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1.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The origin of sex differences in prevalence and presentation of neuropsychiatric and behavioral traits is largely unknown. Given established genetic contributions and correlations, we tested for a sex-differentiated genetic architecture within and between traits. METHODS: Using European ancestry genome-wide association summary statistics for 20 neuropsychiatric and behavioral traits, we tested for sex differences in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability and genetic correlation (rg < 1). For each trait, we computed per-SNP z scores from sex-stratified regression coefficients and identified genes with sex-differentiated effects using a gene-based approach. We calculated correlation coefficients between z scores to test for shared sex-differentiated effects. Finally, we tested for sex differences in across-trait genetic correlations. RESULTS: We observed no consistent sex differences in SNP-based heritability. Between-sex, within-trait genetic correlations were high, although <1 for educational attainment and risk-taking behavior. We identified 4 genes with significant sex-differentiated effects across 3 traits. Several trait pairs shared sex-differentiated effects. The top genes with sex-differentiated effects were enriched for multiple gene sets, including neuron- and synapse-related sets. Most between-trait genetic correlation estimates were not significantly different between sexes, with exceptions (educational attainment and risk-taking behavior). CONCLUSIONS: Sex differences in the common autosomal genetic architecture of neuropsychiatric and behavioral phenotypes are small and polygenic and unlikely to fully account for observed sex-differentiated attributes. Larger sample sizes are needed to identify sex-differentiated effects for most traits. For well-powered studies, we identified genes with sex-differentiated effects that were enriched for neuron-related and other biological functions. This work motivates further investigation of genetic and environmental influences on sex differences.

2.
J Affect Disord ; 282: 740-756, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been considerable recent advances in understanding the genetic architecture of psychiatric disorders as well as the underlying neurocircuitry. However, there is little work on the concordance of genetic variations that increase risk for cross-disorder vulnerability, and those that influence subcortical brain structures. We undertook a genome-wide investigation of the genetic overlap between cross-disorder vulnerability to psychiatric disorders (p-factor) and subcortical brain structures. METHODS: Summary statistics were obtained from the PGC cross-disorder genome-wide association study (GWAS) (Ncase= 232,964, Ncontrol= 494,162) and the CHARGE-ENIGMA subcortical brain volumes GWAS (N=38,851). SNP effect concordance analysis (SECA) was used to assess pleiotropy and concordance. Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) Score Regression and ρ-HESS were used to assess genetic correlation and conditional false discovery (cFDR) was used to identify variants associated with p-factor, conditional on the variants association with subcortical brain volumes. RESULTS: Evidence of global pleiotropy between p-factor and all subcortical brain regions was observed. Risk variants for p-factor correlated negatively with brainstem. A total of 787 LD-independent variants were significantly associated with p-factor when conditioned on the subcortical GWAS results. Gene set enrichment analysis of these variants implicated actin binding and neuronal regulation. LIMITATIONS: SECA could be biased due to the potential presence of overlapping study participants in the p-factor and subcortical GWASs. CONCLUSION: Findings of genome-wide pleiotropy and possible concordance between genetic variants that contribute to p-factor and smaller brainstem volumes, are consistent with previous work. cFDR results highlight actin binding and neuron regulation as key underlying mechanisms. Further fine-grained delineation of these mechanisms is needed to advance the field.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 168, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420026

