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1.
Pediatr Obes ; 15(2): e12583, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consumption of large portions of energy-dense foods promotes weight gain in children. Breakfast cereal boxes often show portions much larger than the recommended serving size. OBJECTIVE: This experimental study investigated whether front-of-package portion size depictions influence children's self-served portions and consumption. METHODS: In a between-subjects design, 41 children aged 7-11 years (M= 9.0 ± 1.5y) served themselves breakfast cereal from a box, the front of which depicted either a recommended serving size of cereal (30g) or a larger, more typical front-of-pack portion (90g). Cereal served and consumed and total caloric intake (including milk) was recorded. Height and weight, demographic information and measures of children's food responsiveness and enjoyment of food were collected. RESULTS: MANOVA revealed that children exposed to the larger portion size served themselves (+7g, 37%) and consumed (+6g, 63%) significantly more cereal than those exposed to the smaller portion. Despite this, overall caloric intake (milk included) did not differ between conditions, and no other measured variables (hunger, BMI) significantly affected the outcomes. CONCLUSION: This study provides novel evidence of the influence portion-size depictions on food packaging have on children's eating behaviour. This offers possible avenues for intervention and policy change; however, more research is needed.

2.
Front Psychol ; 10: 2637, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824391

RESUMO

Food marketing influences eating preferences and choices, especially among adolescents, contributing to the rise of overweight, obesity, and other chronic health disorders. Recent social media advancements have provided food marketers with platforms to reach out to many in more personal and authentic ways as compared to classical media advertising. Such personalized and borderless social media platforms allow marketers to easily use owned, paid, and earned (word-of -mouth) marketing strategies, including paid and non-paid influencers to reach younger target audiences. This study therefore aims to explore food messages adolescents (12-18 years old) encounter on social media, and assess these messages for their sources, the presence of core and non-core food, and the marketing strategies employed. To attain an in-depth understanding of the food messages that adolescents are continuously exposed to, we carried out a diary study with 21 Flemish adolescents who took screenshots of food images they encountered on their social media platforms for the duration of one week. A quantitative and qualitative content analysis of 611 images revealed that adolescents are mostly exposed to messages of non-core (67% of images) and branded (49% of images) food, often (49% of images) presented in association with a social context such as hanging around with friends, eating at restaurants and celebrating with food. Adolescents often encounter branded food images through peers and social media influencers, the majority of which are part of earned (49% of branded images) or paid (40% of branded images) media food marketing. This research provides an in-depth understanding of the social media messages that adolescents encounter on a daily basis and sheds light on food norms typically communicated on social media by marketers, peers, and influencers. Study findings highlight prominent social media food messages that should be tested for their persuasiveness, providing insights for future research that aims to assess the effects of social media food marketing on adolescents. Based on the study findings, we call for relevant policy actions that address current social media marketing strategies targeted at adolescents.

3.
Obes Rev ; 20(12): 1708-1719, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468652

RESUMO

The media marketing's effect on child and adult eating has been extensively researched, yet, little is known about its effect on adolescents. The aim of this review is to synthesize available research on the relation between media food marketing and eating-related cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors among pre-adolescents (8-11) and adolescents (12-19). We systematically screened and retrieved 9324 articles, of which 28 were included in the review-analysis and 19 in the meta-analysis. Robust variance estimation with random effect weights indicated a positive small standard effect size (d = 0.26, P < .001) of media food marketing on all unhealthy eating outcomes, and a subgroup analysis revealed a small effect size (d = 0.26, P < .001) on unhealthy eating behaviors specifically. Another subgroup analysis among adolescents revealed an effect of marketing (d = 0.22, P < .05) on unhealthy eating outcomes. This review demonstrates the significance of media marketing on eating in pre-adolescents and adolescents, and highlights limitations in the food marketing and adolescent eating literature specific to eating outcomes and marketing media studied and research designs utilized. We call for properly designed food marketing research exploring digital media's effect on eating attitudes and cognitions, especially among older adolescents.

