Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 220
Filtrar
1.
J Appl Gerontol ; : 7334648211056638, 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34870492

RESUMO

Activity limitations can diminish life satisfaction. This study explored the role of optimism on the relationship between changes in activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL/IADL) limitations and life satisfaction over time among middle-aged and older adults. Growth curve modeling accounting for intra- and inter-individual changes in life satisfaction was applied to the 2008-2018 waves of the Health and Retirement Study Leave Behind Survey subsample (n = 39,122 person-years). After controlling for sociodemographic factors, physical functioning decline adversely affected life satisfaction (ßADL = -0.12, ßIADL = -0.13, p < 0.001), but the negative consequences reduced slightly through optimism (ßADL = -0.11, ßIADL = -0.12, ßoptimism = 0.47, p < 0.001). Increasing optimism could reduce the negative consequences of ADL/IADL limitations on life satisfaction among middle-aged to older adults.

2.
J Appl Psychol ; 2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941287

RESUMO

The prevalence of chronic health conditions is increasing, with over half the current workforce attempting to manage one or more chronic conditions. The Live Healthy, Work Healthy (LHWH) program is a version of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program translated to the workplace, with the goal of improving and sustaining the health, well-being, and productivity of employees living with chronic health conditions. Using organizational support theory as a theoretical framework and a clustered randomized controlled trial design, this article demonstrates how the LHWH program positively impacts work-related quality of life, orientations toward the organization, and organizational cognitions and behaviors. Participants in the program experienced increases in perceived organizational support (POS), with a large intervention effect. Direct intervention effects were also found for burnout, work engagement, work ability, affective organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Within-person changes in POS during the intervention was a key mechanism through which participants of the program experienced changes in organizationally relevant outcomes. Finally, offering the program on work time strengthened these effects indirectly through greater changes in POS during the intervention period. This article provides evidence to researchers and organizational decision-makers that offering the LHWH program not only improves the health and well-being of employees but also improves important organizational outcomes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1970, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: College students are leading an evolution of device use both in the type of device and the frequency of use. They have transitioned from desktop stations to laptops, tablets, and especially smartphones and use them throughout the day and into the night. METHODS: Using a 35-min online survey, we sought to understand how technology daily usage patterns, device types, and postures affect pain and discomfort to understand how knowledge of that pain might help students avoid it. Data were analyzed from 515 students (69.5% male) who completed an internet-delivered survey (81.3% response rate). RESULTS: Participants ranked smartphones as their most frequently used technology (64.0%), followed by laptops and tablets (both 53.2%), and desktop computers (46.4%). Time spent using smartphones averaged over 4.4 h per day. When using their devices, students were more likely to adopt non-traditional workplace postures as they used these devices primarily on the couch or at a chair with no desk. CONCLUSION: Recent trends in wireless academic access points along with the portability of small handheld devices, have made smartphones the most common link to educational materials despite having the least favorable control and display scenario from an ergonomic perspective. Further, the potential impact of transitions in work environments due to COVID-19 may further exacerbate ergonomic issues among millions highlighting the need for such work to be carried out.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Eletrônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone , Estudantes
4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1646, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long-term growth and sustained high prevalence of obesity in the US is likely to increase the burden of Type 2 diabetes. Hispanic individuals are particularly burdened by a larger share of diabetes than non-Hispanic White individuals. Given the existing health disparities facing this population, we aimed to examine the effectiveness and potential cost savings of the Diabetes Education Program (DEP) offered as part of Healthy South Texas, a state-legislated initiative to reduce health disparities in 27 counties in South Texas with a high proportion of Hispanic adults. METHODS: DEP is an 8-h interactive workshop taught in English and Spanish. After the workshop, participants receive quarterly biometric screenings and continuing education with a health educator for one year. Data were analyzed from 3859 DEP participants with Type 2 diabetes living in South Texas at five time points (baseline, 3-months, 6-months, 9-months, 12-months). The primary outcome variable of interest for study analyses was A1c. A series of independent sample t-tests and linear mixed-model regression analyses were used to identify changes over time. Two methods were then applied to estimate healthcare costs savings associated with A1c reductions among participants. RESULTS: The majority of participants were ages 45-64 years (58%), female (60%), Hispanic (66%), and had a high school education or less (75%). At baseline, the average hemoglobin A1c was 8.57%. The most substantial reductions in hemoglobin A1c were identified from baseline to 3-month follow-up (P < 0.001); however, the reduction in A1c remained significant from baseline to 12-month follow-up (P < 0.001). The healthcare cost savings associated with improved A1c for the program was estimated to be between $5.3 to $5.6 million over a two to three year period. CONCLUSION: Findings support the effectiveness of DEP with ongoing follow-up for sustained diabetes risk management. While such interventions foster clinical-community collaboration and can improve patient adherence to recommended lifestyle behaviors, opportunities exist to complement DEP with other resources and services to enhance program benefits. Policy makers and other key stakeholders can assess the lessons learned in this effort to tailor and expand similar initiatives to potentially at-risk populations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This community-based intervention is not considered a trial by ICMJE definitions, and has not be registered as such.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Texas/epidemiologia
5.
J Am Coll Health ; : 1-12, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379564

