects received an MB PS TKA. All subjects were analyzed using fluoroscopy while performing a deep knee bend activity. Kinematics were collected during specific intervals to determine similarities and differences in regard to patella and bearing type. RESULTS: The greatest variation in kinematics was detected between the 2 Anatomic patellar groups. Specifically, the MB-Anatomic subjects experienced greater translation of the lateral condyle, the highest magnitude of axial rotation, and the highest range of motion compared to the FB-Anatomic subjects. Subjects with a Dome Patella displayed much variability among the average kinematics, with all parameters between FB and MB cohorts being similar. CONCLUSION: The findings in this study suggest that subjects with an Anatomic patellar component could have more normal kinematic patterns with an MB PS TKA as opposed to an FB PS TKA, while subjects with a Dome patella could achieve similar kinematics regardless of TKA type.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Prótese do Joelho , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Patela/diagnóstico por imagem , Patela/cirurgia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular
9.
Chaos ; 31(7): 073116, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340344

RESUMO

The behavior at bifurcation from global synchronization to partial synchronization in finite networks of coupled oscillators is a complex phenomenon, involving the intricate dynamics of one or more oscillators with the remaining synchronized oscillators. This is not captured well by standard macroscopic model reduction techniques that capture only the collective behavior of synchronized oscillators in the thermodynamic limit. We introduce two mesoscopic model reductions for finite sparse networks of coupled oscillators to quantitatively capture the dynamics close to bifurcation from global to partial synchronization. Our model reduction builds upon the method of collective coordinates. We first show that standard collective coordinate reduction has difficulties capturing this bifurcation. We identify a particular topological structure at bifurcation consisting of a main synchronized cluster, the oscillator that desynchronizes at bifurcation, and an intermediary node connecting them. Utilizing this structure and ensemble averages, we derive an analytic expression for the mismatch between the true bifurcation from global to partial synchronization and its estimate calculated via the collective coordinate approach. This allows to calibrate the standard collective coordinate approach without prior knowledge of which node will desynchronize. We introduce a second mesoscopic reduction, utilizing the same particular topological structure, which allows for a quantitative dynamical description of the phases near bifurcation. The mesoscopic reductions significantly reduce the computational complexity of the collective coordinate approach, reducing from O(N2) to O(1). We perform numerical simulations for Erdos-Rényi networks and for modified Barabási-Albert networks demonstrating remarkable quantitative agreement at and close to bifurcation.

10.
JSES Int ; 5(4): 809-815, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34223435

RESUMO

Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to report the rate of major complications in patients with geriatric olecranon fractures managed operatively with a locking plate. Secondary objectives included minor complications, as well as pain and range of motion at the final follow-up. We hypothesized that these patients have a low rate of complications as well as low pain and satisfactory elbow range of motion at the final follow-up. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of isolated geriatric olecranon fractures presenting from 2006 to 2019 was performed at a single level I trauma center. Inclusion criteria were ≥75 years of age, operative management with a locking plate, and clinic follow-up at least until evidence of radiographic union or a major complication. Exclusion criteria included nonoperative management, insufficient follow-up, and absence of locking plate in surgical technique. Variables examined included demographic information, Charleston comorbidity index, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, living independence, gait assistance, mechanism of injury, open vs. closed fracture, Mayo radiographic classification, Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen classification, time to surgery, implant type, presence of triceps offloading suture, length of postoperative immobilization, date of radiographic union, range of motion at the final follow-up, pain visual analog scale score at the final follow-up, major and minor complications, and return to the operative room. A major complication was defined as a return to the operative room for deep infection or loss of fixation (displacement of fracture >5 mm). A minor complication was defined as any other complication. Results: A total of 65 patients ≥75 years of age with olecranon fractures were identified. Of these, 36 patients met inclusion criteria with an average follow-up of 23 weeks (range 5-207). The mean length of immobilization was 13 days (range 0-29 days). Thirty-two of 36 (88.8%) patients achieved radiographic evidence of union at an average of 8.9 weeks (range 5.3-24.1 weeks). There were 4 remaining patients who underwent secondary intervention before primary union representing an 11.1% major complication rate including 2 deep infections (5.6%) and 3 failures of fixation (8.3%). There were 7 minor complications in 5 of 36 (13.9%) patients. At the final follow-up, the average visual analog scale score was 2.6 (range 0-6), the average elbow arc of motion was 120° (range 70-147°), and mean pronation/supination was 85°/84° (range 45-90°/45-90°). Conclusion: Geriatric olecranon fractures are a challenging orthopedic problem with remaining controversy regarding ideal treatment. Despite advancement in geriatric fracture care, there is scant literature on the outcomes of locked plating technology in geriatric olecranon fractures. This study supports use of operative anatomic fixation with precontoured locked plates and early mobilization with an acceptable failure rate.

