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1.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586078

RESUMO

Heavy alcohol consumption in mid-adulthood is an established risk factor of colorectal cancer (CRC). Alcohol use in early adulthood is common, but its association with subsequent CRC risk remains largely unknown. We prospectively investigated the association of average alcohol intake in early adulthood (age 18-22) with CRC risk later in life among 191,543 participants of the Nurses' Health Study ([NHS], 1988-2014), NHSII (1989-2015) and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1988-2014). Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), which were pooled using random effects models. We documented 2,624 CRC cases. High alcohol consumption in early adulthood (≥ 15 g/day) was associated with a higher CRC risk (multivariable HR 1.28, 95% CI 0.99-1.66, Ptrend = 0.02; Pheterogeneity = 0.44), after adjusting for potential confounding factors in early adulthood. Among never/light smokers in early adulthood, the risk associated with high alcohol consumption in early adulthood was elevated (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.04-2.24), compared with those who had < 1 g/day of alcohol intake. The suggestive higher CRC risk associated with high alcohol consumption in early adulthood was similar in those who had < 15 g/day (HR 1.35, 95% CI 0.98-1.86) versus ≥ 15 g/day of midlife alcohol intake (HR 1.35, 95% CI 0.89-2.05), compared with nondrinkers in both life stages. The findings from these large prospective cohort studies suggest that higher alcohol intake in early adulthood may be associated with a higher risk of developing CRC later in life.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes increases risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC), but the association of pre-existing diabetes with CRC survival remains unclear. METHODS: We analyzed survival by diabetes status at cancer diagnosis among 4038 patients with CRC from two prospective U.S. cohorts. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for overall and cause-specific mortality, with adjustment for tumor characteristics and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: In the first 5 years after CRC diagnosis, diabetes was associated with a modest increase in overall mortality in women (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.00-1.49), but not in men (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.62-1.12; P heterogeneity by sex = 0.04). Beyond 5 years, diabetes was associated with substantially increased overall mortality with no evidence of sex heterogeneity; in women and men combined, the HRs were 1.45 (95% CI, 1.09-1.93) during >5 to 10 years and 2.58 (95% CI, 1.91-3.50) during >10 years. Compared with those without diabetes, CRC patients with diabetes had increased mortality from other malignancies (HR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.18-2.67) and cardiovascular disease (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.29-2.91). Only women with diabetes for more than 10 years had increased mortality from CRC (HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.01-1.76). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with CRC, pre-existing diabetes was associated with increased risk of long-term mortality, particularly from other malignancies and cardiovascular disease. IMPACT: Our findings highlight the importance of cardioprotection and cancer prevention to CRC survivors with diabetes.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427315

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii (T gondii) is a common parasite that shows affinity to neural tissue and may lead to the formation of cysts in the brain. Previous epidemiologic studies have suggested an association between glioma and increased prevalence of T gondii infection, but prospective studies are lacking. Therefore, we examined the association between prediagnostic T gondii antibodies and risk of glioma in two prospective cohorts using a nested case-control study design. Cases and matched controls were selected from the American Cancer Society's Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort (CPSII-NC) (n = 37 cases and 74 controls) and the Norwegian Cancer Registry's Janus Serum Bank (Janus) (n = 323 cases and 323 controls). Blood samples collected prior to diagnosis were analyzed for antibodies to two T gondii surface antigens (p22 and sag-1), with individuals considered seropositive if antibodies to either antigen were detected. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for each cohort. In both cohorts, a suggestive increase in glioma risk was observed among those infected with T gondii (OR: 2.70; 95% CI: 0.96-7.62 for CPSII-NC; OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.85-2.07 for Janus), particularly among participants with high antibody titers specific to the sag-1 antigen (CPSII-NC OR: 3.35, 95% CI: 0.99-11.38; Janus OR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.02-3.14). Our findings provide the first prospective evidence of an association between T gondii infection and risk of glioma. Further studies with larger case numbers are needed to confirm a potential etiologic role for T gondii in glioma.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484419

