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1.
Ann Oncol ; 31(2): 236-245, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with oesophageal/gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (EAC) not showing early metabolic response (EMR) to chemotherapy have poorer survival and histological response rates <5%. We investigated whether tailoring neoadjuvant therapy can improve outcomes in these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with resectable EAC were enrolled and randomised into two single-arm, multicentre phase II trials. After induction cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (CF), all were assessed by day 15 positron emission tomography (PET). Patients with an EMR [maximum standardised uptake values (SUVmax) ≥35% reduction from baseline to day 15 PET] received a second CF cycle then oesophagectomy. Non-responders were randomised 1 : 1 to two cycles of CF and docetaxel (DCF, n = 31) or DCF + 45 Gy radiotherapy (DCFRT, n = 35) then oesophagectomy. The primary end point was major histological response (<10% residual tumour) in the oesophagectomy specimen; secondary end points were overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and locoregional recurrence (LR). RESULTS: Of 124 patients recruited, major histological response was achieved in 3/45 (7%) with EMR, 6/30 (20%) DCF, and 22/35 (63%) DCFRT patients. Grade 3/4 toxicities occurred in 12/45 (27%) EMR (CF), 13/31 (42%) DCF, and 25/35 (71%) DCFRT patients. No treatment-related deaths occurred. LR by 3 years was seen in 5/45 (11%) EMR, 10/31 (32%) DCF, and 4/35 (11%) DCFRT patients. PFS [95% confidence interval (CI)] at 36 months was 47% (31% to 61%) for EMR, 29% (15% to 45%) for DCF, and 46% (29% to 61%) for DCFRT patients. OS (95% CI) at 60 months was 53% (37% to 67%) for EMR, 31% (16% to 48%) for DCF, and 46% (29% to 61%) for DCFRT patients. CONCLUSIONS: EMR is associated with favourable OS, PFS, and low LR. For non-responders, the addition of docetaxel augmented histological response rates, but OS, PFS, and LR remained inferior compared with responders. DCFRT improved histological response and PFS/LR outcomes, matching the EMR group. Early PET/CT has the potential to tailor therapy for patients not showing an early response to chemotherapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12609000665235.

3.
Br J Dermatol ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skin phenotype, host genotype and UV damage play a role in development of melanoma. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether the level of UV damage at the site of melanomas was associated with genetic polymorphisms. METHODS: Deep phenotyping was performed on 1244 individuals: 281 with multiple primary melanomas (MPM), 304 with single primary melanoma (SPM) and 659 convenience controls. Genotype data was generated using the Illumina CoreExome microarray platform assaying over 500,000 SNPs. A subset of variants were combined to assess a polygenic risk score (PRS) for melanoma. RESULTS: Most MPM cases were diagnosed >40 years, in sites with visible chronic UV damage. Females and those diagnosed at ≤40 years were less likely to have perilesional UV damage. Multiple melanoma patients had higher frequencies of MITF E318K, MC1R R-alleles, and the ASIP risk haplotype. Individuals having melanoma in a visibly UV-damaged site were more likely to carry MC1R rs75570604 (odds ratio [OR] 2.5), 9q31.2 rs10816595 (OR 2.5), and MTAP rs869329 (OR 1.4); these same alleles were more common in MPM patients diagnosed ≤40 years. Mean PRS was significantly higher in MPM than SPM and controls. Naevus count was comparable in early onset MPM cases and those diagnosed >40 years. CONCLUSION: Our cohort demonstrated higher frequencies of previously reported alleles associated with melanoma. MPM melanomas more commonly occur in UV-damaged areas, and these individual are more likely to carry MC1R RHC alleles. Awareness of the interplay of genetic vulnerability with UV damage can stratify risk and guide recommendations for melanoma screening.

