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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026518


OBJECTIVE: Suicide is consistently within the top ten leading causes of death in the United States. The suicide rate of National Guard personnel is elevated relative to the general population; however, research suggests that many of the suicide risk factors for military personnel are similar to the suicide risk factors for civilians. We examined whether negative urgency moderated the relationships between anger/hostility and perceived burdensomeness/thwarted belongingness in both a military and civilian samples. METHOD: There were two samples in the current study: (1) military personnel (majority national guard) and (2) community members oversampled for suicide attempt history. RESULTS: Our hypotheses were partially supported with the interaction of hostility and negative urgency predicting perceived burdensomeness in the military sample. Within civilians, anger interacted with negative urgency to predict perceived burdensomeness. There were nonsignificant findings for analyses predicting thwarted belongingness. Exploratory analyses indicated that in both samples, anger and hostility interacted with negative urgency to predict suicidal ideation. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that aggressive attributes may contribute to individuals feeling as though they are a burden on others when moderate to high levels of negative urgency are present. Additionally, this study provides foundational support for the differences between suicidal desire and ideation.

Arch Suicide Res ; : 1-20, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749417


Suicide is a public health concern and has been the tenth leading cause of death in the United States since 2008. The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior is an empirically supported model of suicide. The theory posits that thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness examine the individual's perceived connectedness to others around them and together create suicidal desire. Anxiety is another widespread public health concern, associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts above and beyond the effects of socio-demographic factors and other mental disorders. A key factor in anxiety disorders is intolerance of uncertainty, or the individual's tendency to perceive ambiguous situations and events as being aversive to emotional and behavioral well-being. Additionally, different facets of aggression have been associated with both intolerance of uncertainty and suicidal desire. The current study sought to examine how facets of aggression moderated the associations between intolerance of uncertainty (both prospective and inhibitory) and thwarted belongingness/perceived burdensomeness. Participants were 440 adults recruited online. The hypotheses of aggression facets moderating the association between intolerance of uncertainty and perceived burdensomeness were largely supported with statistical significance for six out of eight models. Similarly, the hypotheses of aggression facets moderating thwarted belongingness were largely supported with significant moderations for seven out of eight models. The results were upheld when using Benjamini-Hochberg test of significance to account for Type I error. Overall, results indicate that aggressive facets can amplify the associations between intolerance of uncertainty and thwarted belongingness/perceived burdensomeness; however, results differed based on the intolerance of uncertainty dimensions.

Psychiatry Res ; 276: 262-268, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125903


Suicide remains a public health concern with suicide rates showing a consistent increase over the last 20 years. Recent studies have found a relationship between anxiety sensitivity (i.e., the fear of anxiety related symptoms) and suicidality. Specifically, a relationship has been found between anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns (ASCC) and suicidality. The knowledge around this relationship, however, has relied mostly on self-report measures. This study seeks to expand on the current literature by exploring the association between ASCC and suicidality, through the use of head-mounted display perceptual illusion challenges (e.g., using tactile sensations and mannequins to create illusions that the participant has switched bodies). A head-mounted display was used to elicit symptoms (e.g., depersonalization, derealization) related to ASCC in a sample of undergraduate students (N = 54). Suicidality and depression were measured by the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms-2 (IDAS-II), anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns by the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3), and distress by the Subjective Units of Distress Scale (SUDS). Findings indicated that suicidality was associated with self-reported ASCC as well as the fear generated from the challenges. Furthermore, our results found that challenge-induced fear predicted suicidality scores above and beyond the traditional self-report measures of ASCC. The small sample size and low suicide risk of the current sample limits generalizations to more severe populations.

Ansiedade/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Ilusões/psicologia , Suicídio/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Despersonalização/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
Psychiatry Res ; 273: 82-88, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640055


Nocturnal panic involves waking suddenly from sleep in a state of panic, with no apparent cause, and affects more than half of patients with panic disorder. The Fear of Loss of Vigilance theory is the only proposed model for nocturnal panic, suggesting nocturnal panickers fear states in which they are unable to react to danger or protect themselves from threats. Prior work using a self-report questionnaire designed to test the theory (i.e., Fear of Loss of Vigilance Questionnaire; FLOVQ) was unsuccessful at differentiating nocturnal from daytime panickers. This study tested the theory using alternative measures to the FLOVQ. We predicted nocturnal panickers would show elevated responses to measures assessing fears of being unable to respond to or protect themselves from threats. A diverse community sample (N = 218) completed self-report measures related to panic attacks, intolerance of uncertainty, responsibility for harm, and anxiety sensitivity dimensions. Nocturnal panickers endorsed greater inhibitory intolerance of uncertainty and responsibility for harm, but not prospective intolerance of uncertainty, or anxiety sensitivity physical or cognitive concerns. This study provides support for the fear of loss of vigilance theory and suggests intolerance of uncertainty and responsibility for harm reduction be targeted in treatment for nocturnal panic attacks.

Medo/psicologia , Transtorno de Pânico/diagnóstico , Transtorno de Pânico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Incerteza , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia