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2.
Theriogenology ; 173: 128-132, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375939

RESUMO

Polymorphisms in µ-calpain (CAPN1) that beneficially associate with beef tenderness are reported to antagonistically associate with calving day in beef heifers and post-partum interval to estrus in beef cows. We, therefore, hypothesized that a molecular breeding value for slice shear force, calculated based on CAPN1 and calpastatin (CAST) genotypes, would demonstrate an antagonistic relationship between genomically predicted slice shear force and ordinal calving date in replacement beef heifers. A secondary objective of this study was to evaluate the association of a polymorphism in diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1) with reproductive traits in beef heifers. One hundred eighty-seven MARC III heifers (» Angus, » Hereford, » Red Poll, and » Pinzgauer) that had been selectively bred to increase the frequency of these polymorphisms were submitted for monthly ultrasound exams beginning at 333 d of age and continuing until the start of breeding to determine pubertal status. At the last exam before breeding, all antral follicles were counted, and the length and height of each ovary was measured to determine if genomic selection for slice shear force associated with ovarian follicle number. Calving date, calf gender, and calf birth weight were recorded at parturition. Regression analysis of the molecular breeding value for slice shear force of the heifers on ordinal calving date indicated no association between genomic prediction of tenderness and calving date (P = 0.16); however, there was a tendency for age at puberty to be delayed in heifers as genetic merit for tenderness improved (P = 0.09). The results of the present study indicate that within experimental precision, selecting for tenderness using genomic predictions had minimal or no antagonistic association with reproductive performance in heifers. Further analysis of reproductive performance as cows is needed within this population but applying these genetic markers to select for tenderness in steers does not antagonize reproductive traits influencing conception or first calf birth date and birth weight in replacement beef heifers.


Assuntos
Embaralhamento de DNA , Reprodução , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Embaralhamento de DNA/veterinária , Feminino , Parto , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Reprodução/genética , Desmame
3.
Genomics ; 113(6): 3599-3609, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455036

RESUMO

River buffalo is an agriculturally important species with many traits, such as disease tolerance, which promote its use worldwide. Highly contiguous genome assemblies of the river buffalo, goat, pig, human and two cattle subspecies were aligned to study gene gains and losses and signs of positive selection. The gene families that have changed significantly in river buffalo since divergence from cattle play important roles in protein degradation, the olfactory receptor system, detoxification and the immune system. We used the branch site model in PAML to analyse single-copy orthologs to identify positively selected genes that may be involved in skin differentiation, mammary development and bone formation in the river buffalo branch. The high contiguity of the genomes enabled evaluation of differences among species in the major histocompatibility complex. We identified a Babesia-like L1 LINE insertion in the DRB1-like gene in the river buffalo and discuss the implication of this finding.

4.
Insects ; 12(7)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357286

RESUMO

The phylum Arthropoda includes species crucial for ecosystem stability, soil health, crop production, and others that present obstacles to crop and animal agriculture. The United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service initiated the Ag100Pest Initiative to generate reference genome assemblies of arthropods that are (or may become) pests to agricultural production and global food security. We describe the project goals, process, status, and future. The first three years of the project were focused on species selection, specimen collection, and the construction of lab and bioinformatics pipelines for the efficient production of assemblies at scale. Contig-level assemblies of 47 species are presented, all of which were generated from single specimens. Lessons learned and optimizations leading to the current pipeline are discussed. The project name implies a target of 100 species, but the efficiencies gained during the project have supported an expansion of the original goal and a total of 158 species are currently in the pipeline. We anticipate that the processes described in the paper will help other arthropod research groups or other consortia considering genome assembly at scale.

5.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 410, 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are two genetically distinct subspecies of cattle, Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus, which arose from independent domestication events. The two types of cattle show substantial phenotypic differences, some of which emerge during fetal development and are reflected in birth outcomes, including birth weight. We explored gene expression profiles in the placenta and four fetal tissues at mid-gestation from one taurine (Bos taurus taurus; Angus) and one indicine (Bos taurus indicus; Brahman) breed and their reciprocal crosses. RESULTS: In total 120 samples were analysed from a pure taurine breed, an indicine breed and their reciprocal cross fetuses, which identified 6456 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two pure breeds in at least one fetal tissue of which 110 genes were differentially expressed in all five tissues examined. DEGs shared across tissues were enriched for pathways related to immune and stress response functions. Only the liver had a substantial number of DEGs when reciprocal crossed were compared among which 310 DEGs were found to be in common with DEGs identified between purebred livers; these DEGs were significantly enriched for metabolic process GO terms. Analysis of DEGs across purebred and crossbred tissues suggested an additive expression pattern for most genes, where both paternal and maternal alleles contributed to variation in gene expression levels. However, expression of 5% of DEGs in each tissue was consistent with parent of origin effects, with both paternal and maternal dominance effects identified. CONCLUSIONS: These data identify candidate genes potentially driving the tissue-specific differences between these taurine and indicine breeds and provide a biological insight into parental genome effects underlying phenotypic differences in bovine fetal development.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Domesticação , Impressão Genômica , Alelos , Animais , Cruzamento , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Gravidez
6.
Genet Sel Evol ; 53(1): 40, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nellore cattle (Bos indicus) are well-known for their adaptation to warm and humid environments. Hair length and coat color may impact heat tolerance. The Nellore breed has been strongly selected for white coat, but bulls generally exhibit darker hair ranging from light grey to black on the head, neck, hump, and knees. Given the potential contribution of coat color variation to the adaptation of cattle populations to tropical and sub-tropical environments, our aim was to map positional and functional candidate genetic variants associated with darkness of hair coat (DHC) in Nellore bulls. RESULTS: We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for DHC using data from 432 Nellore bulls that were genotyped for more than 777 k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. A single major association signal was detected in the vicinity of the agouti signaling protein gene (ASIP). The analysis of whole-genome sequence (WGS) data from 21 bulls revealed functional variants that are associated with DHC, including a structural rearrangement involving ASIP (ASIP-SV1). We further characterized this structural variant using Oxford Nanopore sequencing data from 13 Australian Brahman heifers, which share ancestry with Nellore cattle; we found that this variant originates from a 1155-bp deletion followed by an insertion of a transposable element of more than 150 bp that may impact the recruitment of ASIP non-coding exons. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the variant ASIP sequence causes darker coat pigmentation on specific parts of the body, most likely through a decreased expression of ASIP and consequently an increased production of eumelanin.


Assuntos
Proteína Agouti Sinalizadora/genética , Bovinos/genética , Pigmentação/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Pelo Animal/metabolismo , Animais , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Mutação INDEL , Melaninas/genética , Melaninas/metabolismo
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1935, 2021 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33911078

RESUMO

Haplotype-resolved genome assemblies are important for understanding how combinations of variants impact phenotypes. To date, these assemblies have been best created with complex protocols, such as cultured cells that contain a single-haplotype (haploid) genome, single cells where haplotypes are separated, or co-sequencing of parental genomes in a trio-based approach. These approaches are impractical in most situations. To address this issue, we present FALCON-Phase, a phasing tool that uses ultra-long-range Hi-C chromatin interaction data to extend phase blocks of partially-phased diploid assembles to chromosome or scaffold scale. FALCON-Phase uses the inherent phasing information in Hi-C reads, skipping variant calling, and reduces the computational complexity of phasing. Our method is validated on three benchmark datasets generated as part of the Vertebrate Genomes Project (VGP), including human, cow, and zebra finch, for which high-quality, fully haplotype-resolved assemblies are available using the trio-based approach. FALCON-Phase is accurate without having parental data and performance is better in samples with higher heterozygosity. For cow and zebra finch the accuracy is 97% compared to 80-91% for human. FALCON-Phase is applicable to any draft assembly that contains long primary contigs and phased associate contigs.


