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1.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259320, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary acrylamide is found in certain foods, such as deep frying, baking and roasting, and is associated with higher inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters. The association between dietary acrylamide and physical performance has not yet been explored. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between dietary acrylamide intake and physical performance tests in a large cohort of North American individuals affected by knee osteoarthritis or at high risk for this condition. METHODS: Dietary acrylamide intake was obtained through a food frequency questionnaire and reported in quartiles and as an increase in deciles. Physical performance was explored using the 20-meter usual pace test, the 400-meter walking distance, and the chair stands time. The association between dietary acrylamide and physical performance tests was explored using linear regression analysis, adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: 4,436 participants (2,578 women, mean age: 61.3) were enrolled. People in the highest quartile of dietary acrylamide reported significantly longer 20-meter walking (15.53±3.32 vs. 15.15±2.91 s), 400-meter walking (312±54 vs. 305±58 s) and chair stands (11.36±4.08 vs. 10.67±3.50 s) times than their counterparts in Q1. In adjusted linear regression analyses, each increase in one decile in dietary acrylamide was associated with a longer time in walking for 20 meters (beta = 0.032; 95%CI: 0.016-0.048; p = 0.04), 400 meters (beta = 0.048; 95%CI: 0.033-0.063; p = 0.002) and chair stands (beta = 0.016; 95%CI: 0.005-0.037; p = 0.04) times. CONCLUSION: Higher dietary acrylamide intake was significantly associated with poor physical performance, also after accounting for potential confounders, suggesting a role for this food contaminant as a possible risk factor for sarcopenia.

2.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1935-1944, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726085

RESUMO

Currently, there is limited research reporting the symptoms of long COVID among athletes, and the recommendations for athletes returning to competition/training who have experienced long COVID symptoms. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to synthesise the recommendations for returning athletes who have experienced long COVID symptoms. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO under CRD42021265939. Two authors searched the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus from August 2019-July 2021. Search terms included words related to "long COVID", "athlete" and "return". Data extraction was completed for each study by two independent investigators for: (1) first author name; (2) year of publication; (3) journal; (4) Definition of athlete (i.e. elite or non-elite) (5) Recommendations reported. A total of 220 records were found. Following title and abstract screening, 61 studies were eligible for full text screening. Overall, no studies, commentaries, editorials or reviews provided specific recommendations for "long COVID" defined as COVID-19 signs and symptoms lasting for over 4 weeks as a result of COVID-19 infection. In addition, we found no studies which reported symptoms of athletes suffering from long COVID. Despite the lack of evidence, we did find eight separate professional recommendations for managing "long-term effects" and "ongoing" or "prolonged" symptoms and COVID-19 complications among athletes. Practitioners should be aware of both mental and physical symptoms of long COVID, and additional considerations may be required for athletes who have undergone intensive care. The present review provides a list of recommendations based on existing literature that may be followed and implemented for returning athletes.Key MessagesFurther research, including longitudinal research of athletes who have tested positive for COVID-19, is required to develop evidenced-based guidelines for athletes with ongoing COVID-19 symptoms.Prior to returning to play after COVID-19 infection, a thorough medical history, physical and psychological examination should be conducted by a medical professional.Athletes should continue to monitor and record their own physical and psychological markers of health.


Assuntos
Atletas , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/reabilitação , Humanos
3.
J Affect Disord ; 298(Pt A): 532-539, 2021 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are no multi-country studies on the association between informal caregiving and anxiety from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Therefore, we investigated this relationship in a large predominantly nationally representative sample from 47 LMICs. METHODS: Cross sectional data from the World Health Survey were analyzed. Anxiety symptoms referred to severe or extreme problems with worries or anxiety in the past 30 days. Information on caregiving in the past 12 months was obtained. Multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, marital status, education, household size, employment, disability, and country was conducted. Data on 237,952 individuals aged ≥18 years [mean (SD) age 38.4 (16.0) years; 50.8% female] were analyzed. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, caregiving was positively associated with anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.52; 95%CI = 1.40, 1.65). Greater number of caregiving activities was associated with higher odds for anxiety symptoms dose-dependently, with the OR (95%CI) for engagement in 5 activities (vs. no caregiving) being 2.19 (1.86-2.58). CONCLUSION: Caregiving is associated with higher odds for anxiety symptoms among adults in LMICs. Given the increasing importance of informal caregivers in long-term care provision and the fact that good health of caregivers is vital to sustain this system, interventions to address mental health of caregivers in LMICs are urgently needed.