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Evidence is mixed on whether cholesterol plays a role in the pathogenesis of glioma. We explored the associations between circulating lipids and glioma risk in three prospective cohorts. METHODS: Using prospective data from the UK Biobank, we examined the associations of total cholesterol (TC), high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) with glioma risk in multivariable (MV)-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Within the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS), we carried out a matched, nested case-control study to examine these same associations. RESULTS: In the UK Biobank, 490 gliomas accrued over 2,358,964 person-years. TC was not significantly associated with glioma risk (MV HR = 1.20, 95% CI 0.89-1.61 for highest quartile vs. lowest, p-trend = 0.24). In 4-year lagged analyses (n = 229), higher TC was associated with significantly higher risk of glioma in men (MV HR = 2.26, 95% CI 1.32-3.89, p-trend = 0.002) but not women (MV HR = 1.28, 95% CI 0.61-2.68, p-trend = 0.72); similar findings emerged for HDL-C and, to a lesser extent, LDL-C. In the NHS/HPFS, no significant associations were found between cholesterol and glioma risk. No significant associations were identified for TG. CONCLUSION: In the UK Biobank, higher prediagnostic TC and HDL-C levels were associated with higher risk of glioma in 4-year lagged analyses, but not in non-lagged analyses, in men only. These findings merit further investigation, given that there are few risk factors and no reliable biomarkers of risk identified for glioma.

5.
BMJ ; 371: m4141, 2020 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268459

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study total, processed, and unprocessed red meat in relation to risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and to estimate the effects of substituting other protein sources for red meat with CHD risk. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with repeated measures of diet and lifestyle factors. SETTING: Health Professionals Follow-Up Study cohort, United States, 1986-2016. PARTICIPANTS: 43 272 men without cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was total CHD, comprised of acute non-fatal myocardial infarction or fatal CHD. Cox models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals across categories of red meat consumption. Substitution analyses were conducted by comparing coefficients for red meat and the alternative food in models, including red meat and alternative foods as continuous variables. RESULTS: During 1 023 872 person years of follow-up, 4456 incident CHD events were documented of which 1860 were fatal. After multivariate adjustment for dietary and non-dietary risk factors, total, unprocessed, and processed red meat intake were each associated with a modestly higher risk of CHD (hazard ratio for one serving per day increment: 1.12 (95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.18) for total red meat, 1.11 (1.02 to 1.21) for unprocessed red meat, and 1.15 (1.06 to 1.25) for processed red meat). Compared with red meat, the intake of one serving per day of combined plant protein sources (nuts, legumes, and soy) was associated with a lower risk of CHD (0.86 (0.80 to 0.93) compared with total red meat, 0.87 (0.79 to 0.95) compared with unprocessed red meat, and 0.83 (0.76 to 0.91) compared with processed red meat). Substitutions of whole grains and dairy products for total red meat and eggs for processed red meat were also associated with lower CHD risk. CONCLUSIONS: Substituting high quality plant foods such as legumes, nuts, or soy for red meat might reduce the risk of CHD. Substituting whole grains and dairy products for total red meat, and eggs for processed red meat, might also reduce this risk.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326609

RESUMO

Associations of coffee and tea consumption with lung cancer risk have been inconsistent, and most lung cancer cases investigated were smokers. Included in this study were over 1.1 million participants from 17 prospective cohorts. Cox regression analyses were conducted to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Potential effect modifications by sex, smoking, race, cancer subtype and coffee type were assessed. After a median 8.6 years of follow-up, 20 280 incident lung cancer cases were identified. Compared with noncoffee and nontea consumption, HRs (95% CIs) associated with exclusive coffee drinkers (≥2 cups/d) among current, former and never smokers were 1.30 (1.15-1.47), 1.49 (1.27-1.74) and 1.35 (1.15-1.58), respectively. Corresponding HRs for exclusive tea drinkers (≥2 cups/d) were 1.16 (1.02-1.32), 1.10 (0.92-1.32) and 1.37 (1.17-1.61). In general, the coffee and tea associations did not differ significantly by sex, race or histologic subtype. Our findings suggest that higher consumption of coffee or tea is associated with increased lung cancer risk. However, these findings should not be assumed to be causal because of the likelihood of residual confounding by smoking, including passive smoking, and change of coffee and tea consumption after study enrolment.

