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1.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(5): 349-358, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390358

RESUMO

Globally and in Africa specifically, female sex workers (FSWs) are at an extraordinarily high risk of contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has emerged as an effective and ethical method with which to prevent HIV infection among FSWs. PrEP efficacy is, however, closely linked to adherence, and adherence to PrEP among FSWs is a complex and interrelated process that has been shown to be of importance to public health policies and HIV control and intervention programs. This comprehensive review categorizes barriers to and facilitators of adherence to HIV PrEP for FSWs, and describes five strategies for promoting PrEP adherence among FSWs. These strategies encompass 1) a long-term educational effort to decrease the stigma associated with sex work and PrEP use, 2) education on how PrEP works, 3) lifestyle modification, 4) research on next-generation PrEP products to address the inconvenience of taking daily pills, and 5) integration of PrEP into existing services, such as social services and routine primary care visits, to reduce the economic burden of seeking the medication. Our review is expected to be useful for the design of future PrEP intervention programs. Multidisciplinary intervention should be considered to promote PrEP adherence among FSWs in order to help control the HIV epidemic.

3.
J Nutr ; 2020 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coffee is among the most popular daily beverages in the United States. Importantly, coffee consumption has been associated with a lower risk of multiple health outcomes including a reduction in adiposity. DXA is a means to assess body fat and distribution. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the relation between coffee consumption and DXA-assessed adiposity and adiposity distribution. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the NHANES were used. Participants were adults aged 20-69 y from the 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 waves. Information on coffee consumption was assessed through the FFQ (categorized as no coffee, 0 to <0.25 cup/d, 0.25 to <1 cup/d, 1 cup/d, 2-3 cups/d, or ≥4 cups/d). Both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption were included. Trunk fat and total fat percentage were measured via whole-body DXA scans. The association between coffee consumption and body fat was investigated using age-adjusted and multivariable-adjusted linear regression models which accounted for sample weights. RESULTS: Higher coffee consumption was associated with significantly lower total body fat percentage and trunk body fat percentage in a dose-response manner (all P values < 0.05) among women. Although this dose-response relation was nonsignificant among men, men aged 20-44 y who drank 2-3 cups/d had 1.3% (95% CI: -2.7%, 0.1%) less total fat and 1.8% (95% CI: -3.3%, -0.4%) less trunk fat than those who did not consume coffee. Furthermore, the association between coffee consumption and body fat percentage exhibited for both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee among women (all P for trend < 0.001) but not among men (all P for trend > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The present study found a significant association between higher coffee consumption and lower DXA-measured adiposity. Moreover, a gender difference in this association in the general US adult population was also observed.

4.
Eye (Lond) ; 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the association between cataract and multimorbidity. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between cataract and chronic conditions and multimorbidity in a large representative sample of Spanish adults. METHODS: This study used data from the Spanish National Health Survey 2017, a cross-sectional sample of 23,089 adults aged ≥15 years from Spain [54.1% female; mean (standard deviation) age 53.4 (18.9) years]. Cataract and 30 other physical and mental chronic conditions were self-reported. Multimorbidity was defined as the presence of at least two physical and/or mental chronic conditions (excluding cataract). Control variables included sex, age, marital status, education, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Multivariable logistic and negative binomial regression analyzes were conducted to assess associations. RESULTS: The prevalence of cataract and multimorbidity was 12.5% and 56.5%, respectively. All chronic conditions were significantly more frequent in individuals with than in those without cataract. Overall, there was a positive relationship between cataract and multimorbidity [odds ratio (OR) = 2.77; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.39-3.21]. In addition, cataract was significantly associated with the number of chronic conditions in the whole population [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.29-1.38]. CONCLUSIONS: Cataract is positively associated with chronic conditions and multimorbidity in adults. Interventions specifically designed for those with cataract to reduce or manage co-occurring chronic conditions and multimorbidity are urgently required.