4.
Dis Esophagus ; 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported that neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) can predict survival in esophageal and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma, as it reflects systemic inflammation. Hence, we aimed to determine whether baseline NLR holds prognostic value for esophageal adenocarcinoma patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (nCT) followed by surgery. METHODS: We studied the data of 139 patients that received nCT before undergoing esophagectomy with curative intent, all identified from a prospectively maintained database (1998-2016). Pretreatment hematology reports were used to calculate the baseline NLR. A receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-curve) was plotted to determine an optimal cutoff value. NLR quartiles were used to display possible differences between groups in relation to overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) using the method of Kaplan-Meier. Cox regression analysis was performed to assess the prognostic value of NLR. RESULTS: The median OS and DFS times were 46 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 19-166) and 30 months (IQR: 13-166], respectively, for the entire cohort. The ROC-curve showed that NLR has no discriminating power for survival status (area under the curve = 0.462) and therefore no optimal cutoff value could be determined. There were no statistically significant differences in median OS times for NLR quartiles: 65 (Q1), 32 (Q2), 45 (Q3), and 46 months (Q4) (P = 0.926). Similarly, DFS showed no difference between quartile groups, with median survival times of 27 (Q1), 19 (Q2), 36 (Q3), and 20 months (Q4) (P = 0.973). Age, pN, pM, and resection margin were independent prognostic factors for both OS and DFS. On the contrary, NLR was not associated with OS or DFS in univariable and multivariable analyses. CONCLUSION: Baseline NLR holds no prognostic value for esophageal and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma patients treated with nCT in this study, in contrast to other recently published papers. This result questions the validity of NLR as a reliable prognostic indicator and its clinical usefulness in these patients.

5.
Br J Dermatol ; 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thin cutaneous melanomas (≤ 1·00 mm) are increasing worldwide, causing around a quarter of all melanoma deaths in the U.S.A. and Australia. Identification of predictive factors for potentially fatal thin melanomas could allow better use of resources for follow-up. OBJECTIVES: To identify the clinicopathological factors associated with fatal thin melanomas. METHODS: This large, nested case-case study extracted data from the population-based Queensland Cancer Registry, Australia. Our cohort consisted of Queensland residents aged 0-89 years who were diagnosed with a single, locally invasive thin melanoma (≤ 1·00 mm) between 1995 and 2014. Fatal cases (eligible patients who died from melanoma) were individually matched to three nonfatal cases (eligible patients who were not known to have died from melanoma) according to sex, age, year of diagnosis and follow-up interval. Using conditional logistic regression, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) for melanoma-specific death, adjusting for all collected clinicopathological variables. RESULTS: In the cohort, 27 660 eligible patients were diagnosed with a single, thin melanoma. The final case-case series included 424 fatal cases and 1189 nonfatal cases. Fatal cases were sixfold as likely to arise on the scalp as on the back [OR 6·39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·57-15·92] and six times as likely to be of thickness 0·80-1·00 mm as of < 0·30 mm (OR 6·00, 95% CI 3·55-10·17). CONCLUSIONS: Scalp location is a strong prognostic factor of death from thin melanoma. Further, this study provides support that melanomas with a thickness of 0·80-1·00 mm are the more hazardous thin lesions. Patients with these tumour characteristics require specific attention during follow-up. What's already known about this topic? Thin invasive melanomas (≤ 1·00 mm) contribute a substantial proportion of melanoma fatalities, owing to the high volume of disease. There is a need to find prognostic factors that will better identify fatal thin melanomas at the time of diagnosis. What does this study add? In this large population-based study, fatal thin tumours were sixfold as likely to be located on the scalp as on the back. Thin melanomas of 0·80-1·00 mm thickness were six times as likely to be associated with death as tumours < 0·30 mm. Scalp location and increasing thickness are strong predictive factors of fatal thin melanomas, indicating that patients with these tumour characteristics require close follow-up.