7.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of poor diet quality in the rising incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosed under age 50 has not been explored. Based on molecular features of early-onset CRC, early-onset adenomas are emerging surrogate endpoints. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study (Nurses' Health Study II), we evaluated two empirical dietary patterns (Western and prudent) and three recommendation-based indexes (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension [DASH], Alternative Mediterranean Diet [AMED], and Alternative Healthy Eating Index [AHEI]-2010) with risk of early-onset adenoma overall and by malignant potential (high-risk: ≥1 cm, tubulovillous/villous histology, high-grade dysplasia, or ≥ 3 adenomas), among 29474 women with ≥1 lower endoscopy before age 50 (1991-2011). Multivariable logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: We documented 1157 early-onset adenomas with 375 of high-risk. Western diet was positively, whereas prudent diet, DASH, AMED, and AHEI-2010 were inversely associated with risk of early-onset adenoma. The associations were largely confined to high-risk adenomas (OR [95% CI] for the highest versus lowest quintile: Western = 1.67 [1.18 to 2.37]; prudent = 0.69 [0.48 to 0.98]; DASH = 0.65 [0.45 to 0.93]; AMED = 0.55 [0.38 to 0.79]; AHEI-2010 = 0.71 [0.51 to 1.01]; all P  trend≤.03), driven by those identified in the distal colon and rectum (all P  trend≤.04 except AMED: Ptrend=.14). CONCLUSION: Poor diet quality was associated with an increased risk of early-onset distal and rectal adenomas of high malignant potential. These findings provide preliminary but strong support to the role of diet in early-onset CRC.

8.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128203

RESUMO

Associations between anthropometric factors and breast cancer (BC) risk have varied inconsistently by estrogen and/or progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status. Associations between prediagnostic anthropometric factors and risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC overall and ER/PR status subtypes were investigated in a pooled analysis of 20 prospective cohorts, including 36,297 BC cases among 1,061,915 women, using multivariable Cox regression analyses, controlling for reproductive factors, diet and other risk factors. We estimated dose-response relationships and tested for nonlinear associations using restricted cubic splines. Height showed positive, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (6-7% RR increase per 5 cm increment), with stronger associations for receptor-positive subtypes. Body mass index (BMI) at cohort baseline was strongly inversely associated with premenopausal BC risk, and strongly positively-and nonlinearly-associated with postmenopausal BC (especially among women who never used hormone replacement therapy). This was primarily observed for receptor-positive subtypes. Early adult BMI (at 18-20 years) showed inverse, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (21% and 11% RR decrease per 5 kg/m2, respectively) with stronger associations for receptor-negative subtypes. Adult weight gain since 18-20 years was positively associated with postmenopausal BC risk, stronger for receptor-positive subtypes, and among women who were leaner in early adulthood. Women heavier in early adulthood generally had reduced premenopausal BC risk, independent of later weight gain. Positive associations between height, baseline (adult) BMI, adult weight gain and postmenopausal BC risk were substantially stronger for hormone receptor-positive versus negative subtypes. Premenopausal BC risk was positively associated with height, but inversely with baseline BMI and weight gain (mostly in receptor-positive subtypes). Inverse associations with early adult BMI seemed stronger in receptor-negative subtypes of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC.

9.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the era of widespread prostate-specific antigen testing, it is important to focus etiologic research on the outcome of aggressive prostate cancer, but studies have defined this outcome differently. We aimed to develop an evidence-based consensus definition of aggressive prostate cancer using clinical features at diagnosis for etiologic epidemiologic research. METHODS: Among prostate cancer cases diagnosed in 2007 in the U.S. SEER-18 database with follow-up through 2017, we compared the performance of categorizations of aggressive prostate cancer in discriminating fatal prostate cancer within 10 years of diagnosis, placing the most emphasis on sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV). RESULTS: In our case population (n = 55,900), 3,073 men died of prostate cancer within 10 years. Among 12 definitions that included TNM stage and Gleason score, sensitivities ranged from 0.64 to 0.89 and PPVs ranged from 0.09 to 0.23. We propose defining aggressive prostate cancer as diagnosis of stage T4 or N1 or M1 or Gleason score ≥8 prostate cancer, as this definition had one of the higher PPVs (0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22-0.24) and reasonable sensitivity (0.66, 95% CI 0.64-0.67) for prostate cancer death within 10 years. Results were similar across sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that etiologic epidemiologic studies of prostate cancer report results for this definition of aggressive prostate cancer. We also recommend that studies separately report results for advanced stage (T4 or N1 or M1), high grade (Gleason score ≥8), and fatal prostate cancer. Use of this comprehensive set of endpoints will facilitate comparison of results from different studies and help elucidate prostate cancer etiology.