5.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394371

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the fear of falling/the degree of fear of falling (FoF) and orthostatic hypotension (OH) in older adults. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 314 older outpatients. If the total score of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International scale was 16-19, 20-27 and ≥ 28, it was assumed that there was low FoF, moderate FoF and high FoF, respectively. OH was evaluated for the 1st (OH1) and 3rd (OH3) minutes, after transitioning from the supine position to standing. Participants were aged 65-93 years (mean age 74.2 ± 8.5 years) and 193 (61.5%) were female. Among the FoF groups, significant differences were found for age, gender, education, marital status, who the patient lived with, the history of falling and hypertension, Timed Up-Go test score and hemoglobin levels (p < 0.005). The prevalence of OH1 and OH3 was found to be significantly higher in those with an FoF score of 20 and above than those below 20 (p < 0.005). After adjustment for potential confounders, participants who reported a high FoF had higher risk for OH1 and OH3 (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.14-4.0, p = 0.017; and OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.46-5.09, p = 0.002, respectively), but those with moderate FoF had no increased risk of having OH compared to low FoF (p > 0.05). There is a close relationship between high FoF and OH in older adults. Therefore, when evaluating an older patient with OH, FoF should be evaluated, or FoF should also be questioned in older patients with OH.

6.
J Sex Med ; 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32411271

RESUMO

Background: On 23rd March 2020 the UK government released self-isolation guidance to reduce the risk of transmission of SARS-Cov-2. The influence such guidance has on sexual activity is not known. Aim: To investigate levels and correlates of sexual activity during COVID-19 self-isolation in a sample of the UK public. Methods: This paper presents pre-planned interim analyses of data from a cross-sectional epidemiological study, administered through an online survey. Outcomes: Sexual activity was measured using the following question: "On average after self-isolating how many times have you engaged in sexual activity weekly?" Demographic and clinical data was collected, including sex, age, marital status, employment, annual household income, region, current smoking status, current alcohol consumption, number of chronic physical conditions, number of chronic psychiatric conditions, any physical symptom experienced during self-isolation, and number of days of self-isolation. The association between several factors (independent variables) and sexual activity (dependent variable) was studied using a multivariable logistic regression model. Results: 868 individuals were included in this study. There were 63.1% of women, and 21.8% of adults who were aged between 25 and 34 years. During self-isolation, 39.9% of the population reported engaging in sexual activity at least once per week. Variables significantly associated with sexual activity (dependent variable) were being male, a younger age, being married or in a domestic partnership, consuming alcohol, and a higher number of days of self-isolation/social distancing. Clinical Implications: In this sample of 868 UK adults self-isolating owing to the COVID-19 pandemic the prevalence of sexual activity was lower than 40%. Those reporting particularly low levels of sexual activity included females, older adults, those not married, and those who abstain from alcohol consumption. Strength and Limitations: This is the first study to investigate sexual activity during the UK COVID-19 self-isolation/social distancing. Participants were asked to self-report their sexual activity potentially introducing self-reporting bias into the findings. Second, analyses were cross-sectional and thus it is not possible to determine trajectories of sexual activity during the current pandemic. Conclusion: Interventions to promote health and wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic should consider positive sexual health messages in mitigating the detrimental health consequences in relation to self-isolation and should target those with the lowest levels of sexual activity.

7.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377965

RESUMO

WHO declared SARS-CoV-2 a global pandemic. The present aim was to propose an hypothesis that there is a potential association between mean levels of vitamin D in various countries with cases and mortality caused by COVID-19. The mean levels of vitamin D for 20 European countries and morbidity and mortality caused by COVID-19 were acquired. Negative correlations between mean levels of vitamin D (average 56 mmol/L, STDEV 10.61) in each country and the number of COVID-19 cases/1 M (mean 295.95, STDEV 298.7, and mortality/1 M (mean 5.96, STDEV 15.13) were observed. Vitamin D levels are severely low in the aging population especially in Spain, Italy and Switzerland. This is also the most vulnerable group of the population in relation to COVID-19. It should be advisable to perform dedicated studies about vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients with different degrees of disease severity.

