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3.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 21(6): 20, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941517

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The 2018 ACC/AHA Multisociety blood cholesterol guidelines provide updated recommendations based on contemporary evidence on the management of serum cholesterol for the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events. This review discusses clinically important topics in the new guidelines related to secondary ASCVD prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the 2013 ACC/AHA blood cholesterol guidelines, several large randomized control trials involving ezetimibe and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors (evolocumab and alirocumab) have been published. The trials provided evidence that these non-statin, LDL-cholesterol lowering agents are efficacious in reducing risk for ASCVD events in patients with clinical ASCVD. The 2018 guidelines incorporate these new findings into updated clinical recommendations on therapeutic strategies related to the use of ezetimibe and PCSK9 inhibitors. The guidelines also recommend risk stratification of secondary prevention patients to identify those at very high-risk of ASCVD events as these patients would derive the most absolute risk reduction from the addition of non-statin therapies. While high-intensity statins remain the first-line treatment to prevent recurrent ASCVD events in secondary prevention patients, ezetimibe and PCSK9 inhibitors are evidence-based non-statin agents that can be used when residual on top of maximally tolerated statin therapy in patients deemed to be at very-high risk of recurrent ASCVD events.

4.
Am Heart J ; 212: 80-90, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine hospital performance on evidence-based management strategies for non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) and variations across hospitals. METHODS: Improving Care for Cardiovascular Disease in China (CCC)-ACS project is an ongoing registry and quality improvement project, with 150 tertiary hospitals recruited across China. We examined hospital performance on nine management strategies (Class I Recommendations with A Level of Evidence) based on established guidelines. We also evaluated the proportion of patients receiving defect-free care, which was defined as the care that included all the required management strategies for which the patient was eligible. The hospital-level variations in the performance were examined. RESULTS: From 2014 to 2018, 28,170 NSTE-ACS patients were included. Overall, 16% of patients received defect-free care. Higher-performing metrics were statin at discharge (93%), cardiac troponin measurement (92%), dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) within 24 hours (90%), and DAPT at discharge (85%). These were followed by metrics of ß-blocker at discharge (69%), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker (ACEI/ARB) at discharge (59%), and risk stratification (56%). Lower-performing metrics were smoking cessation counseling (35%) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) within recommended times (33%). The proportion of patients receiving defect-free care substantially varied across hospitals, ranging from 0% to 58% (Median (interquartile range):12% (7%-21%)). There were large variations across hospitals in performance on risk stratification, smoking cessation counseling, PCI within recommended times, ACEI/ARB at discharge and ß-blocker at discharge. CONCLUSIONS: About one in six NSTE-ACS patients received defect-free care, and the performance varied across hospitals.

5.
Am Heart J ; 212: 120-128, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by statins is a key strategy for secondary prevention of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, few studies have examined prehospital statin use and admission LDL-C levels in ACS patients with history of myocardial infarction (MI) or revascularization. This study aimed to assess use of prehospital statins and LDL-C levels at admission in ACS patients with history of MI or revascularization. METHODS: Improving Care for Cardiovascular Disease in China project was a nationwide registry, with 192 participating hospitals reporting details of clinical information of ACS patients from November 2014. By May 2018, 80,282 patients with ACS were included. LDL-C levels were obtained from the initial admission lipid testing. RESULTS: Of the 80,282 ACS patients, 6,523 with a history of MI or revascularization were enrolled. Among them, 50.8% were receiving lipid-lowering therapy before hospitalization (statin monotherapy in 98.4%, combination in 1.2%). A total of 30.1% of patients had LDL-C < 70 mg/dL at admission. In patients receiving prehospital statins, 36.1% had LDL-C < 70 mg/dL compared to 24.0% without prehospital statins (P < .001). At discharge, 91.8% of patients were treated with statin monotherapy, 90.7% at moderate doses irrespective of prehospital statin use and LDL-C levels at admission. CONCLUSIONS: Among ACS patients with history of MI or revascularization, half were not being treated with statin therapy prior to admission, and most had not attained LDL-C < 70 mg/dL despite prehospital statin use. There is an important opportunity to provide intensive statin or combination lipid-lowering therapy to these very high risk patients.

6.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(5): 473-477, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969319

RESUMO

These 4 hypothetical cases highlight some of the new features in the 2018 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology multisociety cholesterol management guidelines. Topics include management issues in a secondary prevention patient judged to be at very high risk of another event, a patient with familial hypercholesterolemia with a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of 190 mg/dL or greater (to convert to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.0259), a primary prevention patient with intermediate (7.5%-19.9%) 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk, and a patient who has statin-associated adverse effects. A multiple-choice format is used to engage clinicians in selecting the best choice based on guidance from the new 2018 cholesterol management guidelines.