10.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(11): 2323-2331, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are associated with improved survival among patients with colorectal cancer, but the relationships between circulating vitamin D binding protein (VDBP), and bioavailable or free 25(OH)D, and colorectal cancer survival remain unknown. METHODS: We examined the associations between prediagnostic plasma levels of vitamin D-related markers and survival among 603 White participants diagnosed with colorectal cancer from two prospective U.S. cohorts. Plasma VDBP and total 25(OH)D were directly measured, while bioavailable and free 25(OH)D was calculated using a validated formula on the basis of total 25(OH)D, VDBP, and albumin levels. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate HRs for overall and colorectal cancer-specific mortality, with adjustment for other prognostic markers and potential confounders. RESULTS: Higher VDBP levels were associated with improved overall (P trend = 0.001) and colorectal cancer-specific survival (P trend = 0.02). Compared with patients in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile of VDBP had a multivariate HR of 0.58 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.41-0.80] for overall mortality and 0.58 (95% CI, 0.37-0.91) for colorectal cancer-specific mortality. The results remained similar after further adjustment for total 25(OH)D levels. In contrast, neither bioavailable nor free 25(OH)D levels were associated with overall or colorectal cancer-specific mortality (all P trend > 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: Prediagnostic circulating concentrations of VDBP were positively associated with survival among patients with colorectal cancer. IMPACT: The clinical utility of VDBP as a prognostic marker warrants further exploration, as well as research into underlying mechanisms of action.

11.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-9, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698937

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity and reproducibility of a 152-item semi-quantitative FFQ (SFFQ) for estimating flavonoid intakes. DESIGN: Over a 1-year period, participants completed two SFFQ and two weighed 7-d dietary records (7DDR). Flavonoid intakes from the SFFQ were estimated separately using Harvard (SFFQHarvard) and Phenol-Explorer (SFFQPE) food composition databases. 7DDR flavonoid intakes were derived using the Phenol-Explorer database (7DDRPE). Validity was assessed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients deattenuated for random measurement error (rs), and reproducibility was assessed using rank intraclass correlation coefficients. SETTING: This validation study included primarily participants from two large observational cohort studies. PARTICIPANTS: Six hundred forty-one men and 724 women. RESULTS: When compared with two 7DDRPE, the validity of total flavonoid intake assessed by SFFQPE was high for both men and women (rs = 0·77 and rs = 0·74, respectively). The rs for flavonoid subclasses ranged from 0·47 for flavones to 0·78 for anthocyanins in men and from 0·46 for flavonols to 0·77 for anthocyanins in women. We observed similarly moderate (0·4-0·7) to high (≥0·7) validity when using SFFQHarvard estimates, except for flavonesHarvard (rs = 0·25 for men and rs = 0·19 for women). The SFFQ demonstrated high reproducibility for total flavonoid and flavonoid subclass intake estimates when using either food composition database. The intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0·69 (flavonolsPE) to 0·80 (proanthocyanidinsPE) in men and from 0·67 (flavonolsPE) to 0·77 (flavan-3-ol monomersHarvard) in women. CONCLUSIONS: SFFQ-derived intakes of total flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses (except for flavones) are valid and reproducible for both men and women.

