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1.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 3(2)2018 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30274444

RESUMO

This paper describes two phases of a community-directed intervention to address strongyloidiasis in the remote Aboriginal community of Woorabinda in central Queensland, Australia. The first phase provides the narrative of a community-driven 'treat-and-test' mass drug administration (MDA) intervention that was co-designed by the Community Health Service and the community. The second phase is a description of the re-engagement of the community in order to disseminate the key factors for success in the previous MDA for Strongyloides stercoralis, as this information was not shared or captured in the first phase. During the first phase in 2004, there was a high prevalence of strongyloidiasis (12% faecal examination, 30% serology; n = 944 community members tested) that resulted in increased morbidity and at least one death in the community. Between 2004⁻2005, the community worked in partnership with the Community Health Service to implement a S. stercoralis control program, where all of the residents were treated with oral ivermectin, and repeat doses were given for those with positive S. stercoralis serology. The community also developed their own health promotion campaign using locally-made resources targeting relevant environmental health problems and concerns. Ninety-two percent of the community residents participated in the program, and the prevalence of strongyloidiasis at the time of the 'treat-and-test' intervention was 16.6% [95% confidence interval 14.2⁻19.3]. The cure rate after two doses of ivermectin was 79.8%, based on pre-serology and post-serology tests. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of local Aboriginal leadership and governance and a high level of community involvement in this successful mass drug administration program to address S. stercoralis. The commitment required of these leaders was demanding, and involved intense work over a period of several months. Apart from controlling strongyloidiasis, the community also takes pride in having developed and implemented this program. This appears to be the first community-directed S. stercoralis control program in Australia, and is an important part of the national story of controlling infectious diseases in Indigenous communities.

2.
Anat Sci Educ ; 11(1): 65-72, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28906599

RESUMO

Two material 3D printing is becoming increasingly popular, inexpensive and accessible. In this paper, freely available printable files and dual extrusion fused deposition modelling were combined to create a number of functional anatomical models. To represent muscle and bone FilaFlex3D flexible filament and polylactic acid (PLA) filament were extruded respectively via a single 0.4 mm nozzle using a Big Builder printer. For each filament, cubes (5 mm3 ) were printed and analyzed for X, Y, and Z accuracy. The PLA printed cubes resulted in errors averaging just 1.2% across all directions but for FilaFlex3D printed cubes the errors were statistically significantly greater (average of 3.2%). As an exemplar, a focus was placed on the muscles, bones and cartilage of upper airway and neck. The resulting single prints combined flexible and hard structures. A single print model of the vocal cords was constructed which permitted movement of the arytenoids on the cricoid cartilage and served to illustrate the action of intrinsic laryngeal muscles. As University libraries become increasingly engaged in offering inexpensive 3D printing services it may soon become common place for both student and educator to access websites, download free models or 3D body parts and only pay the costs of print consumables. Novel models can be manufactured as dissectible, functional multi-layered units and offer rich possibilities for sectional and/or reduced anatomy. This approach can liberate the anatomist from constraints of inflexible hard models or plastinated specimens and engage in the design of class specific models of the future. Anat Sci Educ 11: 65-72. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.


Assuntos
Anatomia/educação , Elastômeros , Modelos Anatômicos , Poliésteres , Impressão Tridimensional , Elasticidade , Humanos , Pescoço/anatomia & histologia , Maleabilidade
3.
J Dent Educ ; 80(5): 595-604, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27139211

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to define the extent to which leadership and leadership skills are taught in dental hygiene degree completion programs by comparing stand-alone leadership courses/hybrid programs with programs that infuse leadership skills throughout the curricula. The study involved a mixed-methods approach using qualitative and quantitative data. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with program directors and faculty members who teach a stand-alone leadership course, a hybrid program, or leadership-infused courses in these programs. A quantitative comparison of course syllabi determined differences in the extent of leadership content and experiences between stand-alone leadership courses and leadership-infused curricula. Of the 53 U.S. dental hygiene programs that offer degree completion programs, 49 met the inclusion criteria, and 19 programs provided course syllabi. Of the program directors and faculty members who teach a stand-alone leadership course or leadership-infused curriculum, 16 participated in the interview portion of the study. The results suggested that competencies related to leadership were not clearly defined or measurable in current teaching. Reported barriers to incorporating a stand-alone leadership course included overcrowded curricula, limited qualified faculty, and lack of resources. The findings of this study provide a synopsis of leadership content and gaps in leadership education for degree completion programs. Suggested changes included defining a need for leadership competencies and providing additional resources to educators such as courses provided by the American Dental Education Association and the American Dental Hygienists' Association.