4.
Health Promot Int ; 34(1): 71-81, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28973405

RESUMO

Persuasive on-pack marketing strategies, such as colourful images and games, affect children's preferences and requests. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of these child-directed (i.e. aimed at children) strategies on food packages at a Belgian retailer. Although previous research already demonstrated the frequency of most of these techniques directed at children, this paper extends to food pricing and facing strategies (i.e. the number of items from the same product aligned next to each other in the supermarket shelves) which were unstudied till now. Moreover, the association between the use of these strategies, the products' (un)healthiness and their type of brand (national vs. private) is investigated. The content analysis found that 372 food products contained one or more child-directed marketing strategies on-pack, all these communications were coded; the products could be classified in 15 food categories. On average, 3.9 (Min = 1; Max = 8) food promotion techniques were used per package. Unhealthiness of products was rated according to Food Standards Agency (FSA) Nutrient Profile UK. We found that 89.2% of all products with child-directed strategies were considered to be unhealthy. The presence of marketing strategies was associated with higher product unhealthiness, but did not differ much between types of brand. Overall, these findings suggest that (unhealthy) foods aimed at children typically feature many on-pack persuasive communications, which implies that policy makers should (continue to) monitor this. These findings highlight the need for further research to investigate the impact of on-pack communications on children's consumption.


Assuntos
Comércio , Embalagem de Alimentos/normas , Marketing/métodos , Valor Nutritivo , Bélgica , Criança , Preferências Alimentares , Política de Saúde , Humanos
5.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 48(5): e12912, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29438579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite regular criticisms of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST), a focus on testing persists, sometimes in the belief to get published and sometimes encouraged by journal reviewers. This paper aims to demonstrate known key limitations of NHST using simple nontechnical illustrations. DESIGN: The first illustration is based on simulated data of 20 000 studies that compare two groups for an outcome event. The true effect size (difference in event rates) and sample size (20-100 per group) were varied. The second illustration used real data from a meta-analysis on alpha-blockers for the treatment of ureteric stones. RESULTS: The simulations demonstrated the large between-study variability in P-values (range between <.0001 and 1 for most simulation conditions). A focus on statistically significant effects (P < .05), notably in small to moderate samples, led to strongly overestimated effect sizes (up to 240%) and many false-positive conclusions, that is statistically significant effects that were, in fact, true null effects. Effect sizes also exerted strong between-study variability, but confidence intervals accounted for this: the interval width decreased with larger sample size, and the percentage of intervals that contained the true effect size was accurate across simulation conditions. Reducing alpha level, as recently suggested, reduced false-positive conclusions but strongly increased the overestimation of significant effects (up to 320%). CONCLUSIONS: Researchers and journals should abandon statistical significance as a pivotal element in most scientific publications. Confidence intervals around effect sizes are more informative, but should not merely be reported to comply with journal requirements.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Modelos Estatísticos , Probabilidade , Tamanho da Amostra , Incerteza
6.
J Aging Phys Act ; 26(4): 521-529, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29252069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The social identity approach proposes that the more older adults identify with the social group of "older adults," the more they will conform to what they perceive as being normative exercising for their group. However, so far, it remains unclear why older adults adhere to these norms. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether perceived exercise norms are associated with higher levels of autonomous motivation according to the self-determination theory and actual exercise participation. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey, either by regular mail or online, was conducted among 409 older adults in Flanders (Belgium). RESULTS: Our analyses revealed that older adults who perceived more positive older adult norms for exercising were more autonomously motivated to exercise. In explaining 24% of their exercise motivation, older adults' perceptions of the exercise norms for older adults predicted 6% of their exercise participation. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that social identity approach and self-determination theory can be meaningfully integrated.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Exercício/psicologia , Motivação , Idoso , Bélgica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autonomia Pessoal , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Appetite ; 116: 559-567, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28572068