11.
Acta Med Acad ; 50(1): 110-125, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075767

RESUMO

The aim of this paper is to review morphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular features of classic Hodgkin lymphoma, as well as different prognostic markers in this neoplasm. Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) accounts for 15-25% of all lymphomas in the Western world. The hallmark of this disease is the neoplastic Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cell, which is favored to be derived from germinal center B-cells but has lost many of the B-cell markers. HRS cells are scattered within a dense inflammatory infiltrate, and through a network of cytokines and chemokines they shape their microenvironment, evade immune response, survive, and grow. In the last two decades multiple prognostic markers related to HRS cells, the microenvironment or both, have been evaluated in patients with CHL. They include clinical, immunohistochemical, cytogenetic, and molecular markers that can predict survival and identify high-risk patients who will likely relapse after therapy. More recently, circulating tumor DNA analysis by next-generation sequencing has opened new avenues for diagnosis and disease monitoring after therapy. The increased understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying CHL pathogenesis has led to successful implementation of novel therapies, such as anti-PD-1 antibodies, which are becoming a mainstay of treatment in relapsed/refractory patients. CONCLUSION: Currently, pathologic prognostic markers are not routinely assessed at initial diagnosis of CHL. However, as more therapies become available, it will be important to identify patients with high-risk disease who may benefit from more intense or targeted therapy upfront.


Assuntos
Doença de Hodgkin , Doença de Hodgkin/diagnóstico , Doença de Hodgkin/genética , Doença de Hodgkin/terapia , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Patologia Molecular , Prognóstico , Microambiente Tumoral
13.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg ; 29(18): 789-795, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999883

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intertrochanteric (IT) fractures are estimated to burden the healthcare system six billion dollars annually. Previous studies have documented a trend of early-career orthopaedic surgeons favoring intramedullary nails (IMNs) for these fractures, despite multiple randomized controlled trials demonstrating no evidence for improved patient outcomes when compared with sliding hip screws (SHSs). The purpose of this study was to report the trend of implant utilization for IT fracture fixation from 2007 to 2017. METHODS: The American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery (ABOS) Part II (oral) database was used to identify IT fractures (International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, code 820.21 or 820.31, and 10th revision, code S72.14) over a 10-year period (2007 to 2017). The cases were categorized by IMN or SHS fixation by surgeon-reported Current Procedural Terminology codes. Utilization of the devices was analyzed according to year, and the implants were compared for outcomes, complications, and cost. RESULTS: As of 2017, 92.4% of IT fractures were being fixed through IMN, representing a 49.1% increase in the number of IMN devices used during the course of this study. SHS had significantly lower medical complication rate (21.3%) and readmittance rate (4.0%) compared with the IMN (medical complication: 26.9%; P < 0.01) (readmittance rate: 5.4%; P = 0.02). SHS also had significantly lower rates of anemia (5.2%) and patient expiration (4.8%) compared with IMN (anemia: 10.2%; P < 0.01) (patient expiration: 6.1%; P = 0.01). Overall surgical complication rates, reoperative rates, and anesthetic complications did not differ between constructs. A cost differential of $671,812 was found from the 2007-projected distribution, which rose to $3,911,211.00 across the entire 11-year duration of the study for the population. DISCUSSION: Early-career orthopaedic surgeons continue to use a more expensive implant for IT fractures despite limited evidence for improved outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III; Retrospective Cohort Study.


Assuntos
Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas , Fraturas do Quadril , Pinos Ortopédicos , Parafusos Ósseos , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas/efeitos adversos , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 54(5): 1404-1414, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alterations in glycolysis are central to the increasing incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), highlighting a need for in vivo, non-invasive technologies to understand the development of hepatic metabolic aberrations. PURPOSE: To use hyperpolarized magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and proton density fat fraction (PDFF) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to investigate the effects of a chronic, life-long exposure to the Western diet (WD) in an animal model resulting in NAFLD; to investigate the hypothesis that exposure to the WD will result in NAFLD in association with altered pyruvate metabolism. STUDY TYPE: Prospective. ANIMAL MODEL: Twenty-eight male guinea pigs weaned onto a control diet (N = 14) or WD (N = 14). FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3 T; T1-weighted gradient echo, T2-weighted spin-echo, three-dimensional gradient multi-echo fat-water separation (IDEAL-IQ), and broadband point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) chemical-shift sequences. ASSESSMENT: Median PDFF was calculated in the liver and hind limbs. [1-13 C]pyruvate dynamic MRS in the liver was quantified by the time-to-peak (TTP) for each metabolite. Animals were euthanized and tissue was analyzed for lipid and cholesterol concentration and enzyme level and activity. STATISTICAL TESTS: Unpaired Student's t-tests were used to determine differences in measurements between the two diet groups. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to determine correlations between measurements. RESULTS: Life-long WD consumption resulted in significantly higher liver PDFF and elevated triglyceride content in the liver. The WD group exhibited a decreased TTP for lactate production, and ex vivo analysis highlighted increased liver lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. DATA CONCLUSION: PDFF MRI results suggest differential fat deposition patterns occurring in animals fed a life-long WD characteristic of lean, or lacking excessive subcutaneous fat, NAFLD. The decreased liver lactate TTP and increased ex vivo LDH activity suggest lipid accumulation occurs in association with a shift from oxidative metabolism to anaerobic glycolytic metabolism in WD-exposed livers. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 1.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Animais , Dieta Ocidental , Cobaias , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Prótons , Ácido Pirúvico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Front Syst Neurosci ; 15: 595507, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33967705