RESUMO

Increasingly, clinical phenotypes with matched genetic data from bio-bank linked electronic health records (EHRs) have been used for pleiotropy analyses. Thus far, pleiotropy analysis using individual-level EHR data has been limited to data from one site. However, it is desirable to integrate EHR data from multiple sites to improve the detection power and generalizability of the results. Due to privacy concerns, individual-level patients' data are not easily shared across institutions. As a result, we introduce Sum-Share, a method designed to efficiently integrate EHR and genetic data from multiple sites to perform pleiotropy analysis. Sum-Share requires only summary-level data and one round of communication from each site, yet it produces identical test statistics compared with that of pooled individual-level data. Consequently, Sum-Share can achieve lossless integration of multiple datasets. Using real EHR data from eMERGE, Sum-Share is able to identify 1734 potential pleiotropic SNPs for five cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pleiotropia Genética , Comunicação , Bases de Dados Factuais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Privacidade
4.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 6, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical laboratory (lab) tests are used in clinical practice to diagnose, treat, and monitor disease conditions. Test results are stored in electronic health records (EHRs), and a growing number of EHRs are linked to patient DNA, offering unprecedented opportunities to query relationships between genetic risk for complex disease and quantitative physiological measurements collected on large populations. METHODS: A total of 3075 quantitative lab tests were extracted from Vanderbilt University Medical Center's (VUMC) EHR system and cleaned for population-level analysis according to our QualityLab protocol. Lab values extracted from BioVU were compared with previous population studies using heritability and genetic correlation analyses. We then tested the hypothesis that polygenic risk scores for biomarkers and complex disease are associated with biomarkers of disease extracted from the EHR. In a proof of concept analyses, we focused on lipids and coronary artery disease (CAD). We cleaned lab traits extracted from the EHR performed lab-wide association scans (LabWAS) of the lipids and CAD polygenic risk scores across 315 heritable lab tests then replicated the pipeline and analyses in the Massachusetts General Brigham Biobank. RESULTS: Heritability estimates of lipid values (after cleaning with QualityLab) were comparable to previous reports and polygenic scores for lipids were strongly associated with their referent lipid in a LabWAS. LabWAS of the polygenic score for CAD recapitulated canonical heart disease biomarker profiles including decreased HDL, increased pre-medication LDL, triglycerides, blood glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (HgbA1C) in European and African descent populations. Notably, many of these associations remained even after adjusting for the presence of cardiovascular disease and were replicated in the MGBB. CONCLUSIONS: Polygenic risk scores can be used to identify biomarkers of complex disease in large-scale EHR-based genomic analyses, providing new avenues for discovery of novel biomarkers and deeper understanding of disease trajectories in pre-symptomatic individuals. We present two methods and associated software, QualityLab and LabWAS, to clean and analyze EHR labs at scale and perform a Lab-Wide Association Scan.

5.
Biol Psychiatry ; 89(1): 20-31, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131714

RESUMO

Genome-wide analyses of common and rare genetic variations have documented the heritability of major psychiatric disorders, established their highly polygenic genetic architecture, and identified hundreds of contributing variants. In recent years, these studies have illuminated another key feature of the genetic basis of psychiatric disorders: the important role and pervasive nature of pleiotropy. It is now clear that a substantial fraction of genetic influences on psychopathology transcend clinical diagnostic boundaries. In this review, we summarize evidence in psychiatry for pleiotropy at multiple levels of analysis: from overall genome-wide correlation to biological pathways and down to the level of individual loci. We examine underlying mechanisms of observed pleiotropy, including genetic effects on neurodevelopment, diverse actions of regulatory elements, mediated effects, and spurious associations of genomic variation with multiple phenotypes. We conclude with an exploration of the implications of pleiotropy for understanding the genetic basis of psychiatric disorders, informing nosology, and advancing the aims of precision psychiatry and genomic medicine.

6.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236019

RESUMO

Age is the dominant risk factor for infectious diseases, but the mechanisms linking the two are incompletely understood 1,2 . Age-related mosaic chromosomal alterations (mCAs) detected from blood-derived DNA genotyping, are structural somatic variants associated with aberrant leukocyte cell counts, hematological malignancy, and mortality 3-11 . Whether mCAs represent independent risk factors for infection is unknown. Here we use genome-wide genotyping of blood DNA to show that mCAs predispose to diverse infectious diseases. We analyzed mCAs from 767,891 individuals without hematological cancer at DNA acquisition across four countries. Expanded mCA (cell fraction >10%) prevalence approached 4% by 60 years of age and was associated with diverse incident infections, including sepsis, pneumonia, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalization. A genome-wide association study of expanded mCAs identified 63 significant loci. Germline genetic alleles associated with expanded mCAs were enriched at transcriptional regulatory sites for immune cells. Our results link mCAs with impaired immunity and predisposition to infections. Furthermore, these findings may also have important implications for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in prioritizing individual preventive strategies and evaluating immunization responses.

7.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077855

RESUMO

This is the initial report of results from the AURORA multisite longitudinal study of adverse post-traumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) among participants seeking emergency department (ED) treatment in the aftermath of a traumatic life experience. We focus on n = 666 participants presenting to EDs following a motor vehicle collision (MVC) and examine associations of participant socio-demographic and participant-reported MVC characteristics with 8-week posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) adjusting for pre-MVC PTSD and mediated by peritraumatic symptoms and 2-week acute stress disorder (ASD). Peritraumatic Symptoms, ASD, and PTSD were assessed with self-report scales. Eight-week PTSD prevalence was relatively high (42.0%) and positively associated with participant sex (female), low socioeconomic status (education and income), and several self-report indicators of MVC severity. Most of these associations were entirely mediated by peritraumatic symptoms and, to a lesser degree, ASD, suggesting that the first 2 weeks after trauma may be a uniquely important time period for intervening to prevent and reduce risk of PTSD. This observation, coupled with substantial variation in the relative strength of mediating pathways across predictors, raises the possibility of diverse and potentially complex underlying biological and psychological processes that remain to be elucidated with more in-depth analyses of the rich and evolving AURORA data.