4.
Front Psychol ; 12: 789989, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803865

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01426.].

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807996

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Loss of weight is associated with cognitive decline as well as several adverse outcomes in dementia. The aim of this study was to assess whether weight loss is associated with mortality and hospitalization in dementia subtypes. METHODS: A cohort of 11,607 patients with dementia in Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VD), or dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) was assembled from a large dementia care health records database in Southeast London. A natural language processing algorithm was developed to established whether loss of weight was recorded around the time of dementia diagnosis. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to examine the associations of reported weight loss with mortality and emergency hospitalization. RESULTS: Weight loss around the time of dementia was recorded in 25.5% of the whole sample and was most common in patients with DLB. A weight loss-related increased risk for mortality was detected after adjustment for confounders (Hazard ratio (HR):1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI):1.02-1.15) and in patients with AD (HR: 1.11;95% CI:1.04-1.20), but not in DLB and VD. Weight loss was associated with a significantly increased emergency hospitalization risk (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.08-1.20) and in all three subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: While there were associations with increased hospitalization risk for all three subtype diagnoses, weight loss was only associated with increased mortality in AD. Weight loss should be considered as an accompanying symptom in dementia and interventions should be considered to ameliorate risk of adverse outcomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
Exp Gerontol ; 156: 111624, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that multimorbidity is associated with sarcopenia. However, to date, this association has not been extensively investigated longitudinally. Therefore, the aim of the present paper was to explore the association between multimorbidity at baseline and sarcopenia onset over 12 years of follow-up in a large representative sample of the English older adult population. METHODS: Representative data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) were analyzed. Multimorbidity at baseline was defined as ≥2 medical conditions, of 17 conditions included. Participants were considered to have sarcopenia if they had low handgrip strength and skeletal muscle mass (i.e., lower skeletal mass index) at waves 4, 6, 8. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess prospective associations between multimorbidity at baseline and sarcopenia at follow-up. RESULTS: 2873 older participants (mean age: 69.1 years, 54% females) who did not have sarcopenia at baseline were included. The prevalence of multimorbidity at baseline was 57.3%. Over twelve years of follow-up, 394 participants (=13.7% of the initial population) became sarcopenic. The presence of multimorbidity at baseline was associated with an increased risk of sarcopenia during follow-up (OR = 2.06; 95%CI: 1.61-2.62) in the univariable analysis, and even after adjusting for multiple potential confounders (OR = 1.23; 95%CI: 1.01-1.61). CONCLUSIONS: In this large representative sample of older adults from the UK, multimorbidity at baseline was associated with a higher risk of sarcopenia during twelve-year follow-up. It may be prudent to target those with multimorbidity to aid in the prevention of sarcopenia.

8.
Psychol Med ; : 1-14, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in inflammatory biomarkers are important in depression. However, previous meta-analyses disagree on these associations, and errors in data extraction may account for these discrepancies. METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library were searched from database inception to 14 January 2020. Meta-analyses of observational studies examining the association between depression and levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1-ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were eligible. Errors were classified as follows: incorrect sample sizes, incorrectly used standard deviation, incorrect participant inclusion, calculation error, or analysis with insufficient data. We determined their impact on the results after correction thereof. RESULTS: Errors were noted in 14 of the 15 meta-analyses included. Across 521 primary studies, 118 (22.6%) showed the following errors: incorrect sample sizes (20 studies, 16.9%), incorrect use of standard deviation (35 studies, 29.7%), incorrect participant inclusion (7 studies, 5.9%), calculation errors (33 studies, 28.0%), and analysis with insufficient data (23 studies, 19.5%). After correcting these errors, 11 (29.7%) out of 37 pooled effect sizes changed by a magnitude of more than 0.1, ranging from 0.11 to 1.15. The updated meta-analyses showed that elevated levels of TNF- α, IL-6, CRP, but not IL-1ß, are associated with depression. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that data extraction errors in meta-analyses can impact findings. Efforts to reduce such errors are important in studies of the association between depression and peripheral inflammatory biomarkers, for which high heterogeneity and conflicting results have been continuously reported.