Assuntos
Mapeamento de Sequências Contíguas/métodos , Genoma Humano/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Algoritmos , Animais , Bovinos , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Peixe-Zebra/genética
8.
J Hered ; 112(2): 174-183, 2021 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595645

RESUMO

Bison are an icon of the American West and an ecologically, commercially, and culturally important species. Despite numbering in the hundreds of thousands today, conservation concerns remain for the species, including the impact on genetic diversity of a severe bottleneck around the turn of the 20th century and genetic introgression from domestic cattle. Genetic diversity and admixture are best evaluated at genome-wide scale, for which a high-quality reference is necessary. Here, we use trio binning of long reads from a bison-Simmental cattle (Bos taurus taurus) male F1 hybrid to sequence and assemble the genome of the American plains bison (Bison bison bison). The male haplotype genome is chromosome-scale, with a total length of 2.65 Gb across 775 scaffolds (839 contigs) and a scaffold N50 of 87.8 Mb. Our bison genome is ~13× more contiguous overall and ~3400× more contiguous at the contig level than the current bison reference genome. The bison genome sequence presented here (ARS-UCSC_bison1.0) will enable new research into the evolutionary history of this iconic megafauna species and provide a new tool for the management of bison populations in federal and commercial herds.


Assuntos
Bison/genética , Genoma , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Hibridização Genética , Masculino
9.
J Hered ; 112(2): 184-191, 2021 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438035

RESUMO

Genomics research has relied principally on the establishment and curation of a reference genome for the species. However, it is increasingly recognized that a single reference genome cannot fully describe the extent of genetic variation within many widely distributed species. Pangenome representations are based on high-quality genome assemblies of multiple individuals and intended to represent the broadest possible diversity within a species. A Bovine Pangenome Consortium (BPC) has recently been established to begin assembling genomes from more than 600 recognized breeds of cattle, together with other related species to provide information on ancestral alleles and haplotypes. Previously reported de novo genome assemblies for Angus, Brahman, Hereford, and Highland breeds of cattle are part of the initial BPC effort. The present report describes a complete single haplotype assembly at chromosome-scale for a fullblood Simmental cow from an F1 bison-cattle hybrid fetus by trio binning. Simmental cattle, also known as Fleckvieh due to their red and white spots, originated in central Europe in the 1830s as a triple-purpose breed selected for draught, meat, and dairy production. There are over 50 million Simmental cattle in the world, known today for their fast growth and beef yields. This assembly (ARS_Simm1.0) is similar in length to the other bovine assemblies at 2.86 Gb, with a scaffold N50 of 102 Mb (max scaffold 156.8 Mb) and meets or exceeds the continuity of the best Bos taurus reference assemblies to date.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Genoma , Animais , Bison , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Haplótipos , Masculino
10.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 9(50)2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303658

RESUMO

Serratia species are Gram-negative bacteria that can infect both animals and plants. The annotated genome presented is the first for a Serratia sp. strain (called CC119) that is a cotton boll pathogen. The opportunistic strain is associated with the boll-piercing-sucking insect Creontiades signatus.