12.
Eur J Cancer ; 129: 123-131, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coffee and tea have been hypothesised to reduce the risk of some cancers; however, their impact on glioma is less well studied. METHODS: We examined associations between self-reported intake of tea and coffee in relation to glioma risk in the UK Biobank. We identified 487 incident glioma cases among 379,259 participants. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for glioma according to caffeinated beverage consumption were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression with adjustment for age, gender, race and education; daily cups of tea or coffee were included in models considering the other beverage. RESULTS: Consuming 4 or more cups of tea was associated with reduced risk of glioma when compared to no tea consumption (HR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.51-0.94). A significant inverse association was observed for glioblastoma (HR = 0.93 per 1 cup/d increment; 95% CI, 0.89-0.98) and among males for all gliomas combined (HR = 0.95 per 1 cup/d increment; 95% CI, 0.90-1.00). A suggestive inverse association was also observed with greater consumption of coffee (HR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.49-1.05 for >4 versus 0 cups/d). Results were not materially changed with further adjustment for smoking, alcohol and body mass index. Associations were similar in 2-year and 3-year lagged analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective study, we found a significant inverse association between tea consumption and the risk of developing glioma, and a suggestive inverse association for the consumption of coffee. Further investigation on the possible preventive role of caffeine in glioma is warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Café , Glioma/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Chá , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glioma/patologia , Glioma/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(7): 770, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101285
14.
Int J Cancer ; 146(9): 2442-2449, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304976

RESUMO

Tea and coffee have antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. Observational studies suggest that tea and coffee intake may reduce cancer risk, but data on glioma risk are inconclusive. We evaluated the association between tea, coffee and caffeine intake and glioma risk in the female Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII) and the male Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS). Cumulative intake was derived from validated quadrennial food frequency questionnaires. Glioma cases were confirmed by medical record review. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of glioma by beverage intake category were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. We documented 554 incident cases of glioma (256 in NHS, 87 in NHSII and 211 in HPFS). Compared to <1 cup/week, higher tea consumption was borderline inversely associated with glioma risk in pooled cohorts (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.49-1.10 for >2 cups/day, p-trend = 0.05), but not in women (HR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.47-1.18 for >2 cups/day, p-trend = 0.11) or men (HR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.30-1.60 for >2 cups/day, p-trend = 0.30) separately. Overall, we observed no significant associations between caffeinated, decaffeinated or total coffee intake and glioma risk. There were no material differences in the results with baseline values, 8-year lagged responses, or when limited to glioblastoma (n = 362). In three large prospective cohort studies, tea intake was borderline inversely associated with glioma risk. No significant associations were observed for coffee intake and glioma risk. These results merit further exploration in prospective studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Café/efeitos adversos , Glioma/epidemiologia , Chá/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/etiologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glioma/etiologia , Glioma/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Int J Cancer ; 147(3): 675-685, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677159

RESUMO

Obesity is known to be associated with primary liver cancer (PLC), but the separate effects of excess abdominal and gluteofemoral size are unclear. Thus, we examined the association between waist and hip circumference with risk of PLC overall and by histologic type-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). The Liver Cancer Pooling Project is a consortium of prospective cohort studies that include data from 1,167,244 individuals (PLC n = 2,208, HCC n = 1,154, ICC n = 335). Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using proportional hazards regression. Waist circumference, per 5 cm increase, was associated with an 11% increased PLC risk (HR = 1.11, 95%CI: 1.09-1.14), including when adjusted for hip circumference (HR = 1.12, 95%CI: 1.08-1.17) and also when restricted to individuals in a normal body mass index (BMI) range (18.5 to <25 kg/m2 ; HR = 1.14, 95%CI: 1.07-1.21). Hip circumference, per 5 cm increase, was associated with a 9% increased PLC risk (HR = 1.09, 95%CI: 1.06-1.12), but no association remained after adjustment for waist circumference (HR = 0.99, 95%CI: 0.94-1.03). HCC and ICC results were similar. These findings suggest that excess abdominal size is associated with an increased risk of liver cancer, even among individuals considered to have a normal BMI. However, excess gluteofemoral size alone confers no increased risk. Our findings extend prior analyses, which found an association between excess adiposity and risk of liver cancer, by disentangling the separate effects of excess abdominal and gluteofemoral size through utilization of both waist and hip circumference measurements.