9.
Clin Transl Sci ; 2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719115

RESUMO

On October 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved remdesivir as the first drug for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), increasing remdesivir prescriptions worldwide. However, potential cardiovascular (CV) toxicities associated with remdesivir remain unknown. We aimed to characterize the CV adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with remdesivir using VigiBase, an individual case safety report database of the World Health Organization (WHO). Disproportionality analyses of CV-ADRs associated with remdesivir were performed using reported odds ratios and information components. We conducted in vitro experiments using cardiomyocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cell cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) to confirm cardiotoxicity of remdesivir. To distinguish drug-induced CV-ADRs from COVID-19 effects, we restricted analyses to patients with COVID-19 and found that, after adjusting for multiple confounders, cardiac arrest (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-3.29), bradycardia (aOR: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.24-3.53), and hypotension (aOR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.03-2.73) were associated with remdesivir. In vitro data demonstrated that remdesivir reduced the cell viability of hPSC-CMs in time- and dose-dependent manners. Physicians should be aware of potential CV consequences following remdesivir use and implement adequate CV monitoring to maintain a tolerable safety margin.

10.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709664

RESUMO

Two messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines developed by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna are being rolled out. Despite the high volume of emerging evidence regarding adverse events (AEs) associated with the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, previous studies have thus far been largely based on the comparison between vaccinated and unvaccinated control, possibly highlighting the AE risks with COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Comparing the safety profile of mRNA vaccinated individuals with otherwise vaccinated individuals would enable a more relevant assessment for the safety of mRNA vaccination. We designed a comparative safety study between 18 755 and 27 895 individuals who reported to VigiBase for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with mRNA COVID-19 and influenza vaccines, respectively, from January 1, 2020, to January 17, 2021. We employed disproportionality analysis to rapidly detect relevant safety signals and compared comparative risks of a diverse span of AEFIs for the vaccines. The safety profile of novel mRNA vaccines was divergent from that of influenza vaccines. The overall pattern suggested that systematic reactions like chill, myalgia, fatigue were more noticeable with the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, while injection site reactogenicity events were more prevalent with the influenza vaccine. Compared to the influenza vaccine, mRNA COVID-19 vaccines demonstrated a significantly higher risk for a few manageable cardiovascular complications, such as hypertensive crisis (adjusted reporting odds ratio [ROR], 12.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.47-65.54), and supraventricular tachycardia (adjusted ROR, 7.94; 95% CI, 2.62-24.00), but lower risk of neurological complications such as syncope, neuralgia, loss of consciousness, Guillain-Barre syndrome, gait disturbance, visual impairment, and dyskinesia. This study has not identified significant safety concerns regarding mRNA vaccination in real-world settings. The overall safety profile patterned a lower risk of serious AEFI following mRNA vaccines compared to influenza vaccines.

11.
Ageing Res Rev ; 72: 101489, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662744

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been shown to have more severe health outcomes in older people specifically in relation to mortality and disability. Vaccination seems to be efficacious and safe for preventing the negative consequences of COVID-19, but vaccine hesitancy seems to be high in older adults. We therefore aimed to investigate the prevalence of unwillingness and the uncertainty to vaccinate against COVID-19 in older people and the factors that can be associated with the unwillingness to vaccinate. For this work, we searched several databases until 18th June 2021 for studies reporting the prevalence of unwillingness and the uncertainty to vaccinate against COVID-19 in people aged >60 years. A meta-analysis of the prevalence, with the correspondent 95% confidence intervals (CIs), was proposed. Factors that can be associated with the unwillingness to vaccinate against COVID-19 were explored through multivariable analyses and reported as odds ratios (ORs). Among 662 papers initially screened, we included 15 studies for a total of 9753 older adults. The prevalence of unwillingness to vaccinate against COVID-19 in older people was 27.03% (95%CI: 15.10-38.95%), whilst the correspondent figure of uncertainty was 19.33% (95%CI: 12.28-26.39). The risk of being unvaccinated was significantly higher in Hispanics (OR=1.197; 95%CI: 1.010-1.418) and in case of low education (OR=1.678; 95%CI: 1.170-2.408) and low income (OR=1.287; 95%CI: 1.127-1.469). In conclusion, the hesitancy for COVID-19 vaccination is a relevant problem in older people, particularly in those with a low income, a low level of education, and in Hispanics living in the United States.