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with the occurrence and severity of depressive mood states among graduate-level allied health students. Participants: Students (N = 77) completed this study. Methods: Participants completed a series of self-reported surveys measuring moods, lifestyle behaviors, trait mental and physical energy and fatigue, and objective assessments of Trail-Making Test Part-B, and muscle oxygen consumption. Multiple backwards linear regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with depressive mood states. Results: When accounting for all subjects, increased severity of depressive mood states was associated with worse sleep quality (SQ), increased sitting time (ST), and trait physical fatigue (TPF). When examining subjects reporting depressive mood states, increased severity of depressive mood states was associated with worse SQ, increased ST, decreased mental workload on non-school days, and trait physical energy (TPE). Conclusion: Adjustments in lifestyle factors such as sleep, mental workload, and ST, may ameliorate depressive mood states.

6.
Front Neurol ; 12: 692662, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367054

RESUMO

Introduction: Persistent knowledge gaps exist as to the extent that preexisting cognitive impairment is a risk factor for susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and mortality from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of adults tested for SARS-CoV-2 at a tertiary healthcare system. Cognitive impairment was identified utilizing diagnosis codes (mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, vascular, and other dementias) or cognitive impairment-specific medication use. Propensity score (PS) matched analyses were utilized to report odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for association of cognitive impairment with SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and COVID-19 mortality. Results: Between March-3rd and December-11th, 2020, 179,979 adults were tested, of whom 21,607 (12.0%) tested positive. We identified 6,364 individuals with preexisting cognitive impairment (mean age: 78.5 years, 56.8% females), among whom 843 (13.2%) tested positive and 139 (19.5%) of those hospitalized died. In the pre-PS matched cohort, cognitive impairment was significantly associated with increased SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility (OR, CI: 1.12, 1.04-1.21) and COVID-19 mortality (OR, CI: 2.54, 2.07-3.12). One-to-one matches were identified for 6,192 of 6,364 (97.3%) individuals with prior cognitive impairment and 687 of 712 (96.5%) hospitalized patients with prior cognitive impairment. In the fully balanced post-matched cohort, preexisting cognitive impairment was significantly associated with higher likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR, CI: 1.51, 1.35-1.70); however, cognitive impairment did not confer higher risk of COVID-19 mortality (OR, CI: 0.96, 0.73-1.25). Discussion: To mitigate the effects of healthcare catastrophes such as the COVID-19 pandemic, strategies for targeted prevention and risk-stratified comorbidity management are warranted among the vulnerable sub-population living with cognitive impairment.