RESUMO

A large focus of modern neuroscience has revolved around preselected brain regions of interest based on prior studies. While there are reasons to focus on brain regions implicated in prior work, the result has been a biased assessment of brain function. Thus, many brain regions that may prove crucial in a wide range of neurobiological problems, including neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders, have been neglected. Advances in neuroimaging and computational neuroscience have made it possible to make unbiased assessments of whole-brain function and identify previously overlooked regions of the brain. This review will discuss the tools that have been developed to advance neuroscience and network-based computational approaches used to further analyze the interconnectivity of the brain. Furthermore, it will survey examples of neural network approaches that assess connectivity in clinical (i.e., human) and preclinical (i.e., animal model) studies and discuss how preclinical studies of neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders can greatly benefit from the unbiased nature of whole-brain imaging and network neuroscience.

16.
South Med J ; 114(5): 283-287, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942112

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Goals of care discussions are a vital component of patient care, but Internal Medicine residents receive limited training in these skills. Existing curricula often require simulated patients or faculty development, limiting implementation in many residency programs. Thus, we developed and implemented a curriculum leveraging existing educational resources with the goal of improving resident attitudes and confidence in conducting goals of care discussions in training settings. METHODS: We developed cases and a detailed faculty guide for small-group discussion with three exercises to standardize the learner experience and minimize the need for faculty development. Exercises introduced established communication skill frameworks including SPIKES (setting, perception, invitation, knowledge, empathy, summary) and REMAP (reframe, emotion, map, align, propose a plan) for how to break bad news, respond to strong emotions, and conduct a goals of care discussion. Participants were 163 Internal Medicine postgraduate year 1, -2, and -3 residents at a large urban academic institution, where residency-wide curriculum is delivered in weekly half-day didactic sessions during the course of 5 weeks. Primary outcomes were resident self-reported confidence with goals of care communication skills. RESULTS: A total of 109 (response rate 67%) of residents reported improvement in overall confidence in goals of care discussion skills (3.6 ± 0.9 vs 4.1 ± 0.6, P < 0.001), responding to emotions (3.5 ± 0.9 vs 3.9 ± 0.6, P = 0.004), making care recommendations (3.5 ± 1.0 vs 3.9 ± 0.7, P < 0.001), and quickly conducting a code status discussion (3.6 ± 1.0 vs 4.0 ± 0.7, P < 0.001). Residents also expressed an increased desire for supervision and feedback to further develop these skills. CONCLUSIONS: This goals of care communication curriculum improves resident confidence and requires minimal resources. It may be ideal for programs that have limited access to simulated patients and/or faculty trained in communication skill simulation, but desire enhanced education on this important aspect of patient-doctor communication and high-quality patient care. Future studies measuring clinical outcomes and changes in learner behavior as a result of this intervention are needed. Ongoing observation and feedback on these skills will be important to solidify learning and sustain impact.

17.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 238(8): 2201-2211, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909102