12.
EClinicalMedicine ; 39: 101080, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611615

RESUMO

Background: Although tinnitus has a prevalence between 20 and 42.8%, the currently recommended management for tinnitus, such as tinnitus support and psychologic therapies, are relatively time-consuming and expensive. Several new pharmacologic treatments designed for tinnitus patients without specific origin had been developed but their efficacy remains unclear. Methods: The current Network Meta-Analysis (NMA) of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different pharmacologic treatments for tinnitus management in tinnitus patients without specific or treatable origin (i.e. primary tinnitus). Databases were searched from inception to April 5th, 2021. All network meta-analytic procedures were conducted under the frequentist model. We calculated the effect size of outcomes with different rating scales with standardized mean difference. PROSPERO registration: CRD42020177742. Findings: Overall, 36 RCTs were included with 2,761 participants. The main results revealed that pharmacologic interventions with brain-acting effect (for example, amitriptyline, acamprosate, and gabapentin) and those with anti-inflammation/anti-oxidant effect (for example, intra-tympanic dexamethasone injection plus oral melatonin) were associated with superior improvement in tinnitus severity and response rate compared to placebo/control. Oral amitriptyline were associated with the highest improvement in tinnitus severity and the fourth highest response rate. None of the investigated interventions was associated with different changes in quality of life compared to placebo/control. All the investigated treatments were associated with similar drop-out rate to placebo/control. Interpretation: The current NMA suggests a potential role for treatments with brain-acting effect (for example, amitriptyline, acamprosate, and gabapentin) or anti-inflammation/anti-oxidant effect (for example, intra-tympanic dexamethasone injection plus oral melatonin) as the preferable effective treatments for tinnitus without specific or treatable origin. Funding: none.

13.
Sex Res Social Policy ; : 1-21, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608404

RESUMO

Introduction: In Europe, young sexual and gender minority (SGM) people continue to face discrimination in the labour sector despite advances in legislation towards their acceptance and equal treatment. Non-discrimination policy strategies helping SGM individuals are not equally enforced in all contexts, making it difficult for many SGM individuals to disclose their identity, hence undermining their health and well-being. Methods: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted between October 2020 and February 2021 with 55 SGM youth (18-27 years) having work experience from Austria, Croatia, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain and the UK. Results: From the analysis, three overarching themes were significant: (1) societal discrimination played a major role in sociocultural factors and policy considerations, (2) workplace discrimination had distinct factors and impacts on SGM individuals and (3) SGM inclusion should use strategies to ensure workplace diversity and equality. Conclusions: SGM individuals from contexts of poor acceptance tended to hide their identity in the workplace, while transgender and non-binary individuals were prone to experience force-disclosure and discrimination in all aspects of employment. There is a lack of resolute reaction from policy makers in managing problems faced by SGM people in workplaces. New laws improving the status of SGM people need to be further adopted, staff training should be implemented, and managers are crucial in achieving an inclusive climate in the workplace.Policy ImplicationsIt is essential to implement policies on how to effectively handle problems faced by sexual and gender minority people in the workplace.

14.
J Hum Nutr Diet ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People of Black and Asian ethnicities have a higher infection rate and mortality as a result of COVID-19. It has also been reported that vitamin D deficiency may play a role in this, possibly because of the multi-gene regulatory function of the vitamin D receptor. As a result, increased dietary intake and/or supplementation to attain adequate 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels could benefit people in these ethnicities. The present study aimed to review the literature examining the changes in 25(OH)D in different types of vitamin D supplementation from randomised controlled trials in this population. METHODS: This systematic review was conducted using the PRISMA guidelines. Electronic databases were systematically searched using keywords related to vitamin D supplementation in Black and Asian ethnicities. RESULTS: Eight studies were included in the review. All the included studies found that supplementation of vitamin D (D2 and D3 ), regardless of dosage, increased 25(OH)D levels compared to a placebo. All trials in which participants were vitamin D deficient at baseline showed increased 25(OH)D levels to a level considered adequate. Two studies that used food fortification yielded smaller 25(OH)D increases compared to similar studies that used oral supplementation (10.2 vs. 25.5 nmol L-1 , respectively). Furthermore, vitamin D2 supplementation yielded significantly lower 25(OH)D increases than vitamin D3 supplementation. CONCLUSIONS: Oral vitamin D supplementation may be more efficacious in increasing 25(OH)D levels than food fortification of Black and Asian ethnicities, with vitamin D3 supplementation possibly being more efficacious than vitamin D2 . It is recommended that people with darker skin supplement their diet with vitamin D3 through oral tablet modes where possible, with recent literature suggesting a daily intake of 7000-10,000 IU to be potentially protective from unfavourable COVID-19 outcomes. As a result of the paucity of studies, these findings should be treated as exploratory.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670063