7.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(7): e26180, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research has identified disparities in seeking and using web-based health information to inform health-related behaviors. Relatively few studies however have examined the correlations between web-based health information seeking and use based on race, gender, age, and the presence of chronic health conditions. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we identify factors associated with seeking and using web-based health information among a uniquely vulnerable and intersectional population-middle-aged and older (40 years and older) African American and Hispanic men living with one or more chronic conditions. METHODS: Survey responses were collected from a purposive sample of African American and Hispanic men using Qualtrics web-based survey management software. To qualify for inclusion in the study, respondents had to identify as African American or Hispanic men, report having at least one chronic condition, and be aged 40 years and older. A series of binary logistic regression models was created using backward elimination. Statistical significance was determined at P<.05 for all analyses. RESULTS: Web-based health information seeking among African American and Hispanic men is a function of education, the presence of multiple chronic conditions, frustration with health care providers, internet use, and the perceived reliability of web-based health information. The use of web-based health information to inform interactions with health care providers was more common among African American and Hispanic men, who rated their health as relatively good, perceived barriers to care, used technology regularly, and took more daily medications. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the factors that influence African American and Hispanic men seeking web-based health information may help improve the care and treatment of chronic conditions. African American and Hispanic men seek web-based health information as a substitute for routine care and to inform their discussions with health care providers.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 674847, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34322471

RESUMO

Low-income older adults are disproportionately impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. In this perspective article, we review the context in which low-income older people experience the pandemic and the mental and physical health consequences they have faced to date. Then, we offer practical solutions to help improve low-income older adults' sleep, physical activity, nutrition, and stress that require no or low financial commitment. We argue that governments, communities, and organizations should make greater efforts to promote healthy living for low-income older adults in times of health emergencies to ensure their ability to be universally adopted, regardless of income and resources.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Idoso , Humanos , Renda , Pobreza , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 108: 106506, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273551

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Caregivers of individuals with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) often experience debilitating caregiver burden and emotional distress. To address these negative emotional consequences of caregiving, we will test and refine a strategy training intervention - Problem-Solving Training (PST) - that promotes self-efficacy and reduces caregiver burden and depressive symptoms. Previous research supports efficacy of PST; however, we do not know exactly how many PST sessions are needed or if post-training "boosters" are required to maintain PST benefits. Additionally, we translated and culturally-adapted PST into "Descubriendo Soluciones Juntos" (DSJ), our novel intervention for Spanish-speaking caregivers. METHOD: In this 2 × 2 factorial design randomized controlled trial, we will test remotely-delivered PST/DSJ sessions for both English- and Spanish-speaking caregivers of persons with ADRD to determine the optimal number of PST/DSJ sessions and ongoing "booster" sessions needed to best help caregivers navigate their current and future needs. AIMS: 1) Compare the efficacy of three vs. six PST/DSJ sessions each with and without booster sessions for decreasing caregiver burden and depression and enhancing caregiver problem-solving; 2) Identify key factors associated with efficacy of PST/DSJ, including age, gender, primary language, relationship to care recipient, and uptake of the PST/DSJ strategy. RESULTS: These results will establish guidelines needed for an evidence-based, culturally-adapted, and implementable problem-solving intervention to reduce caregiver stress and burden and improve caregiver health and well-being. CONCLUSION: This work promotes inclusion of diverse and underserved populations and advances therapeutic behavioral interventions that improve the lives of caregivers of individuals with chronic conditions.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Juniperus , Adulto , Cuidadores , Humanos , Resolução de Problemas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204018