6.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 26(13): 4663-4672, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515719

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prospective data are lacking on long-term morbidity of inguinal lymphadenectomy including the influence of extent of surgery, use of radiotherapy, and patient factors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of these factors on patient outcome, quality of life (QOL), regional symptoms, and limb volumes after inguinal or ilio-inguinal lymphadenectomy for melanoma. METHODS: Analysis of the subgroup of patients with inguinal lymph node field relapse of melanoma, treated by inguinal or ilio-inguinal lymphadenectomy in the ANZMTG/TROG randomized trial of adjuvant radiotherapy versus observation. RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients, 46 having undergone inguinal and 23 ilio-inguinal lymphadenectomy, with median follow-up of 73 months were analyzed. Mean limb volume increased rapidly after surgery (7% by 3 months) and continued to increase for at least another 18 months. Patients with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 had greater limb volume increase than normal-weight patients (13.3% versus 6.9%, P = 0.030). QOL improved over the first 18 months, but despite initial improvement, regional symptoms persisted long term. Type of surgery (inguinal or ilio-inguinal lymphadenectomy) had no demonstrably significant effect on limb volume (9.9% versus 13.4%, P = 0.35), QOL (P = 0.68), or regional symptoms (P = 0.65). There was no difference in overall survival between inguinal and ilio-inguinal lymphadenectomy [hazard ratio (HR) 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40-1.40, P = 0.43]. CONCLUSIONS: Inguinal lymphadenectomy for melanoma is a potentially morbid procedure with significant increases in limb volume. Patients report reasonable QOL but may have ongoing regional symptoms. Overweight/obesity is associated with poorer QOL, increased limb volume, and regional symptoms.

7.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 33(6): 1076-1083, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30680790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amelanotic/hypomelanotic melanoma is associated with poorer outcomes due to a more advanced disease stage at diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: To determine phenotypic risks and genotypic associations with amelanotic/hypomelanotic melanoma to develop a clinical and genetic profile that could assist in identifying high-risk individuals. METHODS: The Brisbane Naevus Morphology Study conducted from 2009 to 2016 has recruited a core of 1254 participants. Participants were drawn from a combination of volunteers from dermatology outpatient clinics, private dermatology clinics, the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study and QSkin study. Case participants had a personal history of melanoma and control participants no personal history of melanoma. We specifically examined seven known candidate pigmentation and melanoma genes and pigmentary phenotypic characteristics in participants with amelanotic/hypomelanotic melanoma compared to pigmented melanomas. This assayed single nucleotide polymorphisms in MC1R, TYR, HERC/OCA2, IRF4, MTAP, PLA2G6 and MITF. RESULTS: Forty-seven participants had at least one amelanotic/hypomelanotic melanoma, and 389 had pigmented melanomas, with amelanotic/hypomelanotic melanoma patients significantly older than pigmented melanoma participants (63.3 ± 13.0 vs. 54.6 ± 15.3 years; P < 0.001). Amelanotic/hypomelanotic melanoma patients were more likely than pigmented melanoma patients to have red hair (34% vs. 15%; P = 0.01), severe hand freckling (13% vs. 5%; P = 0.01) and propensity to sunburn (63% vs. 44%; P = 0.01). MC1R R/R genotype was much more frequent in our amelanotic/hypomelanotic melanoma population (31.1% vs. 11%; P < 0.001; OR 26.4 vs. 5.9; control 1.0). Amelanotic/hypomelanotic melanoma was associated with TYR rs1126809*A/A [OR (CI 95%) 2.7 (1.1-6.8) vs. 1.2 (0.8-1.9)] and PLA2G6 rs11570734*A/A [OR (CI 95%) 3.7 (1.0-13.6) vs. 1.3 (0.9-2.0)]. The MTAP melanoma risk SNP genotype, associated with darker pigmentation, (rs4636294*A/A) was less common in amelanotic/hypomelanotic melanoma patients [OR (CI 95%) 0.8 (0.3-2.1) vs. 2.0 (1.3-3.1)]. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of phenotypic and genotypic associations of amelanotic/hypomelanotic melanoma can help predict risks and associations of this difficult to diagnose melanoma, which may ultimately assist clinical management and patient skin self-examination.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Melanoma Amelanótico/genética , Melanoma/genética , Fenótipo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
8.
Br J Surg ; 105(10): 1262-1272, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29999517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preoperative immunonutrition has been proposed to reduce the duration of hospital stay and infective complications following major elective surgery in patients with gastrointestinal malignancy. A multicentre 2 × 2 factorial RCT was conducted to determine the impact of preoperative and postoperative immunonutrition versus standard nutrition in patients with oesophageal cancer. METHODS: Patients were randomized before oesophagectomy to immunonutrition (IMPACT® ) versus standard isocaloric/isonitrogenous nutrition, then further randomized after operation to immunonutrition versus standard nutrition. Clinical and quality-of-life outcomes were assessed at 14 and 42 days after operation on an intention-to-treat basis. The primary outcome was the occurrence of infective complications. Secondary outcomes were other complications, duration of hospital stay, mortality, nutritional and quality-of-life outcomes (EuroQol EQ-5D-3 L™, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-OES18). Patients and investigators were blinded until the completion of data analysis. RESULTS: Some 278 patients from 11 Australian sites were randomized; two were excluded and data from 276 were analysed. The incidence of infective complications was similar for all groups (37 per cent in perioperative standard nutrition group, 51 per cent in perioperative immunonutrition group, 34 per cent in preoperative immunonutrition group and 40 per cent in postoperative immunonutrition group; P = 0·187). There were no significant differences in any other clinical or quality-of-life outcomes. CONCLUSION: Use of immunonutrition before and/or after surgery provided no benefit over standard nutrition in patients undergoing oesophagectomy. Registration number: ACTRN12611000178943 ( https://www.anzctr.org.au).