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Cannabidiol (CBD) reduces craving in animal models of alcohol and cocaine use and is known to modulate nicotinic receptor function, suggesting that it may alleviate symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. However, preclinical evaluation of its efficacy is still lacking. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to test the preclinical efficacy of a chronic CBD treatment in reducing nicotine dependence using measures of withdrawal symptoms including somatic signs, hyperalgesia, and weight gain during acute and protracted abstinence. METHODS: Male and female Wistar rats were made dependent on nicotine using osmotic minipumps (3.15 mg/kg/day) for 2 weeks, after which minipumps were removed to induce spontaneous withdrawal. Three groups received CBD injections at doses of 7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks, starting 1 week into chronic nicotine infusion. The control groups included rats with nicotine minipumps that received vehicle injections of sesame oil instead of CBD; rats implanted with saline minipumps received sesame oil injections (double vehicle) or the highest dose of CBD 30 mg/kg/day. Throughout the experiment, serum was collected for determination of CBD and nicotine concentrations, mechanical sensitivity threshold and withdrawal scores were measured, and body weight was recorded. RESULTS: CBD prevented rats from exhibiting somatic signs of withdrawal and hyperalgesia during acute and protracted abstinence. There was no dose-response observed for CBD, suggesting a ceiling effect at the doses used and the potential for lower effective doses of CBD. The saline minipump group did not show either somatic signs of withdrawal or hyperalgesia during acute and protracted abstinence, and the highest dose of CBD used (30 mg/kg/day) did not alter these results. CONCLUSIONS: This preclinical study suggests that using CBD as a strategy to alleviate the withdrawal symptoms upon nicotine cessation may be beneficial.


Assuntos
Canabidiol/uso terapêutico , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Tabagismo/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Bombas de Infusão , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/psicologia , Tabagismo/psicologia
18.
eNeuro ; 8(3)2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875455

RESUMO

The rat oxycodone and cocaine biobanks contain samples that vary by genotypes (by using genetically diverse genotyped HS rats), phenotypes (by measuring addiction-like behaviors in an advanced SA model), timepoints (samples are collected longitudinally before, during, and after SA, and terminally at three different timepoints in the addiction cycle: intoxication, withdrawal, and abstinence or without exposure to drugs through age-matched naive rats), samples collected (organs, cells, biofluids, feces), preservation (paraformaldehyde-fixed, snap-frozen, or cryopreserved) and application (proteomics, transcriptomics, microbiomics, metabolomics, epigenetics, anatomy, circuitry analysis, biomarker discovery, etc.Substance use disorders (SUDs) are pervasive in our society and have substantial personal and socioeconomical costs. A critical hurdle in identifying biomarkers and novel targets for medication development is the lack of resources for obtaining biological samples with a detailed behavioral characterization of SUD. Moreover, it is nearly impossible to find longitudinal samples. As part of two ongoing large-scale behavioral genetic studies in heterogeneous stock (HS) rats, we have created two preclinical biobanks using well-validated long access (LgA) models of intravenous cocaine and oxycodone self-administration (SA) and comprehensive characterization of addiction-related behaviors. The genetic diversity in HS rats mimics diversity in the human population and includes individuals that are vulnerable or resilient to compulsive-like responding for cocaine or oxycodone. Longitudinal samples are collected throughout the experiment, before exposure to the drug, during intoxication, acute withdrawal, and protracted abstinence, and include naive, age-matched controls. Samples include, but are not limited to, blood plasma, feces and urine, whole brains, brain slices and punches, kidney, liver, spleen, ovary, testis, and adrenal glands. Three preservation methods (fixed in formaldehyde, snap-frozen, or cryopreserved) are used to facilitate diverse downstream applications such as proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, microbiomics, neuroanatomy, biomarker discovery, and other cellular and molecular approaches. To date, >20,000 samples have been collected from over 1000 unique animals and made available free of charge to non-profit institutions through https://www.cocainebiobank.org/ and https://www.oxycodonebiobank.org/.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína , Cocaína , Animais , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Oxicodona/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Autoadministração
19.
Am J Health Behav ; 45(3): 505-526, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894797

RESUMO

Objective: In this study, we assessed cigarette smoking over 12 months among adult former smokers who newly purchased a JUUL Starter Kit (JSK). Methods: Prevalence of past 30-day smoking and factors associated with smoking were assessed among adult (age ≥ 21) former established smokers, stratified as recent (quitting ≤ 12 months) and long-term quitters (> 12 months), who purchased a JSK and completed ≥ 1 of 6 follow-up assessments (N = 4786). Results: Recent quitters had higher rates (16.6%-19.9%) of past 30-day smoking than long-term quitters (6.4%-9.2%) across the 12-month period; smoking prevalence did not significantly increase over time in either subgroup. Few participants (6.5% of recent quitters, 2.8% of long-term quitters) reported smoking at both 9 and 12 months, a pattern that might indicate persistent smoking. Past 30-day JUUL use remained high (≥ 87%) across the 12 months. Participants who used JUUL more frequently were less likely to smoke. Conclusions: Among former smokers who purchased JUUL, prevalence rates of smoking were low and stable across the 12-month period, suggesting there was not a growing cohort of former smokers resuming smoking. Smoking was more common in recent quitters than long-term quitters. Greater use of JUUL was associated with reduced odds of smoking resumption.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Vaping/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fumantes
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