Assuntos
Currículo , Profilaxia Dentária , Liderança , Odontologia Preventiva/educação , Projetos Piloto , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos
4.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 32(11): 1685-90, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26411311

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The effect of age on telomere length heterogeneity in men has not been studied previously. Our aims were to determine the relationship between variation in sperm telomere length (STL), men's age, and semen parameters in spermatozoa from men undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. METHODS: To perform this prospective cross-sectional pilot study, telomere length was estimated in 200 individual spermatozoa from men undergoing IVF treatment at the NYU Fertility Center. A novel single-cell telomere content assay (SCT-pqPCR) measured telomere length in individual spermatozoa. RESULTS: Telomere length among individual spermatozoa within an ejaculate varies markedly and increases with age. Older men not only have longer STL but also have more variable STL compared to younger men. STL from samples with normal semen parameters was significantly longer than that from samples with abnormal parameters, but STL did not differ between spermatozoa with normal versus abnormal morphology. CONCLUSION: The marked increase in STL heterogeneity as men age is consistent with a role for ALT during spermatogenesis. No data have yet reported the effect of age on STL heterogeneity. Based on these results, future studies should expand this modest sample size to search for molecular evidence of ALT in human testes during spermatogenesis.


Assuntos
DNA/análise , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Telômero/genética , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idade Paterna , Estudos Prospectivos , Homeostase do Telômero/genética
5.
Qual Health Res ; 25(12): 1662-74, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25583958

RESUMO

In Canada, cultural safety (CS) is emerging as a theoretical and practice lens to orient health care services to meet the needs of Aboriginal people. Evidence suggests Aboriginal peoples' encounters with health care are commonly negative, and there is concern that these experiences can contribute to further adverse health outcomes. In this article, we report findings based on participatory action research drawing on Indigenous methods. Our project goal was to interrogate practices within one hospital to see whether and how CS for Aboriginal patients could be improved. Interviews with Aboriginal patients who had accessed hospital services were conducted, and responses were collated into narrative summaries. Using interlocking analysis, findings revealed a number of processes operating to produce adverse health outcomes. One significant outcome is the production of structural violence that reproduces experiences of institutional trauma. Positive culturally safe experiences, although less frequently reported, were described as interpersonal interactions with feelings visibility and therefore, treatment as a "human being."


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente/etnologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Índios Norte-Americanos/psicologia , Racismo/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Colúmbia Britânica , Colonialismo , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente/normas , Feminino , Hospitais Comunitários , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores Sociológicos , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 8(9): e3141, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25254655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strongyloides stercoralis infects human hosts mainly through skin contact with contaminated soil. The result is strongyloidiasis, a parasitic disease, with a unique cycle of auto-infection causing a variety of symptoms and signs, with possible fatality from hyper-infection. Australian Indigenous community members, often living in rural and remote settings, are exposed to and infected with S. stercoralis. The aim of this review is to determine barriers to control of strongyloidiasis. The purpose is to contribute to the development of initiatives for prevention, early detection and effective treatment of strongyloidiasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Systematic search reviewing research published 2012 and earlier was conducted. Research articles discussing aspects of strongyloidiasis, context of infection and overall health in Indigenous Australians were reviewed. Based on the PRISMA statement, the systematic search of health databases, Academic Search Premier, Informit, Medline, PubMed, AMED, CINAHL, Health Source Nursing and Academic was conducted. Key search terms included strongyloidiasis, Indigenous, Australia, health, and community. 340 articles were retrieved with 16 original research articles published between 1969 and 2006 meeting criteria. Review found barriers to control defined across three key themes, (1) health status, (2) socioeconomic status, and (3) health care literacy and procedures. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study identifies five points of intervention: (1) develop reporting protocols between health care system and communities; (2) test all Indigenous Australian patients, immunocompromised patients and those exposed to areas with S. stercoralis; (3) health professionals require detailed information on strongyloidiasis and potential for exposure to Indigenous Australian people; (4) to establish testing and treatment initiatives within communities; and (5) to measure and report prevalence rates specific to communities and to act with initiatives based on these results. By defining barriers to control of strongyloidiasis in Australian Indigenous people, improved outcomes of prevention, treatment of strongyloidiasis and increased health overall are attainable.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Strongyloides stercoralis/isolamento & purificação , Estrongiloidíase/etnologia , Estrongiloidíase/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Estrongiloidíase/epidemiologia
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 110(21): E1906-12, 2013 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23661059