9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 128, 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366824

RESUMO

Interruptions to time spent sitting can ameliorate detrimental metabolic-health consequences of high volumes of sedentary time, but their potential mental health benefits have not been examined. We used the Swedish Health Profile Assessment database, a general health assessment offered to all employees working for companies or organisations connected to occupational and health services. Cross-sectional analyses examined data from 40,550 employees (60% male, mean age = 42 years), collected in 2017-2019. Participants reported the proportion of time (almost always; 75% of the time; 50% of the time; 25% of the time; and almost never) usually spent in leisure-time sedentary behaviours; and, separately, the frequency (never; rarely; sometimes; often; and very often) of interruptions (every 30 min) to sedentary time. Logistic regression models assessed associations of sedentary time, and the frequency of interruptions to sedentary time, with depression/anxiety symptoms. Fully adjusted models included physical exercise. Compared to those in the lowest sedentary time category, those in the medium and high categories had 1.52 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.40-1.66) and 3.11 (95% CI = 2.82-3.42) higher odds of frequent depression/anxiety symptoms, respectively. Compared to those who never/rarely interrupted their sedentary time, those who reported interruptions sometimes, often and very often had 0.72 (95% CI = 0.65-0.80), 0.59 (95% CI = 0.53-0.65), and 0.53 (95% CI = 0.46-0.59) lower odds of depression/anxiety symptoms, respectively. In stratified analyses, more frequent interruptions to sedentary time were associated with lower odds of depression/anxiety symptoms, except among those in the lowest interruptions categories (never/25% of the time). More regularly interrupting sitting during leisure-time may reduce the odds of experiencing symptoms of depression and anxiety.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383779

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI) is a useful prognostic tool for evaluating adverse health outcomes in older individuals. However, the association between MPI and depressive symptoms has never been explored, despite depression being a common condition in older people. We therefore aimed to evaluate whether MPI may predict incident depressive symptoms. METHODS: Longitudinal, cohort study, with two years of follow-up (W1: October 2009-February 2011; W2: April 2012-January 2013), including people aged ≥65 years without depressive symptoms at baseline. A comprehensive geriatric assessment including information on functional, nutritional, cognitive status, mobility, comorbidities, medications, and cohabitation status was used to calculate the MPI dividing the participants into low, moderate, or severe risk. Those who scored ≥16/60 with the Center of Epidemiology Studies Depression (CES-D) tool were considered to have depressive symptoms. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to explore the association between MPI and incident depressive symptoms. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 1854 participants (mean age: 72.8 ± SD 5.1 years; females: 52.1%). The prevalence of incident depressive symptoms by MPI tertiles at baseline were: low 2.5%, moderate 3.9%, and severe 6.7%. In multivariable analyses, baseline MPI values were significantly associated with incident depressive symptoms (increase in 0.1 points in MPI: odds ratio, OR = 1.47; 95% confidence intervals, CI: 1.17-1.85; MPI tertile severe vs low: OR = 2.96; 95%CI: 1.50-5.85). CONCLUSION: Baseline MPI values were associated with incident depressive symptoms indicating that multidimensional assessment of older people may lead to early identification of individuals at increased risk of depression onset.

11.
Int J Impot Res ; 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358511

RESUMO

Growing evidence reports that chronic kidney diseases (CKD) might play a role in erectile dysfunction (ED), but limited knowledge is available. Therefore, we performed a systematic review up to 21/08/2019 to investigate the associations between CKD and ED. The main analysis reported the prevalence of ED as absolute estimates (in %) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and across CKD stages (when specified), hemodialysis and transplant, calculating the p for interaction across strata. Among 291 studies, we included 34 articles with 5986 men. We found an overall prevalence of 76% (95%CI: 72-79) with a high degree of heterogeneity (I2 = 84.2%; p < 0.0001). Analyzing the data by CKD stage, we found a significant higher prevalence of ED in CKD (78%; 95%CI: 75-81%; I2 = not possible) compared with hemodialysis stage (prevalence = 77%; 95%CI: 73-80%; I2 = 84.5) or to patients undergoing transplant (prevalence = 64%; 95%CI: 54-74%; I2 = 54%) (p across strata = 0.036). Considering the high prevalence of ED in men with CKD, health care practitioners should focus on issues of sexual health in men with CKD. Given the advancements in dialysis and therapy and the associated advancements in survival and life expectancy, maintaining the patients' sexual function is important for their well-being and quality of life.