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Esofagectomia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) ; 30(10): 642-649, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30017206

RESUMO

AIMS: To analyse outcomes and patterns of failure following dose-escalated definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for staging and treatment planning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma receiving definitive CRT to a dose of ≥56 Gy was conducted. Patient and tumour characteristics, treatment received and first sites of relapse were analysed. RESULTS: Between 2003 and 2014, 72 patients were treated with CRT to a median dose of 60 Gy (range 56-66 Gy). The median age was 63 years; most (61%) were stage III/IVa. The median follow-up was 57 months. Three year in-field control, relapse-free survival and overall survival was 64% (95% confidence interval 50-75%), 38% (95% confidence interval 27-50%) and 42% (95% confidence interval 30-53%), respectively. Of the 41 failures prior to death or at last follow-up date, isolated locoregional relapse occurred in 16 patients (22%) with isolated in-field recurrence in 11 patients (15%). Distant failure as first site of relapse was present in 25 patients (35%). No in-field failures occurred in the 11 patients with cT1-2, N0-1 tumours. The median survival for cT4 tumours was 8 months, with five of eight patients developing local progression within the first 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Dose-escalated radiotherapy was associated with promising rates of in-field local control, with the exception of cT4 tumours. Distant failure remains a significant competing risk. Our data supports the need for current trials re-examining the role of dose escalation in the modern era.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/terapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Adulto , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/secundário , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Falha de Tratamento
10.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 31(12): 2030-2037, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28626861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current treatments for in-transit melanoma (ITM) metastases are frequently invasive and do not improve overall survival. Recently, there has been increasing investigation into the use of topical agents. Diphenylcyclopropenone or diphencyprone (DPCP) is a novel, topical therapy that has been reported to have immune-sensitizing properties useful in the treatment of ITM. OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical outcomes of patients treated within a prospective, non-randomized, non-comparative study using DPCP for cutaneous ITM metastases. METHODS: A review was conducted assessing the outcomes of 58 patients prospectively treated using DPCP. Patients had satellite or in-transit disease (stage IIIB+), with all lesion morphology types included. The patients were treated through a single, specialized clinic with regular outpatient follow-up. DPCP was topically applied as an aqueous cream in 0.005-1% concentrations once to twice per week for up to 24-48 h of duration. To assess variables associated with response, a per-protocol statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS: Fifty-four patients were treated who satisfied eligibility criteria for analysis. The overall response rates were as follows: complete response 22%, partial response 39%, stable disease 24% and progressive disease 15%. The mean time to complete response was 10.5 months, mean duration (disease-free interval) 12.3 months and recurrence rate in complete responders 41%. Lesion morphology was predictive of clinical benefit with a higher response in epidermotropic disease (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: DPCP provided a well-tolerated, convenient and efficacious treatment for cutaneous ITM metastases. Identifying patterns of response may assist treatment selection and improve patient-rated outcomes.