RESUMO

Measurement of telomere length currently requires a large population of cells, which masks telomere length heterogeneity in single cells, or requires FISH in metaphase arrested cells, posing technical challenges. A practical method for measuring telomere length in single cells has been lacking. We established a simple and robust approach for single-cell telomere length measurement (SCT-pqPCR). We first optimized a multiplex preamplification specific for telomeres and reference genes from individual cells, such that the amplicon provides a consistent ratio (T/R) of telomeres (T) to the reference genes (R) by quantitative PCR (qPCR). The average T/R ratio of multiple single cells corresponded closely to that of a given cell population measured by regular qPCR, and correlated with those of telomere restriction fragments (TRF) and quantitative FISH measurements. Furthermore, SCT-pqPCR detected the telomere length for quiescent cells that are inaccessible by quantitative FISH. The reliability of SCT-pqPCR also was confirmed using sister cells from two cell embryos. Telomere length heterogeneity was identified by SCT-pqPCR among cells of various human and mouse cell types. We found that the T/R values of human fibroblasts at later passages and from old donors were lower and more heterogeneous than those of early passages and from young donors, that cancer cell lines show heterogeneous telomere lengths, that human oocytes and polar bodies have nearly identical telomere lengths, and that the telomere lengths progressively increase from the zygote, two-cell to four-cell embryo. This method will facilitate understanding of telomere heterogeneity and its role in tumorigenesis, aging, and associated diseases.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/metabolismo , Corpos Polares/metabolismo , Telômero/metabolismo , Animais , Blastocisto/citologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Camundongos , Corpos Polares/citologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Telômero/genética
8.
Gait Posture ; 37(2): 206-9, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22871237

RESUMO

This study examined the extent to which gait analysis recommendations are followed by orthopedic surgeons with varying degrees of affiliation with the gait laboratory. Surgical data were retrospectively examined for 95 patients with cerebral palsy who underwent lower extremity orthopedic surgery following gait analysis. Thirty-three patients were referred by two surgeons directly affiliated with the gait laboratory (direct affiliation), 44 were referred by five surgeons from the same institution but not directly affiliated with the gait laboratory (institutional affiliation), and 18 were referred by 10 surgeons from other institutions (no affiliation). Data on specific surgeries were collected from the gait analysis referral, gait analysis report, and operative notes. Adherence to the gait analysis recommendations was calculated by dividing the number of procedures where the surgery followed the gait analysis recommendation (numerator) by the total number of procedures initially planned, recommended by gait analysis, or done (denominator). Adherence with the gait analysis recommendations was 97%, 94%, and 77% for the direct, institutional, and no affiliation groups, respectively. Procedures recommended for additions to the surgical plan were added 98%, 87%, and 77% of the time. Procedures recommended for elimination were dropped 100%, 89%, and 88% of the time. Of 81 patients who had specific surgical plans prior to gait analysis, changes were implemented in 84% (68/81) following gait analysis recommendations. Gait analysis influences the treatment decisions of surgeons regardless of affiliation with the gait laboratory, although the influence is stronger for surgeons who practice within the same institution as the gait laboratory.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Tomada de Decisões , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/cirurgia , Adolescente , Análise de Variância , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ortopedia , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 198(4): 909-13, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22451560