11.
JAMA ; 321(11): 1069-1080, 2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874755

RESUMO

Importance: Clinical decisions are ideally based on evidence generated from multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating clinical outcomes, but historically, few clinical guideline recommendations have been based entirely on this type of evidence. Objective: To determine the class and level of evidence (LOE) supporting current major cardiovascular society guideline recommendations, and changes in LOE over time. Data Sources: Current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) clinical guideline documents (2008-2018), as identified on cardiovascular society websites, and immediate predecessors to these guideline documents (1999-2014), as referenced in current guideline documents. Study Selection: Comprehensive guideline documents including recommendations organized by class and LOE. Data Extraction and Synthesis: The number of recommendations and the distribution of LOE (A [supported by data from multiple RCTs or a single, large RCT], B [supported by data from observational studies or a single RCT], and C [supported by expert opinion only]) were determined for each guideline document. Main Outcomes and Measures: The proportion of guideline recommendations supported by evidence from multiple RCTs (LOE A). Results: Across 26 current ACC/AHA guidelines (2930 recommendations; median, 121 recommendations per guideline [25th-75th percentiles, 76-155]), 248 recommendations (8.5%) were classified as LOE A, 1465 (50.0%) as LOE B, and 1217 (41.5%) as LOE C. The median proportion of LOE A recommendations was 7.9% (25th-75th percentiles, 0.9%-15.2%). Across 25 current ESC guideline documents (3399 recommendations; median, 130 recommendations per guideline [25th-75th percentiles, 111-154]), 484 recommendations (14.2%) were classified as LOE A, 1053 (31.0%) as LOE B, and 1862 (54.8%) as LOE C. When comparing current guidelines with prior versions, the proportion of recommendations that were LOE A did not increase in either ACC/AHA (median, 9.0% [current] vs 11.7% [prior]) or ESC guidelines (median, 15.1% [current] vs 17.6% [prior]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among recommendations in major cardiovascular society guidelines, only a small percentage were supported by evidence from multiple RCTs or a single, large RCT. This pattern does not appear to have meaningfully improved from 2008 to 2018.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sociedades Médicas , American Heart Association , Europa (Continente) , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estados Unidos
12.
Am J Cardiol ; 123(9): 1393-1398, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773247

RESUMO

ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) occurring in patients hospitalized for a noncardiac condition is associated with a high mortality rate and thus we sought to determine the mechanisms underlying STEMI in this patient population. This is a single center retrospective study of 70 patients who had STEMI while hospitalized on a noncardiac service and underwent coronary angiography. Thrombotic in-hospital STEMI was defined by angiographic or intravascular imaging evidence of intracoronary thrombus, plaque rupture, or stent thrombosis. Thirty-six (51%) inpatient STEMIs developed in the operating room or various postoperative stages and 6 (9%) after endoscopy or a percutaneous procedure. Thrombotic etiologies were found in 39 (56%) patients. Nonthrombotic etiologies included vasospasm, supply-demand mismatch, and takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Patients in the thrombotic group were more likely to have antiplatelet medications discontinued on admission, had higher peak troponin levels and were more likely to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention than patients in the nonthrombotic group. Exposure to vasopressors, time from ECG to angiography, post-STEMI ejection fraction, length of stay, and in-hospital mortality were similar in both groups. There was no difference in the use of percutaneous coronary intervention in patients but longer ECG to coronary angiography times and fivefold higher in-hospital mortality in thrombotic inpatient STEMI compared with 643 patients who presented with an out-of-hospital STEMI during the same time period. In conclusion, thrombotic and nonthrombotic mechanisms cause STEMI in hospitalized patients and are associated with a high mortality.

13.
Circulation ; 139(15): 1776-1785, 2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30667281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease is a leading cause of mortality among women. Systematic evaluation of the quality of care and outcomes in women hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome (ACS), an acute manifestation of coronary heart disease, remains lacking in China. METHODS: The CCC-ACS project (Improving Care for Cardiovascular Disease in China-Acute Coronary Syndrome) is an ongoing nationwide registry of the American Heart Association and the Chinese Society of Cardiology. Using data from the CCC-ACS project, we evaluated sex differences in acute management, medical therapies for secondary prevention, and in-hospital mortality in 82 196 patients admitted for ACS at 192 hospitals in China from 2014 to 2018. RESULTS: Women with ACS were older than men (69.0 versus 61.1 years, P<0.001) and had more comorbidities. After multivariable adjustment, eligible women were less likely to receive evidence-based acute treatments for ACS than men, including early dual antiplatelet therapy, heparins during hospitalization, and reperfusion therapy for ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. With respect to strategies for secondary prevention, eligible women were less likely to receive dual antiplatelet therapy, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, statins at discharge, and smoking cessation and cardiac rehabilitation counseling during hospitalization. In-hospital mortality rate was higher in women than in men (2.60% versus 1.50%, P<0.001). The sex difference in in-hospital mortality was no longer observed in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (adjusted odds ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.41; P=0.057) and non-ST-segment elevation ACS (adjusted odds ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.06; P=0.147) after adjustment for clinical characteristics and acute treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Women hospitalized for ACS in China received acute treatments and strategies for secondary prevention less frequently than men. The observed sex differences in in-hospital mortality were mainly attributable to worse clinical profiles and fewer evidence-based acute treatments provided to women with ACS. Specially targeted quality improvement programs may be warranted to narrow sex-related disparities in quality of care and outcomes in patients with ACS. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT02306616.