Assuntos
Ciclopropanos/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/secundário , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/secundário , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Dis Esophagus ; 29(7): 724-733, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27731547

RESUMO

We report data-simple descriptions of patient characteristics, cancer categories, and non-risk-adjusted survival-for patients with pathologically staged cancer of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction after resection or ablation with no preoperative therapy from the Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration (WECC). Thirty-three institutions from six continents submitted de-identified data using standard definitions: demographics, comorbidities, clinical cancer categories, and all-cause mortality from first management decision. Of 13,300 patients, 5,631 had squamous cell carcinoma, 7,558 adenocarcinoma, 85 adenosquamous carcinoma, and 26 undifferentiated carcinoma. Patients were older (62 years) men (80%) with normal body mass index (51%), little weight loss (1.8 kg), 0-2 ECOG performance status (83%), and a history of smoking (70%). Cancers were pT1 (24%), pT2 (15%), pT3 (50%), pN0 (52%), pM0 (93%), and pG2-G3 (78%); most involved distal esophagus (71%). Non-risk-adjusted survival for both squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma was monotonic and distinctive across pTNM. Survival was more distinctive for adenocarcinoma than squamous cell carcinoma when pT was ordered by pN. Survival for pTis-1 adenocarcinoma was better than for squamous cell carcinoma, although monotonic and distinctive for both. WECC pathologic staging data is improved over that of the 7th edition, with more patients studied and patient and cancer variables collected. These data will be the basis for the 8th edition cancer staging manuals following risk adjustment for patient, cancer, and treatment characteristics, and should direct 9th edition data collection. However, the role of pure pathologic staging as the principal point of reference for esophageal cancer staging is waning.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Ablação/mortalidade , Carcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Esofagectomia/mortalidade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma/mortalidade , Carcinoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Junção Esofagogástrica/patologia , Junção Esofagogástrica/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos
12.
Dis Esophagus ; 29(7): 707-714, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27731549

RESUMO

To address uncertainty of whether clinical stage groupings (cTNM) for esophageal cancer share prognostic implications with pathologic groupings after esophagectomy alone (pTNM), we report data-simple descriptions of patient characteristics, cancer categories, and non-risk-adjusted survival-for clinically staged patients from the Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration (WECC). Thirty-three institutions from six continents submitted data using variables with standard definitions: demographics, comorbidities, clinical cancer categories, and all-cause mortality from first management decision. Of 22,123 clinically staged patients, 8,156 had squamous cell carcinoma, 13,814 adenocarcinoma, 116 adenosquamous carcinoma, and 37 undifferentiated carcinoma. Patients were older (62 years) men (80%) with normal body mass index (18.5-25 mg/kg2 , 47%), little weight loss (2.4 ± 7.8 kg), 0-1 ECOG performance status (67%), and history of smoking (67%). Cancers were cT1 (12%), cT2 (22%), cT3 (56%), cN0 (44%), cM0 (95%), and cG2-G3 (89%); most involved the distal esophagus (73%). Non-risk-adjusted survival for squamous cell carcinoma was not distinctive for early cT or cN; for adenocarcinoma, it was distinctive for early versus advanced cT and for cN0 versus cN+. Patients with early cancers had worse survival and those with advanced cancers better survival than expected from equivalent pathologic categories based on prior WECC pathologic data. Thus, clinical and pathologic categories do not share prognostic implications. This makes clinically based treatment decisions difficult and pre-treatment prognostication inaccurate. These data will be the basis for the 8th edition cancer staging manuals following risk adjustment for patient characteristics, cancer categories, and treatment characteristics and should direct 9th edition data collection.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma/mortalidade , Carcinoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Esofagectomia/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos
13.
Dis Esophagus ; 29(7): 715-723, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27731548