RESUMO

Prior research has established that TV viewing and food marketing influence children's eating behavior. However, the potential impact of popular TV cooking shows has received far less attention. TV cooking shows may equally affect children's food selection and consumption by distributing both food cues and portion-size cues. In an experimental study, elementary school children were randomly exposed to a cooking show, that either did or did not display a portion-size cue, or a non-food TV show. Results showed that children used significantly more sugar on their pancakes, and consumed significantly more of the pancakes after watching a TV cooking show compared to a non-food TV show. However, observing a portion-size cue in a TV cooking show only influenced sugar selection in older children (5th grade), but not in younger children (1st grade). The findings suggest that food cues in TV cooking shows stimulate consumption by inducing food cravings in children. Actual portion-size cues only appeared to affect older children's food selection.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Culinária , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Televisão , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Comportamento de Escolha , Sinais (Psicologia) , Dieta/psicologia , Açúcares da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho da Porção , Instituições Acadêmicas
11.
Patient Educ Couns ; 94(1): 110-5, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24169022

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To measure the impact of a one-day depression-related training program on pharmacists' counseling of unannounced "mystery shoppers" (MS) starting antidepressant therapy. METHODS: Clustered RCT pharmacies; intervention group pharmacists received communication skills training related to depression (n=21); control pharmacists did not (n=19). Eight months after training, the 40 community pharmacies were visited by MS with a first prescription for antidepressants. The pharmacy interactions were recorded and analyzed using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). Mann-Whitney U tests were used to evaluate the impact of training on pharmacy interactions and MS evaluations of the pharmacists' skills and attitudes. RESULTS: Interactions of intervention group pharmacists were significantly longer and consisted of more education and counseling statements about lifestyle and psychosocial concerns. Intervention group pharmacists asked more questions about medical condition and therapeutic regimen, as well as socioemotional concerns. MS gave more socioemotional information to intervention group pharmacists and were more positive in their assessment of these pharmacists' skills and attitudes (p values<0.05). CONCLUSION: Pharmacist training in depression care can positively affect the quality of patient care. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Postgraduate training in depression related services is a worthwhile approach to improve the quality of pharmaceutical care.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Educação Continuada em Farmácia/métodos , Farmácias , Farmacêuticos , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Adulto , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Bélgica , Aconselhamento , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Farmacêutica/normas , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 13(6): 599-604, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24251737

RESUMO

This experiment tested whether the conformism observed among panels of judges in aesthetic sports also occurs among judges in judo. Similar to aesthetic sports, judo judging relies upon a form of open feedback. However, in judo, this system is reactive (i.e. two judges have to publicly 'correct' the score given by the higher-status referee), whereas it is active in aesthetic sports (i.e. judges with equal status report their score simultaneously and can use the feedback about the scores of their colleagues for evaluating later performances). In order to test whether such reactive open-feedback system leads to conformism among judges in judo, we designed an experiment in which this feedback was manipulated. Participants were 20 certified Flemish judges, who had to score two sets of 11 ambiguous video sequences that are used during formation and training of judo judges: one set with feedback about the referee's score and one set without feedback. The results revealed that when participants knew the referee's score, their scores were significantly more in line with this score than when they did not know this score. More specifically, for both sets of sequences at least 10% less deviations from the referee were observed when participants were given feedback about the score of the referee. These results suggest that preventable conformism can occur in typical judo judging, that is with reactive open feedback.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Julgamento , Artes Marciais/psicologia , Esportes/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Responsabilidade Social
13.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 77(6): 120, 2013 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23966723