16.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(9): 929-937, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excess body weight is an established cause of postmenopausal breast cancer, but it is unknown if weight loss reduces risk. METHODS: Associations between weight change and risk of breast cancer were examined among women aged 50 years and older in the Pooling Project of Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer. In 10 cohorts, weight assessed on three surveys was used to examine weight change patterns over approximately 10 years (interval 1 median = 5.2 years; interval 2 median = 4.0 years). Sustained weight loss was defined as no less than 2 kg lost in interval 1 that was not regained in interval 2. Among 180 885 women, 6930 invasive breast cancers were identified during follow-up. RESULTS: Compared with women with stable weight (±2 kg), women with sustained weight loss had a lower risk of breast cancer. This risk reduction was linear and specific to women not using postmenopausal hormones (>2-4.5 kg lost: hazard ratio [HR] = 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70 to 0.96; >4.5-<9 kg lost: HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.63 to 0.90; ≥9 kg lost: HR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.50 to 0.93). Women who lost at least 9 kg and gained back some (but not all) of it were also at a lower risk of breast cancer. Other patterns of weight loss and gain over the two intervals had a similar risk of breast cancer to women with stable weight. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that sustained weight loss, even modest amounts, is associated with lower breast cancer risk for women aged 50 years and older. Breast cancer prevention may be a strong weight-loss motivator for the two-thirds of American women who are overweight or obese.

17.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(2): e194107, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647500

RESUMO

Importance: Dietary fiber (the main source of prebiotics) and yogurt (a probiotic food) confer various health benefits via modulating the gut microbiota and metabolic pathways. However, their associations with lung cancer risk have not been well investigated. Objective: To evaluate the individual and joint associations of dietary fiber and yogurt consumption with lung cancer risk and to assess the potential effect modification of the associations by lifestyle and other dietary factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pooled analysis included 10 prospective cohorts involving 1 445 850 adults from studies that were conducted in the United States, Europe, and Asia. Data analyses were performed between November 2017 and February 2019. Using harmonized individual participant data, hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for lung cancer risk associated with dietary fiber and yogurt intakes were estimated for each cohort by Cox regression and pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Participants who had a history of cancer at enrollment or developed any cancer, died, or were lost to follow-up within 2 years after enrollment were excluded. Exposures: Dietary fiber intake and yogurt consumption measured by validated instruments. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident lung cancer, subclassified by histologic type (eg, adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and small cell carcinoma). Results: The analytic sample included 627 988 men, with a mean (SD) age of 57.9 (9.0) years, and 817 862 women, with a mean (SD) age of 54.8 (9.7) years. During a median follow-up of 8.6 years, 18 822 incident lung cancer cases were documented. Both fiber and yogurt intakes were inversely associated with lung cancer risk after adjustment for status and pack-years of smoking and other lung cancer risk factors: hazard ratio, 0.83 (95% CI, 0.76-0.91) for the highest vs lowest quintile of fiber intake; and hazard ratio, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.76-0.87) for high vs no yogurt consumption. The fiber or yogurt associations with lung cancer were significant in never smokers and were consistently observed across sex, race/ethnicity, and tumor histologic type. When considered jointly, high yogurt consumption with the highest quintile of fiber intake showed more than 30% reduced risk of lung cancer than nonyogurt consumption with the lowest quintile of fiber intake (hazard ratio, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.61-0.73] in total study populations; hazard ratio, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.54-0.89] in never smokers), suggesting potential synergism. Conclusions and Relevance: Dietary fiber and yogurt consumption was associated with reduced risk of lung cancer after adjusting for known risk factors and among never smokers. Our findings suggest a potential protective role of prebiotics and probiotics against lung carcinogenesis.