RESUMO

To address uncertainty of whether pathologic stage groupings after neoadjuvant therapy (ypTNM) for esophageal cancer share prognostic implications with pathologic groupings after esophagectomy alone (pTNM), we report data-simple descriptions of patient characteristics, cancer categories, and non-risk-adjusted survival-for pathologically staged cancers after neoadjuvant therapy from the Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration (WECC). Thirty-three institutions from six continents submitted data using variables with standard definitions: demographics, comorbidities, clinical cancer categories, and all-cause mortality from first management decision. Of 7,773 pathologically staged neoadjuvant patients, 2,045 had squamous cell carcinoma, 5,686 adenocarcinoma, 31 adenosquamous carcinoma, and 11 undifferentiated carcinoma. Patients were older (61 years) men (83%) with normal (40%) or overweight (35%) body mass index, 0-1 Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (96%), and a history of smoking (69%). Cancers were ypT0 (20%), ypT1 (13%), ypT2 (18%), ypT3 (44%), ypN0 (55%), ypM0 (94%), and G2-G3 (72%); most involved the distal esophagus (80%). Non-risk-adjusted survival for yp categories was unequally depressed, more for earlier categories than later, compared with equivalent categories from prior WECC data for esophagectomy-alone patients. Thus, survival of patients with ypT0-2N0M0 cancers was intermediate and similar regardless of ypT; survival for ypN+ cancers was poor. Because prognoses for ypTNM and pTNM categories are dissimilar, prognostication should be based on separate ypTNM categories and groupings. These data will be the basis for the 8th edition cancer staging manuals following risk adjustment for patient, cancer, and treatment characteristics and should direct 9th edition data collection.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Terapia Neoadjuvante/mortalidade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma/mortalidade , Carcinoma/terapia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos
14.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 30(5): 748-53, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26299846

RESUMO

Lentigo maligna (LM) is the most common melanocytic malignancy of the head and neck. If left untreated, LM can progress to lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM). Complete surgical excision is the gold standard for treatment, however, due to the location, size, and advanced age of patients, surgery is not always acceptable. As a result, there is ongoing interest in alternative, less invasive treatment modalities. The objective was to provide a structured review of key literature reporting the use of radiotherapy, imiquimod and laser therapy for the management of LM in patients where surgical resection is prohibited. An independent review was conducted following a comprehensive search of the National Library of Medicine using MEDLINE and PubMed, Embase, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Cochrane Library databases. Data were presented in tabular format, and crude data pooled to calculate mean recurrence rates for each therapy. 29 studies met the inclusion criteria: radiotherapy 10; topical imiquimod 10; laser therapies 9. Radiotherapy demostrated recurrence rates of up to 31% (mean 11.5%), with follow-up durations of 1-96 months. Topical imiquimod recurrence rates were up to 50% (mean 24.5%), with follow-up durations of 2-49 months. Laser therapy yielded recurrence rates of up to 100% (mean 34.4%), and follow-up durations of 8-78 months. in each of the treatment series the I(2) value measuring statistical heterogeneity exceeded the accepted threshold of 50% and as such a meta-analysis of included data were inappropriate. For non-surgical patients with LM, radiotherapy and topical imiquimod were efficacious treatments. Radiotherapy produced superior complete response rates and fewer recurrences than imiquimod although both are promising non-invasive modalities. There was no consistent body of evidence regarding laser therapy although response rates of up to 100% were reported in low quality studies. A prospective comparative trial is indicated and would provide accurate data on the long-term efficacy and overall utility of these treatments.