8.
Genet Med ; 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873934

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP), characterized by painful cutaneous photosensitivity, results from pathogenic variants in ferrochelatase (FECH). For 96% of patients, EPP results from coinheriting a rare pathogenic variant in trans of a common hypomorphic variant c.315-48T>C (minor allele frequency 0.05). The estimated prevalence of EPP derived from the number of diagnosed individuals in Europe is 0.00092%, but this may be conservative due to underdiagnosis. No study has estimated EPP prevalence using large genetic data sets. METHODS: Disease-associated FECH variants were identified in the UK Biobank, a data set of 500,953 individuals including 49,960 exome sequences. EPP prevalence was then estimated. The association of FECH variants with EPP-related traits was assessed. RESULTS: Analysis of pathogenic FECH variants in the UK Biobank provides evidence that EPP prevalence is 0.0059% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.0042-0.0076%), 1.7-3.0 times more common than previously thought in the UK. In homozygotes for the common c.315-48T>C FECH variant, there was a novel decrement in both erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and hemoglobin. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of EPP has been underestimated secondary to underdiagnosis. The common c.315-48T>C allele is associated with both MCV and hemoglobin, an association that could be important both for those with and without EPP.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13162, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753748

RESUMO

A common missense variant in SLC39A8 is convincingly associated with schizophrenia and several additional phenotypes. Homozygous loss-of-function mutations in SLC39A8 result in undetectable serum manganese (Mn) and a Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation (CDG) due to the exquisite sensitivity of glycosyltransferases to Mn concentration. Here, we identified several Mn-related changes in human carriers of the common SLC39A8 missense allele. Analysis of structural brain MRI scans showed a dose-dependent change in the ratio of T2w to T1w signal in several regions. Comprehensive trace element analysis confirmed a specific reduction of only serum Mn, and plasma protein N-glycome profiling revealed reduced complexity and branching. N-glycome profiling from two individuals with SLC39A8-CDG showed similar but more severe alterations in branching that improved with Mn supplementation, suggesting that the common variant exists on a spectrum of hypofunction with potential for reversibility. Characterizing the functional impact of this variant will enhance our understanding of schizophrenia pathogenesis and identify novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers.

10.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 43(6): 1370-1381, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852845

RESUMO

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a growing group of inborn metabolic disorders with multiorgan presentation. SLC39A8-CDG is a severe subtype caused by biallelic mutations in the manganese transporter SLC39A8, reducing levels of this essential cofactor for many enzymes including glycosyltransferases. The current diagnostic standard for disorders of N-glycosylation is the analysis of serum transferrin. Exome and Sanger sequencing were performed in two patients with severe neurodevelopmental phenotypes suggestive of CDG. Transferrin glycosylation was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and isoelectric focusing in addition to comprehensive N-glycome analysis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to quantify whole blood manganese levels. Both patients presented with a severe, multisystem disorder, and a complex neurological phenotype. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a Leigh-like syndrome with bilateral T2 hyperintensities of the basal ganglia. In patient 1, exome sequencing identified the previously undescribed homozygous variant c.608T>C [p.F203S] in SLC39A8. Patient 2 was found to be homozygous for c.112G>C [p.G38R]. Both individuals showed a reduction of whole blood manganese, though transferrin glycosylation was normal. N-glycome using MALDI-TOF MS identified an increase of the asialo-agalactosylated precursor N-glycan A2G1S1 and a decrease in bisected structures. In addition, analysis of heterozygous CDG-allele carriers identified similar but less severe glycosylation changes. Despite its reliance as a clinical gold standard, analysis of transferrin glycosylation cannot be categorically used to rule out SLC39A8-CDG. These results emphasize that SLC39A8-CDG presents as a spectrum of dysregulated glycosylation, and MS is an important tool for identifying deficiencies not detected by conventional methods.