18.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flavonoids potentially exert anti-cancer effects, as suggested by their chemical structures and supported by animal studies. In observational studies, however, the association between flavonoids and breast cancer, and potential underlying mechanisms, remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between flavonoid intake and sex hormone levels using timed blood samples in follicular and luteal phases in the Nurses' Health Study II among premenopausal women. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of estrogens, androgens, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), prolactin, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in samples collected between 1996 and 1999. Average flavonoid were calculated from semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires collected in 1995 and 1999. We used generalized linear models to calculate geometric mean hormone concentrations across categories of the intake of flavonoids and the subclasses. RESULTS: Total flavonoid intake generally was not associated with the hormones of interest. The only significant association was with DHEAS (p-trend = 0.02), which was 11.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): -18.6%, -3.0%) lower comparing the highest vs. lowest quartile of flavonoid intake. In subclass analyses, the highest (vs. lowest) quartile of flavan-3-ol intake was associated with significantly lower DHEAS concentrations (-11.3% with 95% CI: -18.3%, -3.7%, p-trend = 0.01), and anthocyanin intake was associated with a significant inverse trend for DHEA (-18.0% with 95% CI: -27.9%, -6.7%, p-trend = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Flavonoid intake in this population had limited impact on most plasma sex hormones in premenopausal women. Anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols were associated with lower levels of DHEA and DHEAS.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Flavonoides/análise , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Pré-Menopausa/sangue , Prolactina/sangue , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Adulto , Androgênios/sangue , Antocianinas/análise , Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Estrogênios/sangue , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Biostatistics ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750898

RESUMO

Pooling biomarker data across multiple studies allows for examination of a wider exposure range than generally possible in individual studies, evaluation of population subgroups and disease subtypes with more statistical power, and more precise estimation of biomarker-disease associations. However, circulating biomarker measurements often require calibration to a single reference assay prior to pooling due to assay and laboratory variability across studies. We propose several methods for calibrating and combining biomarker data from nested case-control studies when reference assay data are obtained from a subset of controls in each contributing study. Specifically, we describe a two-stage calibration method and two aggregated calibration methods, named the internalized and full calibration methods, to evaluate the main effect of the biomarker exposure on disease risk and whether that association is modified by a potential covariate. The internalized method uses the reference laboratory measurement in the analysis when available and otherwise uses the estimated value derived from calibration models. The full calibration method uses calibrated biomarker measurements for all subjects, including those with reference laboratory measurements. Under the two-stage method, investigators complete study-specific analyses in the first stage followed by meta-analysis in the second stage. Our results demonstrate that the full calibration method is the preferred aggregated approach to minimize bias in point estimates. We also observe that the two-stage and full calibration methods provide similar effect and variance estimates but that their variance estimates are slightly larger than those from the internalized approach. As an illustrative example, we apply the three methods in a pooling project of nested case-control studies to evaluate (i) the association between circulating vitamin D levels and risk of stroke and (ii) how body mass index modifies the association between circulating vitamin D levels and risk of cardiovascular disease.

20.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(11): 997-1011, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559554

RESUMO

Background Statins have previously been shown to have protective effects for other cancers, but no prospective studies of statin use and glioma have been conducted. Methods We evaluated the association between statin use and risk of glioma in the female Nurses' Health Study (NHS, n = 114,419) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII, n = 115,813) and the male Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS, n = 50,223). Glioma cases were confirmed by medical record review. Age and multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of glioma by statin use were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results In 4,430,700 person-years of follow-up, we confirmed 483 incident cases of glioma. Compared with never-users, ever statin use was associated with borderline increased risk of glioma in the combined cohorts (age-adjusted HR = 1.23, 95% CI 0.99-1.54), as was longer duration of statin use (HR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.08-2.03 comparing > 8 years of use to never use, p-trend = 0.01). We also observed a significant inverse association between hyperlipidemia and glioma in multivariable models (HR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.59-0.93 in combined cohorts), which was attenuated in lagged analyses. Compared to never use, in multivariable-adjusted models, ever statin use (HR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.10-1.86) and statin use duration (HR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.21-2.45, for > 8 years of use, p-trend = 0.003) were each significantly associated with increased glioma risk. Conclusion In contrast to case-control studies reporting inverse associations, we found borderline increased risk of glioma with statin use. Results were strengthened after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors due to an unexpected inverse association between hyperlipidemia and glioma risk. Further studies of statin use, hyperlipidemia, and glioma risk are warranted.


Assuntos
Glioma/epidemiologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Lipídeos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Hiperlipidemias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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