Assuntos
Sarda Melanótica de Hutchinson/terapia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Aminoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Sarda Melanótica de Hutchinson/tratamento farmacológico , Sarda Melanótica de Hutchinson/radioterapia , Imiquimode , Terapia a Laser
15.
Intern Med J ; 45(9): 965-71, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26332622

RESUMO

The delivery of healthcare that meets the requirements for quality, safety and cost-effectiveness relies on a well-trained medical workforce, including clinical academics whose career includes a specific commitment to research, education and/or leadership. In 2011, the Medical Deans of Australia and New Zealand published a review on the clinical academic workforce and recommended the development of an integrated training pathway for clinical academics. A bi-national Summit on Clinical Academic Training was recently convened to bring together all relevant stakeholders to determine how best to do this. An important part understood the lessons learnt from the UK experience after 10 years since the introduction of an integrated training pathway. The outcome of the summit was to endorse strongly the recommendations of the medical deans. A steering committee has been established to identify further stakeholders, solicit more information from stakeholder organisations, convene a follow-up summit meeting in late 2015, recruit pilot host institutions and engage the government and future funders.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Competência Profissional/normas , Austrália/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Liderança , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Relatório de Pesquisa
17.
Br J Surg ; 100(1): 95-104, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23148025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oesophageal malignancy is a disease with a poor prognosis. Oesophagectomy is the mainstay of curative treatment but associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Although mortality rates have improved, the incidence of perioperative morbidity remains high. This study assessed the impact of postoperative morbidity on long-term outcomes. METHODS: A prospective database was designed for patients undergoing oesophagectomy for malignancy from 1998 to 2011. An observational cohort study was performed with these data, assessing intraoperative technical complications, postoperative morbidity and effects on overall survival. RESULTS: Some 618 patients were included, with a median follow-up of 51 months for survivors. The overall complication rate was 64·6 per cent (399 of 618), with technical complications in 124 patients (20·1 per cent) and medical complications in 339 (54·9 per cent). Technical complications were associated with longer duration of surgery (308 min versus 293 min in those with no technical complications; P = 0·017), greater operative blood loss (448 versus 389 ml respectively; P = 0·035) and longer length of stay (22 versus 13 days; P < 0·001). Medical complications were associated with greater intraoperative blood loss (418 ml versus 380 ml in those with no medical complications; P = 0·013) and greater length of stay (16 versus 12 days respectively; P < 0·001). Median overall and disease-free survival were 41 and 43 months. After controlling for age, tumour stage, resection margin, length of tumour, adjuvant therapy, procedure type and co-morbidities, there was no effect of postoperative complications on disease-specific survival. CONCLUSION: Technical and medical complications following oesophagectomy were associated with greater intraoperative blood loss and a longer duration of inpatient stay, but did not predict disease-specific survival.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Esofagectomia/mortalidade , Complicações Intraoperatórias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fístula Anastomótica/epidemiologia , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Esofagectomia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Gradação de Tumores , Transplante de Neoplasias , Neoplasias de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Células Escamosas/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Taxa de Sobrevida , Retenção Urinária/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Dis Esophagus ; 22(8): 668-75, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19222534