12.
Prev Med ; : 106123, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389676

RESUMO

Exposure to violence may be associated with increased risk for obesogenic behavior among adolescents but studies providing a global perspective are lacking. The aim of this work was to assess the relationship between violence and obesogenic behaviors among young adolescents from 62 countries. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey 2009-2016 were analyzed. Information on violence (intentional injury, physical attack, physical fight) and obesogenic behavior (anxiety-induced sleep problems, low physical activity, sedentary behavior, fast-food consumption, carbonated soft-drink consumption) were self-reported. Associations were analyzed using meta-analysis based on country-wise multivariable logistic regression analyses. A total of 165,380 adolescents aged 12-15 years [mean (SD) age 13.8 (1.0) years; 50.9% boys] were included in the analysis. All types of violence were positively associated with higher odds for all types of obesogenic behavior with the exception of low physical activity. Associations were particularly pronounced for anxiety-induced insomnia. In contrast, intentional injury (OR = 0.72; 95%CI = 0.64-0.81) and physical fight (OR = 0.90; 95%CI = 0.86-0.95) were associated with lower odds for low physical activity. In this large global sample of adolescents, exposure to violence was associated with all obesogenic behaviors apart from low physical activity. Multidimensional government programs and policies addressing exposure to violence among young adolescents may lead to reduction in obesogenic behavior and hence curtail the global obesity epidemic.

13.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 152, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424116

RESUMO

The literature on non-genetic peripheral biomarkers for major mental disorders is broad, with conflicting results. An umbrella review of meta-analyses of non-genetic peripheral biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease, autism spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia, including first-episode psychosis. We included meta-analyses that compared alterations in peripheral biomarkers between participants with mental disorders to controls (i.e., between-group meta-analyses) and that assessed biomarkers after treatment (i.e., within-group meta-analyses). Evidence for association was hierarchically graded using a priori defined criteria against several biases. The Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) instrument was used to investigate study quality. 1161 references were screened. 110 met inclusion criteria, relating to 359 meta-analytic estimates and 733,316 measurements, on 162 different biomarkers. Only two estimates met a priori defined criteria for convincing evidence (elevated awakening cortisol levels in euthymic BD participants relative to controls and decreased pyridoxal levels in participants with schizophrenia relative to controls). Of 42 estimates which met criteria for highly suggestive evidence only five biomarker aberrations occurred in more than one disorder. Only 15 meta-analyses had a power >0.8 to detect a small effect size, and most (81.9%) meta-analyses had high heterogeneity. Although some associations met criteria for either convincing or highly suggestive evidence, overall the vast literature of peripheral biomarkers for major mental disorders is affected by bias and is underpowered. No convincing evidence supported the existence of a trans-diagnostic biomarker. Adequately powered and methodologically sound future large collaborative studies are warranted.