11.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(10): 944-954, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791893

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Efforts to prevent depression, the leading cause of disability worldwide, have focused on a limited number of candidate factors. Using phenotypic and genomic data from over 100,000 UK Biobank participants, the authors sought to systematically screen and validate a wide range of potential modifiable factors for depression. METHODS: Baseline data were extracted for 106 modifiable factors, including lifestyle (e.g., exercise, sleep, media, diet), social (e.g., support, engagement), and environmental (e.g., green space, pollution) variables. Incident depression was defined as minimal depressive symptoms at baseline and clinically significant depression at follow-up. At-risk individuals for incident depression were identified by polygenic risk scores or by reported traumatic life events. An exposure-wide association scan was conducted to identify factors associated with incident depression in the full sample and among at-risk individuals. Two-sample Mendelian randomization was then used to validate potentially causal relationships between identified factors and depression. RESULTS: Numerous factors across social, sleep, media, dietary, and exercise-related domains were prospectively associated with depression, even among at-risk individuals. However, only a subset of factors was supported by Mendelian randomization evidence, including confiding in others (odds ratio=0.76, 95% CI=0.67, 0.86), television watching time (odds ratio=1.09, 95% CI=1.05, 1.13), and daytime napping (odds ratio=1.34, 95% CI=1.17, 1.53). CONCLUSIONS: Using a two-stage approach, this study validates several actionable targets for preventing depression. It also demonstrates that not all factors associated with depression in observational research may translate into robust targets for prevention. A large-scale exposure-wide approach combined with genetically informed methods for causal inference may help prioritize strategies for multimodal prevention in psychiatry.


Assuntos
Depressão/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/genética , Dieta , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fatores de Risco , Tempo de Tela , Higiene do Sono
12.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(8): e010337, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic exposure to socioeconomic or environmental stressors associates with greater stress-related neurobiological activity (ie, higher amygdalar activity [AmygA]) and higher risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). However, among individuals exposed to such stressors, it is unknown whether neurobiological resilience (NBResilience, defined as lower AmygA despite stress exposure) lowers MACE risk. We tested the hypotheses that NBResilience protects against MACE, and that it does so through decreased bone marrow activity and arterial inflammation. METHODS: Individuals underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography; AmygA, bone marrow activity, and arterial inflammation were quantified. Chronic socioeconomic and environmental stressors known to associate with AmygA and MACE (ie, transportation noise exposure, neighborhood median household income, and crime rate) were quantified. Heightened stress exposure was defined as exposure to at least one chronic stressor (ie, the highest tertile of noise exposure or crime or lowest tertile of income). MACE within 5 years of imaging was adjudicated. Relationships were evaluated using linear and Cox regression, Kaplan-Meier survival, and mediation analyses. RESULTS: Of 254 individuals studied (median age [interquartile range]: 57 years [46-67], 36.7% male), 166 were exposed to at least one chronic stressor. Among stress-exposed individuals, 12 experienced MACE over a median follow-up of 3.75 years. Among this group, higher AmygA (ie, lower resilience) associated with higher bone marrow activity (standardized ß [95% CI]: 0.192 [0.030-0.353], P=0.020), arterial inflammation (0.203 [0.055-0.351], P=0.007), and MACE risk (standardized hazard ratio [95% CI]: 1.927 [1.370-2.711], P=0.001). The effect of NBResilience on MACE risk was significantly mediated by lower arterial inflammation (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals who are chronically exposed to socioeconomic or environmental stressors, NBResilience (AmygA <1 SD above the mean) associates with a >50% reduction in MACE risk, potentially via reduced arterial inflammation. These data raise the possibility that enhancing NBResilience may decrease the burden of cardiovascular disease.

13.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(22): 2769-2780, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for coronary artery disease (CAD) identify high-risk individuals more likely to benefit from primary prevention statin therapy. Whether polygenic CAD risk is captured by conventional paradigms for assessing clinical cardiovascular risk remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to intersect polygenic risk with guideline-based recommendations and management patterns for CAD primary prevention. METHODS: A genome-wide CAD PRS was applied to 47,108 individuals across 3 U.S. health care systems. The authors then assessed whether primary prevention patients at high polygenic risk might be distinguished on the basis of greater guideline-recommended statin eligibility and higher rates of statin therapy. RESULTS: Of 47,108 study participants, the mean age was 60 years, and 11,020 (23.4%) had CAD. The CAD PRS strongly associated with prevalent CAD (odds ratio: 1.4 per SD increase in PRS; p < 0.0001). High polygenic risk (top 20% of PRS) conferred 1.9-fold odds of developing CAD (p < 0.0001). However, among primary prevention patients (n = 33,251), high polygenic risk did not correspond with increased recommendations for statin therapy per the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (46.2% for those with high PRS vs. 46.8% for all others, p = 0.54) or U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (43.7% vs. 43.7%, p = 0.99) or higher rates of statin prescriptions (25.0% vs. 23.8%, p = 0.04). An additional 4.1% of primary prevention patients may be recommended for statin therapy if high CAD PRS were considered a guideline-based risk-enhancing factor. CONCLUSIONS: Current paradigms for primary cardiovascular prevention incompletely capture a polygenic susceptibility to CAD. An opportunity may exist to improve CAD prevention efforts by integrating both genetic and clinical risk.