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess alcohol use and perceived change in alcohol consumption (before and during the pandemic) in Brazilians during the COVID-19 pandemic, its correlates, and association with depressive, anxiety and co-occurring depressive and anxiety symptoms (D&A). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study comprising 992 individuals in self-isolation. A self-reported questionnaire was used to assess whether participants were drinking during self-isolation and whether they changed their drinking behavior (drinking less, more, or no change) from before to during the pandemic. D&A symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories (BDI and BAI). RESULTS: A total of 68.5% of participants reported alcohol consumption during the pandemic, and 22.7% of these reported increased alcohol use. Smoking was positively associated with alcohol consumption during the pandemic. Alcohol consumption was associated with anxiety (OR=1.40, 95% CI 1.06 - 1.85, p<0.01) and D&A (OR=1.38, 95% CI 1.02 - 1.87, p=0.033) symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Drinking during self-isolation was prevalent and associated with risk factors for alcohol use disorders. The long-term effects of high drinking rates and increased consumption should be proactively monitored and assessed.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620622

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies on the diabetes-edentulism relationship have yielded conflicting results. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the association between diabetes and edentulism, and their joint effects on health status in adults from 40 low and middle-income countries (LMICs). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data from the World Health Survey were used for this cross-sectional study (2002-2004). Forty countries (18 low-income and 22 middle-income countries) were included. Edentulism and diabetes were assessed using yes-no questions based on self-report. Health status was assessed in seven different domains (self-care, pain/discomfort, cognition, interpersonal activities, sleep/energy, affect, and perceived stress). The association between diabetes (exposure) and edentulism (outcome) was analyzed using multivariable logistic regression models, while their joint effects on health status were assessed using multivariable linear regression models. RESULTS: There were 175 814 adults aged ≥18 years included in this study (mean (SD) age 38.4 (16.0) years; 49.3% men). Overall, the prevalence of edentulism was 6.0% and diabetes was 2.9%. There was a positive and significant association between diabetes and edentulism in the overall sample (OR=1.40, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.66), in low-income countries (OR=1.78, 95% CI 1.21 to 2.62) and in middle-income countries (OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.47). In addition, people with comorbid diabetes and edentulism had worse health status in the domains of cognition, sleep/energy, and perceived stress, compared with those with diabetes only. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes was positively associated with edentulism in this sample of more than 175 000 individuals living in LMICs. Providing oral care to individuals with diabetes may potentially lead to a reduction in their risk of edentulism.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Diabetes Mellitus , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Masculino
17.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(41): e291, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence for the association between underlying non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the risk of testing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive, and the clinical consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is controversial and scarce. We aimed to investigate the association between the presence of NAFLD and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and COVID-19-related outcomes. METHODS: We used the population-based, nationwide cohort in South Korea linked with the general health examination records between January 1, 2018 and July 30, 2020. Data for 212,768 adults older than 20 years who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from January 1 to May 30, 2020, were obtained. The presence of NAFLDs was defined using three definitions, namely hepatic steatosis index (HSI), fatty liver index (FLI), and claims-based definition. The outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 test positive, COVID-19 severe illness, and related death. RESULTS: Among 74,244 adults who completed the general health examination, there were 2,251 (3.0%) who were SARS-CoV-2 positive, 438 (0.6%) with severe COVID-19 illness, and 45 (0.06%) COVID-19-related deaths. After exposure-driven propensity score matching, patients with pre-existing HSI-NAFLD, FLI-NAFLD, or claims-based NAFLD had an 11-23% increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (HSI-NAFLD 95% confidence interval [CI], 1-28%; FLI-NAFLD 95% CI, 2-27%; and claims-based NAFLD 95% CI, 2-31%) and a 35-41% increased risk of severe COVID-19 illness (HSI-NAFLD 95% CI, 8-83%; FLI-NAFLD 95% CI, 5-71%; and claims-based NAFLD 95% CI, 1-92%). These associations are more evident as liver fibrosis advanced (based on the BARD scoring system). Similar patterns were observed in several sensitivity analyses including the full-unmatched cohort. CONCLUSION: Patients with pre-existing NAFLDs have a higher likelihood of testing SARS-CoV-2 positive and severe COVID-19 illness; this association was more evident in patients with NAFLD with advanced fibrosis. Our results suggest that extra attention should be given to the management of patients with NAFLD during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body weight may be a risk factor for anxiety; however, there is a scarcity of studies on this association in older adults especially from low and middle income countries (LMICs). Therefore, we investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and anxiety symptoms among adults aged ≥ 50 years from 6 LMICs. METHODS: Cross-sectional, community-based, nationally representative data from the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) were analyzed. The BMI was based on measured weight and height and was categorized as: < 18.5 kg/m2 (underweight), 18.5-24.9 kg/m2 (normal weight), 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 (overweight), 30.0-34.9 kg/m2 (obesity class I), 35.0-39.9 kg/m2 (obesity class II), and ≥ 40 kg/m2 (obesity class III). Anxiety symptoms referred to severe/extreme problems with worry or anxiety in the past 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Data on 34,129 individuals aged ≥ 50 years (mean age 62.4 years, SD 16.0 years; 52.1% female) were analyzed. Overall, compared to normal weight, only underweight was significantly associated with anxiety symptoms (odds ratio, OR = 1.56; 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.26-1.95). Obesity class III (vs. normal weight) was associated with significantly increased odds for anxiety symptoms (OR = 4.15; 95%CI = 1.49-11.59) only among males. CONCLUSION: In this large representative sample of older adults from LMICs, underweight was associated with anxiety symptoms in males and females. Class III obesity was associated with anxiety symptoms only in males. Future studies to shed light on the reason why severe obesity was associated with anxiety symptoms only among males in LMICs are needed.