RESUMO

Despite near universal health insurance coverage in China, populations with low incomes may still face barriers in access and utilization of affordable health care. We aimed to identify the likelihood of forgone medical care due to cost by surveying individuals from the community to assess: (1) The percent with forgone medical care due to cost; and (2) Factors associated with forgone medical care due to cost. Surveys conducted (2016-2017) in Mandarin included demographic and medical care utilization-related items. Theoretically-informed, fully-adjusted analyses were employed. Approximately 94% of respondents had health insurance, which is somewhat similar to national estimates. Overall, 24% of respondents resided in rural areas, with 18% having less than a high school education, and 49% being male. More than 36% reported forgone medical care due to cost in the past 12 months. In fully-adjusted analyses, having lower education, generally not being satisfied with the commute to the hospital, and being a resident of a province with a lower density of physicians were associated with forgone medical care. Cost-related disparities in the access and utilization of needed medical care persist, even with near universal health insurance, which may be due to one's satisfaction with travel time to healthcare and other community assets.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , China , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Seguro Saúde , Masculino , Pobreza , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
J Sch Health ; 91(6): 482-489, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed whether self-descriptions, self-perceptions, perceived substance use of friends, and actual substance use were associated with high school girls' frequency of making social comparisons to peers. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Adolescent Health Risk Behavior Survey data for 357 high school girls using multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: Compared to those who "never/rarely" made social comparisons, participants who self-described as fearing something constantly (p = .014) and forced to imitate the people they like (p = .009) were more likely to "usually" compare themselves to peers. Participants who described themselves as feeling forced to imitate the people they like (p = .022), were not the person they would like to be (p = .005), and did not remain calm under pressure (p = .010), were more likely to "often/always" make social comparisons. Participants who perceived themselves as unattractive (p = .034) and self-centered (p = .016) were more likely to "often/always" make social comparisons. Participants who perceived a larger proportion of friends use illicit drugs were less likely to "usually" make social comparisons (p = .027). Participants who perceived a larger proportion of friends drink alcohol were more likely to "often/always" make social comparisons (p = .018). CONCLUSIONS: Girls who perceive and describe themselves more negatively are at increased odds of making social comparisons to peers.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autoimagem
14.
J Psychosoc Oncol ; : 1-15, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764855

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To better understand the relationship between cancer patient distress and psychosocial variables, including problem types, to improve ability to predict and address psychosocial need. METHODS: A variation of National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Distress Thermometer (DT) was administered and collected at four sites from an Integrated Network Cancer Program (INCP). The presence of moderate/severe distress was examined relative to patient demographics, disease characteristics, and psychosocial problems. RESULTS: Distress scores were positively correlated with all problem counts. For every count increase of practical, emotional, and physical problems, and for every cancer stage increase the odds of reporting a moderate/severe distress score was significantly higher. Relative to patients with one cancer treatment type, patients with three cancer treatment types were significantly less likely to report moderate/severe distress. CONCLUSION: Problem count could be a useful indicator for clinical intervention. Stage and number of treatment types may also be considered clinically relevant distress predictors.

15.
Age Ageing ; 50(5): 1578-1585, 2021 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persons living with dementia have an elevated risk of falling and chronic pain. This study investigates the relationship of pain medication use with falls among community-dwelling adults based on their cognitive status. METHODS: We analysed a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries (n = 7,491) who completed cognitive assessments used for dementia classification in the 2015 US National Health and Aging Trends Study. We performed survey-weighted logistic regression to investigate differential associations between pain medication use and a recent fall by cognitive status: no dementia, possible dementia and probable dementia, controlling for sociodemographic and health characteristics. RESULTS: About 16.5% of the analytic sample was classified as possible dementia (8.3%) and probable dementia (8.2%). Pain medication use was associated with a recent fall among those with probable dementia [odds ratio (OR) = 1.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 3.03], controlling for sociodemographic and health characteristics. Taking medication for pain 2 days a week or more (OR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.20, 3.81) was associated with falls among those with probable dementia. Bothersome pain and worry about falling down were also associated with falls among participants with no dementia and possible dementia, respectively. CONCLUSION: Differential risk factors for falls by cognitive status imply the need for tailored pain management and fall prevention strategies. The provision of fall prevention programmes stressing balance training and medication use is important regardless of cognitive status in community-dwelling older adults. Future research should explore other modifiable factors associated with the risk of falls among community-dwelling adults.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Vida Independente , Idoso , Cognição , Humanos , Medicare , Dor , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
J Geriatr Phys Ther ; 44(4): 198-209, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Despite evidence that falls can be prevented with specific exercise interventions such as the Otago Exercise Program (OEP), translation of these programs into practice is limited in rural and medically underserved areas. The Community Health and Mobility Partnership (CHAMP) addresses this problem through a community-based implementation of the OEP in rural Appalachia where medical resources are scarce. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the CHAMP on physical performance and balance confidence in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of quasi-longitudinal data. Older adults received fall screenings at local senior centers. Those with increased fall risk received individualized OEP home exercises and were advised to return for monthly follow-up visits. Three physical performance measures-Timed Up and Go test (TUG), Four-Stage Balance Test (4SBT), and chair rise test (CRT)-and the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale (ABC) were assessed at the initial visit (IV) and each follow-up visit. Two groups were created to distinguish participants who returned for their second follow-up (F2) visit within 3 months from those who returned between 3 and 6 months. Within-group change from IV to F2 was calculated using repeated-measures t tests. Repeated-measures 2-way analyses of variance were used to test for main and interaction effects of group and visit. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: One hundred thirty CHAMP participants aged 76.1 (SD = 8.1) years demonstrated statistically and clinically significant improvements in the 3 physical performance measures (mean 4SBT: IV 29.5 seconds, F2 31.5 second, P = .001), (mean TUG: IV 12.7 seconds, F2 11.9 seconds, P = .021), (mean CRT: IV 0.258 stands/second, F2 0.290 stands/second, P = .002), but not in balance confidence (mean ABC: IV 62.2, F2 64.4, P = .154). A significant interaction of group by visit for the TUG was observed, suggesting that better TUG performance was associated with quicker return for follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated that program participants improved from IV to F2 in measures related to fall risk.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Equilíbrio Postural , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
17.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525438