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to determine whether the depiction of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in PET/CT studies of pediatric patients with lymphoma is related to disease status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The PET/CT studies of 31 pediatric patients (17 boys and 14 girls) with Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma were reviewed, and the prevalence of metabolically active BAT at diagnosis and the prevalence of BAT when there was no evidence of disease were compared. RESULTS: The percentage of PET/CT studies depicting BAT was greater when there was no evidence of disease than at diagnosis (10% vs 77%, respectively; p < 0.001). The McNemar test indicated a strong inverse correlation between the presence of disease and the presence of BAT (p < 0.001). This correlation was noted when all subjects were examined together and when subjects with Hodgkin lymphoma and those with non-Hodgkin lymphoma were analyzed separately (p < 0.001 and < 0.05, respectively). When baseline and follow-up PET/CT scans for all patients were analyzed for the presence of BAT using conditional logistic regression, both the season when the study was performed and disease status independently predicted BAT: The winter months positively predicted BAT and the presence of lymphoma was negatively correlated with the depiction of BAT on PET/CT. Age, sex, treatment, and weight did not provide additional information when added to the model. CONCLUSION: The knowledge that BAT is a predictor of disease status should contribute to the correct analysis of PET/CT studies in children with lymphoma.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Multimodal , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adolescente , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Meios de Contraste , Diatrizoato de Meglumina , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 95(5): 1144-9, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22456659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the accumulation of white adipose tissue (WAT) is a risk factor for disease, brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been suggested to have a protective role against obesity. OBJECTIVE: We studied whether changes in BAT were related to changes in the amounts of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in children treated for malignancy. DESIGN: We examined the effect of BAT activity on weight, SAT, and VAT in 32 pediatric patients with cancer whose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scans at diagnosis showed no BAT activity. Changes in weight, SAT, and VAT from diagnosis to remission for children with metabolically active BAT at disease-free follow-up (BAT+) were compared with those in children without visualized BAT when free of disease (BAT-). RESULTS: Follow-up PET-CT studies (4.7 ± 2.4 mo later) after successful treatment of the cancer showed BAT+ in 19 patients but no active BAT (BAT-) in 13 patients. BAT+ patients, in comparison with BAT- patients, gained significantly less weight (3.3 ± 6.6% compared with 11.0 ± 11.6%; P = 0.02) and had significantly less SAT (18.2 ± 26.5% compared with 67.4 ± 71.7%; P = 0.01) and VAT (22.6 ± 33.5% compared with 131.6 ± 171.8%; P = 0.01) during treatment. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the inverse relations between BAT activation and measures of weight, SAT, and VAT persisted even after age, glucocorticoid treatment, and the season when the PET-CT scans were obtained were accounted for. CONCLUSION: The activation of BAT in pediatric patients undergoing treatment of malignancy is associated with significantly less adipose accumulation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01517581.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Neoplasias/terapia , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Músculos Abdominais , Adiposidade , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
11.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 35(4): 938-42, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22180228

RESUMO

We report the unique depiction of brown adipose tissue (BAT) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) in a human 3-month-old infant. Based on cellular differences between BAT and more lipid-rich white adipose tissue (WAT), chemical-shift MRI and CT were both capable of generating distinct signal contrasts between the two tissues and against surrounding anatomy, utilizing fat-signal fraction metrics in the former and x-ray attenuation values in the latter. While numerous BAT imaging experiments have been performed previously in rodents, the identification of BAT in humans has only recently been described with fusion positron emission and computed tomography in adults. The imaging of BAT in children has not been widely reported and, furthermore, MRI of human BAT in general has not been demonstrated. In the present work, large bilateral supraclavicular BAT depots were clearly visualized with MRI and CT. Tissue identity was subsequently confirmed by histology. BAT has important implications in regulating energy metabolism and nonshivering thermogenesis and has the potential to combat the onset of weight gain and the development of obesity. Current findings suggest that BAT is present in significant amounts in children and that MRI and CT can differentiate BAT from WAT based on intrinsic tissue properties.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/anatomia & histologia , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente
12.
J Pediatr ; 160(4): 604-609.e1, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22048045