RESUMO

Preoperative staging for esophageal adenocarcinoma is suboptimal for predicting outcomes when compared with pathological data. The aim of this study was to assess if the quantitative values obtained by preoperative 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) are independent prognostic indicators for survival in patients with resectable adenocarcinoma of the esophagus undergoing surgical treatment without neoadjuvant therapy. Patients were identified from a prospective database, survival analyses were undertaken using log rank and Cox method. The median follow-up was 44 months (range 18-61 months). Between November 2002 and November 2005, 45 consecutive patients underwent FDG-PET followed by surgery. The median age was 72 years (range 38-82 years). On univariate analysis of overall survival and disease-free survival, preoperative FDG-PET maximum standardized uptake value (SUV(max); P= 0.008 and P= 0.015, respectively) and postoperative pathological stage (P= 0.001 and P= 0.001, respectively) as well as postoperative histological grade (P= 0.001 and P= 0.001, respectively) were significantly associated with outcome. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that only the postoperative pathological variables were independent predictors of outcome (Wald 11.81, P= 0.001). Preoperative FDG-PET SUV(max) is associated with outcome after esophageal adenocarcinoma resection but remains less accurate than postoperative variables. A high FDG-PET SUV(max) could be used to identify a high-risk population who would benefit most from neoadjuvant therapies.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Esofagectomia/métodos , Junção Esofagogástrica/patologia , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Período Pré-Operatório , Prognóstico , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Análise de Sobrevida
19.
Dis Esophagus ; 21(2): 151-8, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18269651

RESUMO

Our aim was to determine if fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) could be correlated with a pathological response in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy and/or chemoradiation therapy. Patients with resectable, histologically proven adenocarcinoma of the esophagus were entered in the study. Preoperative chemotherapy comprised two cycles of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil. Radiation therapy commenced with the second cycle on day 22. FDG-PET images were obtained pre-treatment and on completion of intended neo-adjuvant treatment. Quantification was achieved by the calculation of both standardized uptake values (SUV) and tumor/liver ratios (TLR). Evidence of histopathological response was identified according to the Mandard tumor regression scoring system. There were 45 patients, 22 receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 23 chemoradiation therapy. Forty patients underwent surgical resection. Seven patients (16%) had a histopathological response. The mean percentage change in SUV in the histological responders group was -56.8% (SD 29) and in the non-responders -27.8% (SD 32.1) (P = 0.035). The mean percentage change in TLR was -49.1% (SD 44.8) in the responders and in the non-responders -27.3% (SD 31.3) (P = 0.128). There was no difference between the two methods of assessment, however there was less variation with SUV. There was no correlation between the FDG-PET response and the histopathological response. Presently an FDG-PET scan performed 3-6 weeks after neoadjuvant therapy for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus should not be used as a marker of the potential result of the treatment. The optimal timing of a second FDG-PET remains unclear.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante
20.
Gut ; 57(2): 173-80, 2008 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17932103

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To measure the relative risks of adenocarcinomas of the oesophagus and gastro-oesophageal junction associated with measures of obesity, and their interactions with age, sex, gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms and smoking. DESIGN AND SETTING: Population-based case-control study in Australia. PATIENTS: Patients with adenocarcinomas of the oesophagus (n = 367) or gastro-oesophageal junction (n = 426) were compared with control participants (n = 1580) sampled from a population register. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Relative risk of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus or gastro-oesophageal junction. RESULTS: Risks of oesophageal adenocarcinoma increased monotonically with body mass index (BMI) (p(trend) <0.001). Highest risks were seen for BMI >or=40 kg/m2 (odds ratio (OR) = 6.1, 95% CI 2.7 to 13.6) compared with "healthy" BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m2). Adjustment for gastro-oesophageal reflux and other factors modestly attenuated risks. Risks associated with obesity were substantially higher among men (OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.8 to 3.9) than women (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 0.5 to 3.5), and among those aged <50 years (OR = 7.5, 95% CI 1.7 to 33.0) than those aged >or=50 years (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.5 to 3.1). Obese people with frequent symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux had significantly higher risks (OR = 16.5, 95% CI 8.9 to 30.6) than people with obesity but no reflux (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.3) or reflux but no obesity (OR = 5.6, 95% 2.8 to 11.3), consistent with a synergistic interaction between these factors. Similar associations, but of smaller magnitude, were seen for gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinomas. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity increases the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma independently of other factors, particularly among men. From a clinical perspective, these data suggest that patients with obesity and frequent symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux are at especially increased risk of adenocarcinoma.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/etiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/etiologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Junção Esofagogástrica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
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