14.
J Sport Health Sci ; 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325144

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine (1) the independent effects of hypoxia on cognitive function and (2) the effects of exercise on cognition while under hypoxia. METHODS: Design: Systematic review with meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, PsychInfo, and SPORTDiscus were searched. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies: randomized controlled trials and nonrandomized controlled studies that investigated the effects of chronic or acute exercise on cognition under hypoxia were considered (Aim 2), as were studies investigating the effects of hypoxia on cognition (Aim 1). RESULTS: In total, 18 studies met our inclusionary criteria for the systematic review, and 12 studies were meta-analyzed. Exposure to hypoxia impaired attentional ability (standardized mean difference [SMD = -0.4), executive function (SMD = -0.18), and memory function (SMD = -0.26) but not information processing (SMD = 0.27). Aggregated results indicated that performing exercise under a hypoxia setting had a significant effect on cognitive improvement (SMD = 0.3, 95%CI: 0.14 - 0.45, I2 = 54%, p < 0.001). Various characteristics (e.g., age, cognitive task type, exercise type, exercise intensity, training type, and hypoxia level) moderated the effects of hypoxia and exercise on cognitive function. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise during exposure to hypoxia improves cognitive function. This association appears to be moderated by individual and exercise/hypoxia-related characteristics.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immigrants are at a higher risk of poor mental and physical health. Regular participation in physical activity (PA) and low levels of sedentary time are beneficial for both these aspects of health. The aim was to investigate levels and trends in domain-specific PA and sedentary behaviour in the US. immigrant compared with non-immigrant populations. METHODS: From the 2007-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a total of 25 142 adults (≥18 years) were included in this analysis. PA and sedentary behaviour time were assessed by a questionnaire. RESULTS: Transit-related PA showed downward linear trends in young immigrant adults (p trend=0.006) and middle-aged non-immigrant adults (p trend=0.009). We found significant upward linear trends in sedentary behaviour for both immigrants and non-immigrants across all age groups. For sitting watching TV or videos ≥2 hours/day, there was a downward linear trend in young immigrant adults (p trend=0.009). For computer use ≥1 hours/day, an upward linear trend in older non-immigrants was found (p trend=0.024). Young immigrants spent 37.5 (95% CI -55.4 to -19.6) min less than non-immigrants on recreational PA per week. Also, older immigrants spent 23.5 (95% CI 1.5 to 45.6) and 22.5 (95% CI 5.9 to 39.0) min/week more than non-immigrants on recreational PA and transit-related PA, respectively. Last, young and middle-aged immigrants spent 37.6 (95% CI -68.2 to -7.0) and 37.6 (95% CI -99.7 to -9.7) min/day less than non-immigrants on sedentary behaviour, respectively. CONCLUSION: Overall, levels of recreational PA were stable, yet the transit-related PA declined coupled with an increase in sedentary behaviour. US. immigrants exhibit higher levels of transit-PA, lower levels of leisure-time PA and lower levels of sedentary behaviour, in some age groups.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32225026

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of natural environmental factors on the spatial distribution of marathon events in China, and to identify the suitable natural environmental factors for the marathon events. METHODS: Geographic information system (GIS) spatial analysis tools were used to perform coupling analysis, e.g. overlap, neighborhood, intersection and buffer for terrain, climate, air quality, mountains and water resources with 342 marathon events held in China in 2018. RESULTS: The results indicate that the spatial distribution of marathon events in China is negatively correlated with the elevation of the terrain (plain > hill > plateau > mountain > basin); climate (subtropical monsoon climate > temperate monsoon climate > temperate continental climate > tropical monsoon climate > plateau alpine climate), air quality (level 3 > level 2 > level 4 > level 1). Results indicate that buffer zones can protect water resources: there are 24 items in the buffer zone of river 0.5 km and lake 1 km, 131 items in the buffer zone of river 3 km and lake 5 km, 191 items in the buffer zone of river 5 km and lake 10 km, 298 items in the buffer zone of river 10 km and lake 20 km. Results indicate for mountain range buffer: 13 items in the 20 km buffer and 39 items in the 50 km buffer. CONCLUSIONS: Marathon events are more likely to be held on the third rung of China's topography where a city has a typical landform (plains, basins, hills, or mountain) with good climate and air quality. Meanwhile a city with water and mountain resources for recreational events such as cross-country or obstacle course are essential. The contribution of this study is to systematically and intuitively reflect the influence of natural environment factors on the distribution of marathon events in China, and to provide evidence for the medium and long-term planning of marathon events in China, the selection of venues for different types of marathon events and how to attract participants.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295188