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To measure the impact of a depression training day for pharmacists that included a 75-minute session with a consumer educator. DESIGN: The training day included interactive lectures on depression; the effects and side effects of and indications for the use of antidepressants; adherence issues; non-drug treatment options for depression; and basic skills in communication. Pharmacists also participated in a session with a consumer educator and in counseling exercises that included role playing. ASSESSMENT: The study used a randomized, clustered, comparative design to measure pharmacists' stigma, attitudes, and current practice related to the provision of pharmaceutical care to people with depression. Mean scores for depression-care practice after the training session were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group. Analysis of the changes between baseline and postintervention measures in both the control and intervention groups confirmed a significant difference in the change in both social distance and practice but no significant difference in the change in attitude between the 2 groups of pharmacists. CONCLUSION: A continuing-education depression training day for pharmacists that involve consumer educators may improve the care delivered in the community pharmacy to people with depression.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/psicologia , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Assistência Farmacêutica , Farmácias , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Educação Continuada , Humanos , Estigma Social , Estereotipagem
14.
Acta Paediatr ; 101(9): e388-9, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22712618
15.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 34(3): 452-9, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22477208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the past three decades, the role of pharmacists has evolved toward working with other health professionals and the public in a patient-centered model of practice, which is called pharmaceutical care. This model has been implemented for most physical illnesses but in relation to mental health, pharmacists' role is still evolving. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate pharmacists' attitudes, current practice, perceived barriers and training needs concerning pharmaceutical care for people with depression. SETTING: All pharmacists attending obligatory regional meetings of the Surplus Network (a Flemish community pharmacy chain) during April and May 2009. METHOD: Written survey consisting of questions on (1) pharmacists' attitude and current practice in depression care and pharmaceutical care for people with other illnesses; (2) potential barriers in providing pharmaceutical care for people with depression; and (3) training needs. Paired samples T tests and Wilcoxon-tests were used to analyze the data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Attitude and current practice in depression care versus care for other illnesses. RESULTS: Although the results show no difference in the attitude of pharmacists toward providing care for people with depression versus other illnesses (p = 0.315), pharmacists report to provide significantly less care to people with depression compared to people with other illnesses (p < 0.05). Perceived barriers toward providing depression care were the lack of information about the person and their treatment, the fact that depression is a difficult condition, the lack of education in mental health and the lack of time and privacy in the pharmacy. These, and the reported training needs, may limit the self-efficacy of pharmacists and hence influence current practice. CONCLUSION: In spite of pharmacists' positive attitude toward depression care, current practice displays actionable flaws. Barriers and training needs should be addressed in order to improve pharmaceutical care for people with depression.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Percepção , Assistência Farmacêutica , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Bélgica , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Humanos , Assistência Farmacêutica/normas , Farmacêuticos/normas , Autoeficácia
16.
Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed ; 26(6): 297-302, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21091787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As different tissue types have distinct capabilities to accumulate protoporphyrin IX, fluorescence diagnosis with aminolevulinic acid-induced porphyrins (FDAP) could be used to discriminate between different types of tissue. Previous results demonstrated higher fluorescence ratios in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) compared with actinic keratoses (AKs). OBJECTIVES: The lesional : non-lesional fluorescence ratio of AKs was compared with the ratio of SCC. Other factors influencing macroscopic fluorescence were also assessed, including stratum corneum thickness, which has been demonstrated to account for heterogeneous fluorescence in psoriasis and in AKs. METHODS: After 1 week of keratolytic pretreatment, FDAP was performed in 13 patients with 36 lesions suspected for AK or SCC. Biopsies were taken for histopathological diagnosis and measurement of stratum corneum thickness. RESULTS: No significant differences were found in the fluorescence ratio (lesional : non-lesional skin) between AKs and SCCs, although macroscopic fluorescence was significantly higher in Bowen's disease and micro-invasive SCCs. CONCLUSIONS: There could be a potential applicability of FDAP to differentiate premalignant lesions with a tendency to progress into SCC and squamous cutaneous lesions already progressing into early invasive cancer from other squamous cutaneous (pre)malignancies. The amount of hyperkeratosis, invasiveness and degree of differentiation seem to be responsible for variations in fluorescence intensity.