11.
Front Genet ; 11: 580580, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193703

RESUMO

The overall aim of the Ovine FAANG project is to provide a comprehensive annotation of the new highly contiguous sheep reference genome sequence (Oar rambouillet v1.0). Mapping of transcription start sites (TSS) is a key first step in understanding transcript regulation and diversity. Using 56 tissue samples collected from the reference ewe Benz2616, we have performed a global analysis of TSS and TSS-Enhancer clusters using Cap Analysis Gene Expression (CAGE) sequencing. CAGE measures RNA expression by 5' cap-trapping and has been specifically designed to allow the characterization of TSS within promoters to single-nucleotide resolution. We have adapted an analysis pipeline that uses TagDust2 for clean-up and trimming, Bowtie2 for mapping, CAGEfightR for clustering, and the Integrative Genomics Viewer (IGV) for visualization. Mapping of CAGE tags indicated that the expression levels of CAGE tag clusters varied across tissues. Expression profiles across tissues were validated using corresponding polyA+ mRNA-Seq data from the same samples. After removal of CAGE tags with <10 read counts, 39.3% of TSS overlapped with 5' ends of 31,113 transcripts that had been previously annotated by NCBI (out of a total of 56,308 from the NCBI annotation). For 25,195 of the transcripts, previously annotated by NCBI, no TSS meeting stringent criteria were identified. A further 14.7% of TSS mapped to within 50 bp of annotated promoter regions. Intersecting these predicted TSS regions with annotated promoter regions (±50 bp) revealed 46% of the predicted TSS were "novel" and previously un-annotated. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing data from the same tissues, we were able to determine that a proportion of these "novel" TSS were hypo-methylated (32.2%) indicating that they are likely to be reproducible rather than "noise". This global analysis of TSS in sheep will significantly enhance the annotation of gene models in the new ovine reference assembly. Our analyses provide one of the highest resolution annotations of transcript regulation and diversity in a livestock species to date.

12.
Nat Methods ; 17(11): 1103-1110, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020656

RESUMO

Long-read sequencing technologies have substantially improved the assemblies of many isolate bacterial genomes as compared to fragmented short-read assemblies. However, assembling complex metagenomic datasets remains difficult even for state-of-the-art long-read assemblers. Here we present metaFlye, which addresses important long-read metagenomic assembly challenges, such as uneven bacterial composition and intra-species heterogeneity. First, we benchmarked metaFlye using simulated and mock bacterial communities and show that it consistently produces assemblies with better completeness and contiguity than state-of-the-art long-read assemblers. Second, we performed long-read sequencing of the sheep microbiome and applied metaFlye to reconstruct 63 complete or nearly complete bacterial genomes within single contigs. Finally, we show that long-read assembly of human microbiomes enables the discovery of full-length biosynthetic gene clusters that encode biomedically important natural products.


Assuntos
Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Metagenoma/genética , Metagenômica/métodos , Microbiota/genética , Algoritmos , Animais , Benchmarking , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Ovinos , Software , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
BMC Microbiol ; 20(1): 250, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mannheimia haemolytica strains isolated from North American cattle have been classified into two genotypes (1 and 2). Although members of both genotypes have been isolated from the upper and lower respiratory tracts of cattle with or without bovine respiratory disease (BRD), genotype 2 strains are much more frequently isolated from diseased lungs than genotype 1 strains. The mechanisms behind the increased association of genotype 2 M. haemolytica with BRD are not fully understood. To address that, and to search for interventions against genotype 2 M. haemolytica, complete, closed chromosome assemblies for 35 genotype 1 and 34 genotype 2 strains were generated and compared. Searches were conducted for the pan genome, core genes shared between the genotypes, and for genes specific to either genotype. Additionally, genes encoding outer membrane proteins (OMPs) specific to genotype 2 M. haemolytica were identified, and the diversity of their protein isoforms was characterized with predominantly unassembled, short-read genomic sequences for up to 1075 additional strains. RESULTS: The pan genome of the 69 sequenced M. haemolytica strains consisted of 3111 genes, of which 1880 comprised a shared core between the genotypes. A core of 112 and 179 genes or gene variants were specific to genotype 1 and 2, respectively. Seven genes encoding predicted OMPs; a peptidase S6, a ligand-gated channel, an autotransporter outer membrane beta-barrel domain-containing protein (AOMB-BD-CP), a porin, and three different trimeric autotransporter adhesins were specific to genotype 2 as their genotype 1 homologs were either pseudogenes, or not detected. The AOMB-BD-CP gene, however, appeared to be truncated across all examined genotype 2 strains and to likely encode dysfunctional protein. Homologous gene sequences from additional M. haemolytica strains confirmed the specificity of the remaining six genotype 2 OMP genes and revealed they encoded low isoform diversity at the population level. CONCLUSION: Genotype 2 M. haemolytica possess genes encoding conserved OMPs not found intact in more commensally prone genotype 1 strains. Some of the genotype 2 specific genes identified in this study are likely to have important biological roles in the pathogenicity of genotype 2 M. haemolytica, which is the primary bacterial cause of BRD.