RESUMO

At the end of 2019 a novel virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing severe acute respiratory syndrome expanded globally from Wuhan, China. In March 2020 the World Health Organization declared the SARS-Cov-2 virus a global pandemic. We performed a narrative review to describe existing literature with regard to Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and future perspective. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus databases were searched for relevant articles. Although only when the pandemic ends it will be possible to assess the full health, social and economic impact of this global disaster, this review represents a picture of the current state of the art. In particular, we focus on public health impact, pathophysiology and clinical manifestations, diagnosis, case management, emergency response and preparedness.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Nasofaringe/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Saúde Pública , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
18.
CNS Spectr ; : 1-8, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32264982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND.: Relatively few studies have assessed the prevalence, correlates, and independent impact on quality of life (QoL) of trichotillomania (TTM) in large samples. METHODS.: Consecutive participants (N = 7639) were recruited from a cross-sectional web-based study. Sociodemographic data were collected and several validated self-reported mental health measures were completed (Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview, Hypomania checklist, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Inventory). Health-related QoL was assessed with the World Health Organization QoL abbreviated scale (WHOQOL-Bref). Multivariable models adjusted associations to potential confounders. RESULTS.: The sample was predominantly composed of young females (71.3%; mean age: 27.2 ± 7.9 years). The prevalence of probable TTM was 1.4% (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.2-1.7), and was more common among females. Participants with probable TTM had a greater likelihood of having co-occurring probable depression (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj] = 1.744; 95% CI: 1.187-2.560), tobacco (ORadj = 2.250; 95% CI: 1.191-4.250), and alcohol (ORadj = 1.751; 95% CI: 1.169-2.621) use disorders. Probable TTM was also independently associated with suicidal ideation (ORadj = 1.917; 95% CI: 1.224-3.003) and exposure to childhood sexual abuse (ORadj = 1.221; 95% CI: 1.098-1.358). In addition, a positive screen for TTM had more impaired physical and mental QoL. CONCLUSIONS.: TTM was associated with a positive screen for several psychiatric comorbidities as well as impaired physical and psychological QoL. Efforts towards the recognition and treatment of TTM across psycho-dermatology services are warranted.

19.
J Affect Disord ; 269: 51-57, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217343

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To update the prevalence of depression in the US and identify whether misperception exists in depression assessed by self-report versus validated tools administered by trained professionals. METHODS: We extracted data on sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, medical conditions, depressive symptoms, and self-reported depressive feeling from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) study 2015-2018. We calculated the weighted prevalence and 95% CI of depressive symptoms assessed by a validated tool PHQ-9 (score≥10) and self-reported depression respectively. Then, we performed multivariable logistic regressions to identify their sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates. Finally, we calculated the agreement between PHQ-9 assessed depressive symptoms and self-reported depressive feeling to examine possible misperception. RESULTS: The present analysis included a total of 10,257 adults (Weighted N = 215,964,374) aged 20 years and older. Prevalence of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score ≥10) were 8.0% from 2015 to 2018 in the US. 19.7% and 11.3% adults reported feeling depressed at least once a month and at least once a week, respectively. Depressive experience was largely misperceived in the US (Kappa agreement = 50.98%, Cohen's Kappa = 0.16, p < 0.001). Particularly, an estimated 1.1 million US adults had depressive symptoms but never felt being depressed. Several consistent demographic and behavioral correlates were identified across the two measures, namely: age, sex, race/ethnicity, poverty and sitting time. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of depression was found, and misperception of depression exists among the US adult population. Our findings highlight an urgent need for health professionals to reduce the burden of depression with considering patients' socioeconomic status and lifestyle factors.

20.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155879

RESUMO

Fruit and vegetable consumption may protect against sarcopenia but there are no studies on this topic from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, we assessed this association among older adults from six LMICs. Community-based cross-sectional data of the Study on Global Aging and Adult Health were analyzed. Sarcopenia was defined as the presence of low skeletal muscle mass based on indirect population formula, and either slow gait or low handgrip strength. Quintiles of vegetable and fruit consumption were created based on the number of servings consumed on a typical day. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted. The sample consisted of 14,585 individuals aged ≥65 years (mean (SD) age 72.6 (11.4) years; 55% females). Adjusted analyses showed that overall, compared to the lowest quintile (Q1), the highest quintile (Q5) of fruit consumption was associated with a 40% lower odds for sarcopenia (OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.42-0.84) but this association was largely driven by the strong association among females (e.g., Q5 vs. Q1 OR = 0.42; 95% CI = 0.24-0.73), with no significant associations found among males. Vegetable consumption was not significantly associated with sarcopenia. Future studies of longitudinal design may shed light on whether increasing fruit consumption among older females in LMICs may reduce risk for sarcopenia.

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