Assuntos
Ácido Aminolevulínico/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Fluorescência , Ceratose Actínica/diagnóstico , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Ceratose Actínica/metabolismo , Ceratose Actínica/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Porfirinas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed ; 26(1): 16-21, 2010 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20070834

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Phototherapy with visible light is gaining interest in dermatological practice. Theoretically, blue light could induce biological effects comparable to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation. OBJECTIVES: To study the effects of blue light on normal skin in terms of photodamage, skin ageing and melanogenesis. METHODS: Eight healthy volunteers were included and irradiation with visible blue light was given on five consecutive days. Skin biopsies were analysed with respect to photodamage (p53, vacuolization, sunburn cells), skin ageing (elastosis, MMP-1) and melanogenesis (Melan-A). RESULTS: No inflammatory cells and sunburn cells were visible before or after irradiation. A significant increase in the perinuclear vacuolization of keratinocytes was demonstrated during treatment (P=0.02) with a tendency towards significance after cessation of treatment (P=0.09). No significant change in p53 expression was seen. Signs of elastosis and changes in MMP-1 expression were absent. Minimal clinical hyperpigmentation of the irradiated skin was confirmed histologically with a significant increase in Melan-A-positive cells (P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Visible blue light, as given in the present study, does not cause deoxyribonucleic acid damage or early photo-ageing. The biological effects of blue light on normal skin are transient melanogenesis and inexplicable vacuolization without resulting apoptosis. In conclusion, the (short-term) use of visible blue light in dermatological practice is safe.


Assuntos
Luz/efeitos adversos , Fototerapia/efeitos adversos , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Pele/patologia , Adulto , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Antígeno MART-1 , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 1 da Matriz/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Envelhecimento da Pele/patologia , Queimadura Solar/metabolismo , Queimadura Solar/patologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
19.
J Dermatolog Treat ; 21(4): 245-51, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19832289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis lesions accumulate protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) with a variable distribution within plaques due to variations in hyperkeratosis causing differences in penetration of cream or light. OBJECTIVES: To study the effects of different keratolytic pretreatments in PpIX-induced fluorescence diagnosis (FDAP) and during photodynamic therapy (PDT). METHODS: Two psoriasis plaques of 10 patients were treated with either topical retinoic acid or with a hydrocolloid dressing. The hydrocolloid dressing gave the best results. Subsequently, two different contralateral plaques of eight patients were pretreated with a hydrocolloid dressing or the standard pretreatment, salicylic acid in petrolatum, during the 6 weeks of PDT. Biopsies were investigated with respect to stratum corneum thickness, proliferation, differentiation and inflammation. RESULTS: Irritation and point bleedings were noticed after retinoic acid. A hydrocolloid dressing induced the best clinical improvement. Therefore, it was used as alternative pretreatment for psoriasis prior to PDT. We observed significant clinical and immunohistochemical improvement of psoriasis in the salicylic acid as well as the hydrocolloid dressing pretreated plaques. CONCLUSIONS: Salicylic acid in petrolatum and a hydrocolloid dressing prior to FDAP and PDT induce improvement of hyperkeratosis. Thus, a hydrocolloid dressing is a good alternative to the current keratolytic pretreatment regime.


Assuntos
Ácido Aminolevulínico/administração & dosagem , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Protoporfirinas/metabolismo , Psoríase/diagnóstico , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Tretinoína/uso terapêutico , Administração Tópica , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Curativos Hidrocoloides , Biópsia por Agulha , Feminino , Fluorescência , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Ceratolíticos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Probabilidade , Psoríase/patologia , Absorção Cutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 96(3): 159-69, 2009 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19592269

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) or its methyl ester (MAL) is a very effective method to treat actinic keratosis (AK). New developments will contribute to optimization of this treatment modality. This will partly be based on a better understanding of the nature of AKs. Since pain during treatment is a frequent side effect of PDT, new methods of alleviating pain are of high interest, especially when large areas are treated. A better understanding of the underlying mechanism of specific protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) accumulation can lead to further increase the response rates. New formulations might contribute to a wider acceptance of the treatment, for example a self-adhesive patch containing 5-ALA, promises easy handling, while maintaining high efficacy. New concepts in illumination, such as ambulatory PDT or daylight illumination might contribute to the further acceptance of this method.


Assuntos
Ceratose Actínica/tratamento farmacológico , Fotoquimioterapia , Ácido Aminolevulínico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Aminolevulínico/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Protoporfirinas/metabolismo
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