15.
Circulation ; 139(25): e1162-e1177, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586766

RESUMO

Risk assessment is a critical step in the current approach to primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Knowledge of the 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease identifies patients in higher-risk groups who are likely to have greater net benefit and lower number needed to treat for both statins and antihypertensive therapy. Current US prevention guidelines for blood pressure and cholesterol management recommend use of the pooled cohort equations to start a process of shared decision-making between clinicians and patients in primary prevention. The pooled cohort equations have been widely validated and are broadly useful for the general US clinical population. But, they may systematically underestimate risk in patients from certain racial/ethnic groups, those with lower socioeconomic status or with chronic inflammatory diseases, and overestimate risk in patients with higher socioeconomic status or who have been closely engaged with preventive healthcare services. If uncertainty remains for patients at borderline or intermediate risk, or if the patient is undecided after a patient-clinician discussion with consideration of risk enhancing factors (eg, family history), additional testing with measurement of coronary artery calcium can be useful to reclassify risk estimates and improve selection of patients for use or avoidance of statin therapy. This special report summarizes the rationale and evidence base for quantitative risk assessment, reviews strengths and limitations of existing risk scores, discusses approaches for refining individual risk estimates for patients, and provides practical advice regarding implementation of risk assessment and decision-making strategies in clinical practice.

18.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 11(12): e001968, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke is the leading cause of death in China. Despite the wide dissemination of evidence-based guidelines, data about adherence to these in routine clinical practice are scarce. We conducted a study using a nationwide registry to evaluate the implementation of evidence-based stroke performance indicators and associated guidelines, for patients with an ischemic stroke in China. METHODS AND RESULTS: The China National Stroke Registry is a prospective cohort study, including 12 416 patients diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke from 132 hospitals across China, for 1 year beginning September 2007. Twelve performance indicators were selected to evaluate the quality of stroke care. Multivariable Cox models were used to determine the association between optimal compliance and clinical outcomes. Conformity with performance measures ranged from a median of 6.5% for the use of intravenous tPA (tissue-type plasminogen activator) to 81.8% for early use of antithrombotics. The optimal compliance with all in-hospital measures was associated with 1-year death after admission (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.55-0.79). The optimal compliance with all discharge measures was associated with the 1-year death after discharge (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.44-0.69), 1-year stroke recurrence (hazard ratio, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.93), and favorable functional outcomes (defined as modified Rankin Scale score of ≤2) (hazard ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.16). CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to evidence-based ischemic stroke care measures in China revealed substantial gaps, and select measures were associated with improved outcomes. These findings support the need for ongoing quality measurement and improvement in stroke care in China.

20.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 2018 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423392

RESUMO

Risk assessment is a critical step in the current approach to primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Knowledge of the 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease identifies patients in higher-risk groups who are likely to have greater net benefit and lower number needed to treat for both statins and antihypertensive therapy. Current U.S. prevention guidelines for blood pressure and cholesterol management recommend use of the pooled cohort equations to start a process of shared decision-making between clinicians and patients in primary prevention. The pooled cohort equations have been widely validated and are broadly useful for the general U.S. clinical population. But, they may systematically underestimate risk in patients from certain racial/ethnic groups, those with lower socioeconomic status or with chronic inflammatory diseases, and overestimate risk in patients with higher socioeconomic status or who have been closely engaged with preventive healthcare services. If uncertainty remains for patients at borderline or intermediate risk, or if the patient is undecided after a patient-clinician discussion with consideration of risk enhancing factors (e.g., family history), additional testing with measurement of coronary artery calcium can be useful to reclassify risk estimates and improve selection of patients for use or avoidance of statin therapy. This special report summarizes the rationale and evidence base for quantitative risk assessment, reviews strengths and limitations of existing risk scores, discusses approaches for refining individual risk estimates for patients, and provides practical advice regarding implementation of risk assessment and decision-making strategies in clinical practice.

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