14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235498, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658916

RESUMO

Surveys of microbial populations in environmental niches of interest often utilize sequence variation in the gene encoding the ribosomal small subunit (the 16S rRNA gene). Generally, these surveys target the 16S genes using semi-degenerate primers to amplify portions of a subset of bacterial species, sequence the amplicons in bulk, and assign to putative taxonomic categories by comparison to databases purporting to connect specific sequences in the main variable regions of the gene to specific organisms. Due to sequence length constraints of the most popular bulk sequencing platforms, the primers selected amplify one to three of the nine variable regions, and taxonomic assignment is based on relatively short stretches of sequence (150-500 bases). We demonstrate that taxonomic assignment is improved through reduced unassigned reads by including a survey of near-full-length sequences specific to the target environment, using a niche of interest represented by the upper respiratory tract (URT) of cattle. We created a custom Bovine URT database from these longer sequences for assignment of shorter, less expensive reads in comparisons of the upper respiratory tract among individual animals. This process improves the ability to detect changes in the microbial populations of a given environment, and the accuracy of defining the content of that environment at increasingly higher taxonomic resolution.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , Padrões de Referência , Análise de Sequência de RNA/normas
15.
Gigascience ; 9(6)2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The domestic pig (Sus scrofa) is important both as a food source and as a biomedical model given its similarity in size, anatomy, physiology, metabolism, pathology, and pharmacology to humans. The draft reference genome (Sscrofa10.2) of a purebred Duroc female pig established using older clone-based sequencing methods was incomplete, and unresolved redundancies, short-range order and orientation errors, and associated misassembled genes limited its utility. RESULTS: We present 2 annotated highly contiguous chromosome-level genome assemblies created with more recent long-read technologies and a whole-genome shotgun strategy, 1 for the same Duroc female (Sscrofa11.1) and 1 for an outbred, composite-breed male (USMARCv1.0). Both assemblies are of substantially higher (>90-fold) continuity and accuracy than Sscrofa10.2. CONCLUSIONS: These highly contiguous assemblies plus annotation of a further 11 short-read assemblies provide an unprecedented view of the genetic make-up of this important agricultural and biomedical model species. We propose that the improved Duroc assembly (Sscrofa11.1) become the reference genome for genomic research in pigs.

16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2071, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350247

RESUMO

Inbred animals were historically chosen for genome analysis to circumvent assembly issues caused by haplotype variation but this resulted in a composite of the two genomes. Here we report a haplotype-aware scaffolding and polishing pipeline which was used to create haplotype-resolved, chromosome-level genome assemblies of Angus (taurine) and Brahman (indicine) cattle subspecies from contigs generated by the trio binning method. These assemblies reveal structural and copy number variants that differentiate the subspecies and that variant detection is sensitive to the specific reference genome chosen. Six genes with immune related functions have additional copies in the indicine compared with taurine lineage and an indicus-specific extra copy of fatty acid desaturase is under positive selection. The haplotyped genomes also enable transcripts to be phased to detect allele-specific expression. This work exemplifies the value of haplotype-resolved genomes to better explore evolutionary and functional variations.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma , Haplótipos/genética , Alelos , Desequilíbrio Alélico , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Cromossomos de Mamíferos/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Mutação INDEL/genética , Masculino , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico/genética
17.
Gigascience ; 9(4)2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The German Shepherd Dog (GSD) is one of the most common breeds on earth and has been bred for its utility and intelligence. It is often first choice for police and military work, as well as protection, disability assistance, and search-and-rescue. Yet, GSDs are well known to be susceptible to a range of genetic diseases that can interfere with their training. Such diseases are of particular concern when they occur later in life, and fully trained animals are not able to continue their duties. FINDINGS: Here, we provide the draft genome sequence of a healthy German Shepherd female as a reference for future disease and evolutionary studies. We generated this improved canid reference genome (CanFam_GSD) utilizing a combination of Pacific Bioscience, Oxford Nanopore, 10X Genomics, Bionano, and Hi-C technologies. The GSD assembly is ∼80 times as contiguous as the current canid reference genome (20.9 vs 0.267 Mb contig N50), containing far fewer gaps (306 vs 23,876) and fewer scaffolds (429 vs 3,310) than the current canid reference genome CanFamv3.1. Two chromosomes (4 and 35) are assembled into single scaffolds with no gaps. BUSCO analyses of the genome assembly results show that 93.0% of the conserved single-copy genes are complete in the GSD assembly compared with 92.2% for CanFam v3.1. Homology-based gene annotation increases this value to ∼99%. Detailed examination of the evolutionarily important pancreatic amylase region reveals that there are most likely 7 copies of the gene, indicative of a duplication of 4 ancestral copies and the disruption of 1 copy. CONCLUSIONS: GSD genome assembly and annotation were produced with major improvement in completeness, continuity, and quality over the existing canid reference. This resource will enable further research related to canine diseases, the evolutionary relationships of canids, and other aspects of canid biology.


