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Vet Dermatol ; 24(1): 146-53.e32-3, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23331691


BACKGROUND: Mycobacterial granulomas of the skin and subcutis can be caused by one of a number of pathogens. This review concentrates on noncultivable species that cause diseases characterized by focal granuloma(s), namely leproid granuloma (in dogs) and feline leprosy (in cats). Clinically indistinguishable lesions can be caused by tuberculous organisms (Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium microti) and members of the Mycobacterium avium complex. Rapidly growing mycobacterial species that cause infection of the subcutaneous panniculus associated with draining tracts are not discussed. Disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans is an important emerging differential diagnosis for ulcerated cutaneous nodules in certain localized regions. CLINICAL LESIONS: Lesions comprise one or multiple nodules in the skin/subcutis. These are generally firm and well circumscribed, and typically become denuded of hair. They may or may not ulcerate, depending on the virulence of the causal organisms and the immune response of the host. DIAGNOSIS: The most inexpensive, noninvasive means of diagnosis is by submission of methanol-fixed, Romanowsky-stained smears to a Mycobacterium Reference Laboratory after detecting negatively stained or acid-fast bacilli on cytological smears. Scrapings of material from slides usually provide sufficient mycobacterial DNA to enable identification of the causal organism using sequence analysis of amplicons after PCR using specific mycobacterial primers. THERAPY: Therapy relies upon a combination of marginal resection of easily accessible lesions and treatment using two or three drugs effective against slowly growing mycobacteria, choosing amongst rifampicin, clarithromycin, clofazimine and pradofloxacin/moxifloxacin.

Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Granuloma/veterinária , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/veterinária , Úlcera Cutânea/veterinária , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Doenças do Gato/terapia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Granuloma/microbiologia , Granuloma/patologia , Granuloma/terapia , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/patologia , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/terapia , Úlcera Cutânea/microbiologia , Úlcera Cutânea/patologia , Úlcera Cutânea/terapia
Vet Dermatol ; 23(6): 465-e88, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23140313


BACKGROUND: Canine leproid granuloma (CLG) characteristically presents as single to multiple circumscribed dermal to subcutaneous nodules in haired skin. An unidentified mycobacterium is considered be the aetiological agent of this entity. ANIMALS: Several cases of canine leproid granulomas occurred in dogs in New Zealand during 2010 and 2011. Cases appeared in clusters, affecting multiple closely related foxhounds domiciled in the same kennels. All affected hounds recovered after topical and/or systemic antimicrobial therapy. Two similar outbreaks that occurred in foxhounds near Melbourne, Australia are also reported. METHODS: Cases were investigated using cytological, histological, microbiological and several molecular techniques. An environmental epidemiological study was also performed. RESULTS: A diagnosis of CLG was established in 11 dogs. Molecular identification of the causative agent confirmed that it was a mycobacterial species with 100% sequence homology within the amplified regions of the 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) with that found in association with similar infections from the USA, Brazil and Australia. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: This report details the first occurrence of multiple cases of CLG occurring in in-contact dogs and the first proven case of CLG in dogs in New Zealand.

Doenças do Cão/patologia , Granuloma/veterinária , Infecções por Mycobacterium/veterinária , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/veterinária , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Granuloma/tratamento farmacológico , Granuloma/epidemiologia , Granuloma/patologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Mycobacterium/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium/patologia , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/patologia
Vet Dermatol ; 22(1): 104-10, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20604909


Canine viral plaques are uncommon skin lesions that are induced by papillomaviruses (PVs). Plaques are usually of little clinical significance in dogs, although they have been reported rarely to progress to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Here is described a 7-year-old mixed-breed dog that developed numerous darkly pigmented plaques up to 8 cm in diameter. Multiple ulcerated nodular masses were visible within plaques on the ventrum and axilla. The dog showed no clinical evidence of immunodeficiency and appeared otherwise healthy. Over the next 2 years, five surgeries were performed to remove 23 ulcerated masses that ranged in size from 2 to 5 cm in diameter. Five masses were submitted for histology, and all were SCCs. Each was surrounded by epidermis that contained histological features consistent with those described in canine plaques. Suggestive of a PV aetiology, massive numbers of large keratohyaline granules were present throughout the thickened epidermis. Additionally, koilocytes were focally present, and one sample contained a band of keratinocytes within the superficial epidermis that contained pale cytoplasm and marginated chromatin. From two samples, DNA sequences from a previously unreported PV were amplified, and immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of PV antigen in both. The PV DNA sequences were most similar to those of canine PVs previously associated with plaque formation. The plaques observed in this case were unusual owing to their rapid growth, large size and frequent malignant transformation. It is unknown whether this unusual behaviour was due to the specific PV detected in this case or to host factors within the dog.

Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/veterinária , Papillomaviridae/classificação , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/veterinária , Dermatopatias Virais/veterinária , Neoplasias Cutâneas/veterinária , Animais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/virologia , Cães , Masculino , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Dermatopatias Virais/patologia , Dermatopatias Virais/cirurgia , Dermatopatias Virais/virologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/virologia
Toxicon ; 50(2): 292-301, 2007 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17517427


In November 2005, at least five dogs died rapidly after contact with water from the Hutt River (lower North Island, New Zealand). Necropsy performed 24h later on one of the dogs (a 20-month-old Labrador) revealed few findings of interest, except for copious amounts of froth in the respiratory tract down to the bifurcation of the trachea and large quantities of algal material in the dog's stomach. Low and relatively stable flows in the Hutt River during spring had resulted in the proliferation of benthic cyanobacteria that formed large black/brown mats along the river edge. Samples from the Labrador's stomach contents and cyanobacterial mats were analysed microscopically and screened using chemical and biochemical assays for cyanotoxins: anatoxin-a, homoanatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, saxitoxins and microcystins. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) confirmed the presence of the neurotoxic cyanotoxins anatoxin-a and homoanatoxin-a and their degradation products, dihydro-anatoxin-a and dihydro-homoanatoxin-a. This is the first report of homoanatoxin-a and associated degradation product in New Zealand. Based on morphology, the causative species was identified as Phormidium sp. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that the causative organism was most similar to Phormidium autumnale. Further investigations led to the detection of homoanatoxin-a and anatoxin-a in cyanobacterial mats from four other rivers in the Wellington region (lower North Island, New Zealand). Access restrictions were placed on over 60% of river catchments in the western Wellington region, severely affecting recreational users.

Toxinas Bacterianas/envenenamento , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Toxinas Marinhas/envenenamento , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/patologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/veterinária , Animais , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes , Clonagem Molecular , Cianobactérias/química , Cianobactérias/ultraestrutura , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/efeitos dos fármacos , Cães , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Microcistinas/química , Microcistinas/isolamento & purificação , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Nova Zelândia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Saxitoxina/química , Saxitoxina/isolamento & purificação , Saxitoxina/toxicidade , Fixação de Tecidos , Toxoides/química , Toxoides/isolamento & purificação
J Invest Dermatol ; 124(6): 1170-6, 2005 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15955091


A mechanobullous skin disorder was identified in the progeny of a 3-y-old Friesian-Jersey crossbred bull. The condition presented as loss of skin and mucosa from contact areas and inflammation. Examination of skin samples under light microscopy revealed separation of the epidermis from the dermis. Electron microscopic analysis refined the site of cleavage to above the basement membrane involving lysis of basal keratinocytes. These observations were consistent with the simplex form of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) in humans. Candidate genes based on human gene mutations were assessed, resulting in keratin 5 being identified as the most likely candidate gene. The sequence of bovine keratin 5 was established and sequencing led to identification of a G to A substitution in all affected animals. This mutation leads to an amino acid change of glutamic acid to lysine in the final E (478) of the KLLEGE motif of the protein. The sire carried a de novo mutation and was mosaic, explaining his asymptomatic status and the less than expected frequency of affected offspring. Remarkably, the same mutation has been previously described in EB simplex in humans.

Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Epidermólise Bolhosa Simples/veterinária , Queratinas/genética , Mosaicismo , Mutação , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico , Queratina-5 , Lisina , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica , Linhagem