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the changes in brown adipose tissue (BAT) occurring during puberty in boys and girls. STUDY DESIGN: We examined the prevalence and the volume of BAT at different stages of sexual development in 73 pediatric patients who underwent positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) studies. RESULTS: Of the 73 patients studied, 43 (59%) had BAT depicted on PET/CT. The presence of BAT was detected significantly less frequently on PET/CT in prepubertal subjects (Tanner stage 1) than in pubertal subjects (Tanner stages 2-5) (15% vs 75%). BAT volume also increased during puberty, with a significantly greater magnitude of the increase in the final 2 stages of puberty (Tanner stages 4 and 5) than in earlier stages (Tanner stages 1-3) (boys: 499 ± 246 vs 50 ± 36, P < .0001; girls: 286 ± 139 vs 36 ± 29, P = .024). Changes in BAT volume were also significantly greater in boys than in girls (P = .004) and were closely related to muscle volume (r = 0.52, P < .01 for boys; r = 0.64, P < .01 for girls). CONCLUSION: The presence and volume of BAT increase rapidly during puberty. Metabolic and hormonal events related to the achievement of sexual maturity are likely responsible for this increase.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/anatomia & histologia , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Puberdade , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Imagem Multimodal , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
13.
Ann Pharmacother ; 45(5): 658-66, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21540403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, dosage regimens, efficacy, and safety of currently marketed pancreatic enzyme products (PEPs). DATA SOURCES: Studies were identified by PubMed (1966-January 2011), clinicaltrials.gov, fda.gov, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts. Search terms included pancreatic enzyme, lipase, Creon, Zenpep, Pancreaze, and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI). STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: All human studies evaluating the efficacy of currently approved or potential PEPs were reviewed. DATA SYNTHESIS: PEPs are composed of porcine lipase, amylase, and protease and are used in patients with EPI secondary to cystic fibrosis, chronic pancreatitis, and pancreatectomy. In 1938, PEPs were exempted from the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938 and never underwent a formal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) review process. In response to reports of treatment failures during product interchange, the FDA conducted a review of available PEP products. This review found a large variability of response between the unapproved PEP products, which resulted in the FDA requiring approval of all PEP products by April 2010. The 3 delayed-release, enteric-coated PEPs currently approved by the FDA (Creon, Zenpep, and Pancreaze) have demonstrated efficacy and safety in EPI secondary to cystic fibrosis. Creon has also demonstrated safety and efficacy in EPI secondary to chronic pancreatitis and pancreatectomy. Cost difference between the 3 products is minimal. Treatment-related adverse events in clinical studies for all PEPs were less than or similar to those with placebo. CONCLUSIONS: At this time, Creon is an appropriate first-line agent, as it has been approved for chronic pancreatitis, pancreatectomy, and cystic fibrosis.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/farmacologia , Pâncreas/enzimologia , Pancrelipase/farmacologia , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pancrelipase/efeitos adversos
14.
J Am Coll Health ; 59(4): 260-5, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21308585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Young adults remain the earliest legal target for the tobacco industry. Against this, the existence of smoking policies would appear to offer some protection to students on campus. However, little research has been conducted into the outcomes of such policies from a student perspective. METHODS: The authors conducted 8 focus groups at 4 selected Canadian undergraduate campuses to investigate student perceptions and behaviors resulting from campus smoking policies. RESULTS: Results indicated that student smoking behaviors are minimally impacted by campus smoking policies due to seriously compromised implementation and enforcement. CONCLUSIONS: These findings imply that the presence of campus smoking policies and claims of "smoke-free" campuses should not be misinterpreted as achievement and without renewed focus and adequate tobacco control infrastructure, it will remain possible for young adults to initiate and maintain tobacco smoking on campus.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Organizacional , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudantes/legislação & jurisprudência , Universidades/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Educação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Medição de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Estudantes/psicologia , Gravação de Fita , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Fam Nurs ; 16(3): 282-301, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20595105