RESUMO

Multiple studies suggest that genetic polymorphisms influence the neurocognitive effects of caffeine. Using data collected from a double-blinded, within-participants, randomized, cross-over design, this study examined the effects of trait (long-standing pre-disposition) mental and physical energy and fatigue to changes in moods (Profile of Mood Survey-Short Form (POMS-SF), state mental and physical energy and fatigue survey), cognitive (serial subtractions of 3 (SS3) and 7 (SS7)), and fine-motor task (nine-hole peg test) performance after consuming a caffeinated beverage and a non-caffeinated placebo. Results indicate that trait mental and physical fatigue and mental energy modified the effects of caffeine on vigor, tension-anxiety, physical, and mental fatigue. Additionally, we report that those who were high trait physical and mental fatigue and low-trait mental energy reported the greatest benefit of caffeine on the SS3 and SS7, while those who were high trait mental and physical fatigue reported the greatest benefit of consuming caffeine on fine-motor task performance. The results of our study suggest that trait mental and physical fatigue and mental energy modify the acute effects of caffeine among a group of healthy, young adults and should be measured and controlled for by researchers who choose to study the effects of caffeine on acute moods and cognitive and fine-motor task performance.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Cafeína/farmacologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético , Fadiga Mental/fisiopatologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Saliva/metabolismo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Prev Med ; 145: 106429, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476680