19.
J Psychiatr Res ; 144: 45-53, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598008

RESUMO

Suicide is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide in young people aged 15-19 years. However, little is known about the correlates of multiple suicide attempts in adolescents, especially from a global perspective. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association of putative physical, behavioral, and social correlates with multiple suicide attempts among adolescents aged 12-15 years from 61 countries. Data from the Global school-based Student Health Survey (2009-2017) were analyzed. Multiple suicide attempts was classified as having attempted suicide at least twice in the past 12 months. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the potential correlates. Data on 162,994 adolescents [mean (SD) age 13.8 (0.9) years; 50.8% boys] were analyzed. The overall prevalence of multiple suicide attempts was 4.4% [range 1.2% (Laos) to 13.8% (Ghana)]. Among those who had attempted suicide at least once in the past 12 months, in the overall sample, food insecurity, smoking, alcohol consumption, cannabis use, amphetamine use, sedentary behavior, sexual intercourse, sleep problems, loneliness, no close friends, and bullying victimization were all independently associated with higher odds for multiple suicide attempts although some regional differences were observed. Our study results indicate potential target factors that could be addressed amongst those who had attempted suicide in the past to reduce future suicide attempts and possibly completed suicides. Furthermore, it is possible that region-specific interventions are necessary.

20.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(15): 3395-3402, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522166

RESUMO

Computed tomography (CT) of the chest is one of the main diagnositic tools for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. To document the chest CT findings in patients with confirmed COVID-19 and their association with the clinical severity, we searched related literatures through PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science (inception to May 4, 2020) and reviewed reference lists of previous systematic reviews. A total of 31 case reports (3768 patients) on CT findings of COVID-19 were included. The most common comorbid conditions were hypertension (18.4%) and diabetes mellitus (8.3%). The most common symptom was fever (78.7%), followed by cough (60.2%). It took an average of 5.6 days from symptom onset to admission. The most common chest CT finding was vascular enlargement (84.8%), followed by ground-glass opacity (GGO) (60.1%), air-bronchogram (47.8%), and consolidation (41.4%). Most lung lesions were located in the lung periphery (72.2%) and involved bilateral lung (76%). Most patients showed normal range of laboratory findings such as white blood cell count (96.4%) and lymphocyte (87.2%). Compared to previous published meta-analyses, our study is the first to summarize the different radiologic characteristics of chest CT in a total of 3768 COVID-19 patients by compiling case series studies. A comprehensive diagnostic approach should be adopted for patients with known COVID-19, suspected cases, and for exposed individuals.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , COVID-19/sangue , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Contagem de Linfócitos , Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico
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