RESUMO

Although individuals who are diagnosed with smoking-related disorders are offered smoking cessation programs, little attention has been directed toward reducing tobacco use among healthy relatives who smoke. The purpose of this article is to report smoking relatives' responses to a family member's diagnosis of lung disease, their constructions of smoking in this context, and their interaction patterns with the patient. Interviews with 11 family members where there was a diagnosis of lung cancer and 3 family members where there was another serious smoking-related diagnosis were analyzed. Family members used two strategies to support their continued smoking: distancing themselves from the diagnosis and taking the position that smoking cessation needed to be internally motivated by the "right reason" and initiated at the "right time" to anticipate success. The few participants who chose to quit, did so in support of their ill family member. The findings provide direction for intervening with family members who smoke.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Fumar/epidemiologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Apoio Social
16.
Oncol Nurs Forum ; 36(3): E126-32, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19403440

RESUMO

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To explore the influence of lung cancer diagnosis on interpersonal dynamics in families in which one or more members continue to smoke following diagnosis. RESEARCH APPROACH: Descriptive, qualitative. SETTING: Three cancer care sites in western Canada. PARTICIPANTS: 16 participants from 8 family dyads. METHODOLOGIC APPROACH: Patients with lung cancer receiving treatment and immediate family members were recruited to participate in individual or conjoint semistructured interviews. Thematic analysis was conducted on transcribed interviews. MAIN RESEARCH VARIABLES: Intrafamily interaction patterns, smoking and smoking cessation, lung cancer diagnosis. FINDINGS: Following diagnosis, patients with lung cancer experienced considerable distress as they struggled to understand family members' continued smoking. Patient orientations to family members who smoked included preserving relationships (maintaining harmony and connection with family members took priority over directly intervening with smokers) and risking relationships (patients repeatedly confronted family members about continued smoking to influence their cessation despite the impact on relationships). Neither pattern was successful in engaging relatives in smoking reduction or cessation, and the risking relationships approach resulted in conflict and strained family relationships. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provide additional support for examining family dynamics related to tobacco reduction and cessation as well as directions for future research. INTERPRETATION: Nurses should encourage tobacco reduction as a supportive intervention for patients with lung cancer and their families to eliminate smoking-related distress.


Assuntos
Família/psicologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enfermagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Fumar/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Enfermagem Familiar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Metodológica em Enfermagem , Pacientes/psicologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19124282

RESUMO

A quantitative method was developed and validated to measure the concentration of sulfadimethoxine (SDM) and its major metabolite, (4)N-acetylsulfadimethoxine (AcSDM), in bovine tissues and body fluids. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) gave quantitative results for these two analytes in extracts from bovine plasma, urine, oral fluid, kidney, and liver, using SDM-d(4) as internal standard (I.S.). The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) for both analytes in these matrices was validated at 2, 100, and 5 ng/mL in plasma, urine, and oral fluid respectively, and 10 ng/g in both kidney (cortex) and liver. The overall accuracy (average of 4 levels) is, for plasma, 104% (SDM) and 95% (AcSDM), with standard deviation of 9% (SDM) and 15% (AcSDM); for urine, 100% (SDM) and 106% (AcSDM), with standard deviation of 5% (SDM) and 6% (AcSDM); for oral fluid, 103% (SDM) and 103% (AcSDM), with standard deviation of 4% (SDM) and 4% (AcSDM); for kidney, 101% (SDM) and 111% (AcSDM), with standard deviation of 7% (SDM) and 6% (AcSDM); and for liver, 99% (SDM) and 115% (AcSDM), with standard deviation of 11% (SDM) and 9% (AcSDM). C18 SPE cartridges were used to clean-up these matrices, except for urine which was diluted directly with buffer before analysis by LC/MS/MS.