RESUMO

The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and marijuana remain prevalent problems among adolescents nationwide. We assessed current (past 30-day) exclusive e-cigarette use, exclusive marijuana use, and concurrent use with unintentional injury and violent behaviors, alcohol and other drug use behaviors, and sexual behaviors among U.S. high school students. We analyzed 2017 Youth Risk Behavior Survey data including 12,578 high school students nationwide. Multivariable logistic regression models were performed to compare these health-risk behaviors among exclusive e-cigarette users, exclusive marijuana users, and concurrent users with non-users among the overall sample, and then to compare exclusive e-cigarette users and exclusive marijuana users with concurrent users among current users only. All models adjusted for adolescent sex, grade, and race/ethnicity, and other tobacco product use. Approximately 77% of students were non-users, 5.2% were exclusive e-cigarette users, 9.9% were exclusive marijuana users, and 7.8% were concurrent users. Compared to non-users, exclusive e-cigarette users and exclusive marijuana users were more likely to engage in most negative health-risk behaviors associated with unintentional injuries and violence, alcohol and other drug use, and sexual behaviors. Among current users only, exclusive e-cigarette users and exclusive marijuana users were at reduced odds of engaging in most of these health-risk behaviors when compared to concurrent users of both substances. The relationship between exclusive and concurrent e-cigarette and marijuana use and health-risk behaviors highlights the importance of comprehensive educational efforts during high school. Findings suggest need for more studies on influence of e-cigarette and marijuana use on injury and violence risk among youth.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Uso da Maconha , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Humanos , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
19.
JMIR Aging ; 4(1): e23381, 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wearable technology for fall alerts among older adult care recipients is one of the more frequently studied areas of technology, given the concerning consequences of falls among this population. Falls are quite prevalent in later life. While there is a growing amount of literature on older adults' acceptance of technology, less is known about how caregivers' attitudes toward technology can impact care recipients' use of such technology. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to examine associations between caregivers' attitudes toward technology for caregiving and care recipients' use of fall alert wearables. METHODS: This study examined data collected with an online survey from 626 caregivers for adults 50 years and older. Adapted from the technology acceptance model, a structural equation model tested the following prespecified hypotheses: (1) higher perceived usefulness of technologies for caregiving would predict higher perceived value of and greater interest in technologies for caregiving; (2) higher perceived value of technologies for caregiving would predict greater interest in technologies for caregiving; and (3) greater interest in technologies for caregiving would predict greater use of fall alert wearables among care recipients. Additionally, we included demographic factors (eg, caregivers' and care recipients' ages) and caregiving context (eg, caregiver type and caregiving situation) as important predictors of care recipients' use of fall alert wearables. RESULTS: Of 626 total respondents, 548 (87.5%) with all valid responses were included in this study. Among care recipients, 28% used fall alert wearables. The final model had a good to fair model fit: a confirmatory factor index of 0.93, a standardized root mean square residual of 0.049, and root mean square error of approximation of 0.066. Caregivers' perceived usefulness of technology was positively associated with their attitudes toward using technology in caregiving (b=.70, P<.001) and interest in using technology for caregiving (b=.22, P=.003). Greater perceived value of using technology in caregiving predicted greater interest in using technology for caregiving (b=.65, P<.001). Greater interest in using technology for caregiving was associated with greater likelihood of care recipients using fall alert wearables (b=.27, P<.001). The caregiver type had the strongest inverse relationship with care recipients' use of fall alert wearables (unpaid vs paid caregiver) (b=-.33, P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study underscores the importance of caregivers' attitudes in care recipients' technology use for falls management. Raising awareness and improving perception about technologies for caregiving may help caregivers and care recipients adopt and better utilize technologies that can promote independence and enhance safety.

20.
Public Health Nutr ; 24(1): 146-156, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830625

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined the measurement and mediating role of social support in dietary intake among participants in Texercise Select, an intervention for improving lifestyle behaviours. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental study. Participants reported their dietary intake, level of social support measured by the new Social Support for Healthy Eating scale, sociodemographics and disease profile. We conducted exploratory factor analysis for scale evaluation and structural equation modelling for mediation analysis to test if changes in dietary-specific social support mediate the relationship between the intervention and changes in dietary intake. SETTING: Texas. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults completed a self-reported survey at baseline and 3-month follow-up (intervention group n 211, comparison group n 175). RESULTS: The majority of the sample was aged ≥70 years (mean 74·30, sd 8·54), female (82·1 %) and had at least two chronic conditions (63·5 %). The acceptable levels of reliability and validity of the dietary-specific social support scale were confirmed. Compared with the comparison group, the intervention group reported improved intake of fruit/vegetables and water, and improved dietary-specific social support. Improved dietary-specific social support mediated the association between intervention and change in fruit/vegetable intake, controlling for sociodemographics, number of chronic conditions and geographic residence. About 12 % of intervention effect was mediated by social support. CONCLUSIONS: The current study confirms positive intervention effects on healthy eating, and highlights social support relating to dietary behaviours that may be helpful for healthy eating. Future research should investigate additional social support for developing healthy eating behavioural skills.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Apoio Social , Idoso , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Texas , Verduras
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...