Assuntos
Cromossomos/genética , Genoma/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Animais , Cães , Genômica , Anotação de Sequência Molecular
18.
Gigascience ; 9(4)2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of trio binning as an approach for assembling diploid genomes has enabled the creation of fully haplotype-resolved reference genomes. Unlike other methods of assembly for diploid genomes, this approach is enhanced, rather than hindered, by the heterozygosity of the individual sequenced. To maximize heterozygosity and simultaneously assemble reference genomes for 2 species, we applied trio binning to an interspecies F1 hybrid of yak (Bos grunniens) and cattle (Bos taurus), 2 species that diverged nearly 5 million years ago. The genomes of both of these species are composed of acrocentric autosomes. RESULTS: We produced the most continuous haplotype-resolved assemblies for a diploid animal yet reported. Both the maternal (yak) and paternal (cattle) assemblies have the largest 2 chromosomes in single haplotigs, and more than one-third of the autosomes similarly lack gaps. The maximum length haplotig produced was 153 Mb without any scaffolding or gap-filling steps and represents the longest haplotig reported for any species. The assemblies are also more complete and accurate than those reported for most other vertebrates, with 97% of mammalian universal single-copy orthologs present. CONCLUSIONS: The high heterozygosity inherent to interspecies crosses maximizes the effectiveness of the trio binning method. The interspecies trio binning approach we describe is likely to provide the highest-quality assemblies for any pair of species that can interbreed to produce hybrid offspring that develop to sufficient cell numbers for DNA extraction.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Animais , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Hibridização Genética
19.
Gigascience ; 9(3)2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major advances in selection progress for cattle have been made following the introduction of genomic tools over the past 10-12 years. These tools depend upon the Bos taurus reference genome (UMD3.1.1), which was created using now-outdated technologies and is hindered by a variety of deficiencies and inaccuracies. RESULTS: We present the new reference genome for cattle, ARS-UCD1.2, based on the same animal as the original to facilitate transfer and interpretation of results obtained from the earlier version, but applying a combination of modern technologies in a de novo assembly to increase continuity, accuracy, and completeness. The assembly includes 2.7 Gb and is >250× more continuous than the original assembly, with contig N50 >25 Mb and L50 of 32. We also greatly expanded supporting RNA-based data for annotation that identifies 30,396 total genes (21,039 protein coding). The new reference assembly is accessible in annotated form for public use. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that improved continuity of assembled sequence warrants the adoption of ARS-UCD1.2 as the new cattle reference genome and that increased assembly accuracy will benefit future research on this species.


Assuntos
Cruzamento/normas , Bovinos/genética , Genoma , Genômica/normas , Polimorfismo Genético , Animais , Cruzamento/métodos , Genômica/métodos , RNA-Seq/métodos , RNA-Seq/normas , Padrões de Referência , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1633, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988470

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

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