Assuntos
Sulfadimetoxina/análogos & derivados , Sulfadimetoxina/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Rim/química , Modelos Lineares , Fígado/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Saliva/química , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Extração em Fase Sólida , Sulfadimetoxina/sangue , Sulfadimetoxina/urina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Ann Pharmacother ; 41(1): 68-78, 2007 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17200430

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in adults. DATA SOURCES: Literature retrieval was accessed through MEDLINE (1966-December 2006) using the terms postoperative nausea and vomiting, prevention and treatment. Article references were hand-searched for additional relevant articles and abstracts. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: All studies published in English were evaluated. Those dealing with prevention and treatment of PONV in adults were included in the review. DATA SYNTHESIS: Evidence suggests that providing prophylactic antiemetic medications in high-risk surgical patients is warranted. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are widely used, with no one agent being clearly superior. However, studies have shown other types of agents to be more cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: The first step in the prevention of PONV is assessment and reduction of risk factors. Although nonpharmacologic therapies may play a role in the treatment of PONV, the mainstay of therapy for PONV is pharmacologic modalities. Patients at moderate to high risk for PONV need prophylactic antiemetic therapy. High-risk patients may require combination therapy with 2 or 3 agents from different antiemetic classes. Rescue antiemetic therapy is needed by patients who actually develop PONV. The agents of choice in such cases should be from antiemetic classes different from those used for prophylaxis of PONV.


Assuntos
Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/prevenção & controle , Antieméticos/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco , Antagonistas da Serotonina/administração & dosagem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16257590

RESUMO

Methods for the measurement of penicillin concentration in bovine plasma, kidney and urine were developed and validated. Detection was based on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Phenethecillin was used as an internal standard. Plasma was extracted with acetonitrile using a method with a calculated limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 12 ng/mL. Kidney samples were homogenized in water and acetonitrile, then cleaned up on C18-bonded silica SPE cartridges. The LOQ of this procedure was 10 ng/g. Urine samples were diluted, filtered, and analyzed directly. The LOQ of this procedure was 63 ng/mL. The overall accuracy for plasma was 103% with coefficient of variation (CV) of 3%; for kidney, 96% and 11%, respectively, and for urine, 98% and 4%, respectively. These methods were applied to the analysis of plasma, urine, and kidney biopsy samples taken from standing animals that had been dosed with penicillin.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Rim/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Penicilina G/análise , Animais , Biópsia , Bovinos , Rim/patologia , Penicilina G/sangue , Penicilina G/urina , Padrões de Referência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15905139

RESUMO

Methods for the measurement of gentamicin concentration in several bovine tissues were developed and validated. A novel liquid chromatographic (LC) technique employed trifluoroacetic acid in the mobile phase so that all gentamicin components co-eluted. Analytes were ionized by positive-ion pneumatically assisted electrospray and detected by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) with an LC-tandem mass spectrometer (LC/MS/MS). Calibration of plasma and urine samples was based on tobramycin internal standard. Calibration of milk and kidney samples was based on external standard, due to variability of tobramycin response in these matrices. The extraction technique employed treatment with aqueous trichloroacetic acid to both precipitate protein and liberate gentamicin from the matrix. Milk samples had to be defatted by centrifugation prior to extraction. Urine samples were further cleaned up with C-18 solid phase extraction (SPE). These methods were validated for use in several residue depletion studies (reported elsewhere) to monitor the depletion of gentamicin in tissues under various dosing conditions. The plasma method was calibrated from 1 to 5000 ng/mL in two ranges, with a limit of quantitation (LOQ) in the low range calculated at 3.3 ng/mL. The milk method was calibrated from 2.5 to 2500 ng/mL with an LOQ calculated at 4.5 ng/mL. The urine method was designed for use at low levels, and was calibrated from 1 to 100 ng/mL with an LOQ of 3.8 ng/mL. The kidney method was primarily designed for analysis of small samples (approximately 100mg). This method was calibrated from 10 to 50,000 ng/g with an LOQ of 26 ng/g.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Gentamicinas/análise , Gentamicinas/metabolismo , Rim/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Leite/química , Animais , Biópsia/veterinária , Bovinos , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Feminino
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