14.
Cell Rep ; 31(9): 107716, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492425

RESUMO

To reveal post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) genetic risk influences on tissue-specific gene expression, we use brain and non-brain transcriptomic imputation. We impute genetically regulated gene expression (GReX) in 29,539 PTSD cases and 166,145 controls from 70 ancestry-specific cohorts and identify 18 significant GReX-PTSD associations corresponding to specific tissue-gene pairs. The results suggest substantial genetic heterogeneity based on ancestry, cohort type (military versus civilian), and sex. Two study-wide significant PTSD associations are identified in European and military European cohorts; ZNF140 is predicted to be upregulated in whole blood, and SNRNP35 is predicted to be downregulated in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, respectively. In peripheral leukocytes from 175 marines, the observed PTSD differential gene expression correlates with the predicted differences for these individuals, and deployment stress produces glucocorticoid-regulated expression changes that include downregulation of both ZNF140 and SNRNP35. SNRNP35 knockdown in cells validates its functional role in U12-intron splicing. Finally, exogenous glucocorticoids in mice downregulate prefrontal Snrnp35 expression.

15.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-national studies have found, unexpectedly, that mental disorder prevalence is higher in high-income relative to low-income countries, but few rigorous studies have been conducted in very low-income countries. This study assessed mental disorders in Nepal, employing unique methodological features designed to maximize disorder detection and reporting. METHODS: In 2016-2018, 10714 respondents aged 15-59 were interviewed as part of an ongoing panel study, with a response rate of 93%. The World Mental Health version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI 3.0) measured lifetime and 12-month prevalence of selected anxiety, mood, alcohol use, and impulse control disorders. Lifetime recall was enhanced using a life history calendar. RESULTS: Lifetime prevalence ranged from 0.3% (95% CI 0.2-0.4) for bipolar disorder to 15.1% (95% CI 14.4-15.7) for major depressive disorder. The 12-month prevalences were low, ranging from 0.2% for panic disorder (95% CI 0.1-0.3) and bipolar disorder (95% CI 0.1-0.2) to 2.7% for depression (95% CI 2.4-3.0). Lifetime disorders were higher among those with less education and in the low-caste ethnic group. Gender differences were pronounced. CONCLUSIONS: Although cultural effects on reporting cannot be ruled out, these low 12-month prevalences are consistent with reduced prevalence of mental disorders in other low-income countries. Identification of sociocultural factors that mediate the lower prevalence of mental disorders in low-income, non-Westernized settings may have implications for understanding disorder etiology and for clinical or policy interventions aimed at facilitating resilience.

16.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596977

RESUMO

The ENIGMA group on Generalized Anxiety Disorder (ENIGMA-Anxiety/GAD) is part of a broader effort to investigate anxiety disorders using imaging and genetic data across multiple sites worldwide. The group is actively conducting a mega-analysis of a large number of brain structural scans. In this process, the group was confronted with many methodological challenges related to study planning and implementation, between-country transfer of subject-level data, quality control of a considerable amount of imaging data, and choices related to statistical methods and efficient use of resources. This report summarizes the background information and rationale for the various methodological decisions, as well as the approach taken to implement them. The goal is to document the approach and help guide other research groups working with large brain imaging data sets as they develop their own analytic pipelines for mega-analyses.

17.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(12): 3198-3207, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404945

RESUMO

Glycosylation, the enzymatic attachment of carbohydrates to proteins and lipids, regulates nearly all cellular processes and is critical in the development and function of the nervous system. Axon pathfinding, neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, neurotransmission, and many other neuronal processes are regulated by glycans. Over the past 25 years, studies analyzing post-mortem brain samples have found evidence of aberrant glycosylation in individuals with schizophrenia. Proteins involved in both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission display altered glycans in the disease state, including AMPA and kainate receptor subunits, glutamate transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2, and the GABAA receptor. Polysialylated NCAM (PSA-NCAM) and perineuronal nets, highly glycosylated molecules critical for axonal migration and synaptic stabilization, are both downregulated in multiple brain regions of individuals with schizophrenia. In addition, enzymes spanning several pathways of glycan synthesis show differential expression in brains of individuals with schizophrenia. These changes may be due to genetic predisposition, environmental perturbations, medication use, or a combination of these factors. However, the recent association of several enzymes of glycosylation with schizophrenia by genome-wide association studies underscores the importance of glycosylation in this disease. Understanding how glycosylation is dysregulated in the brain will further our understanding of how this pathway contributes to the development and pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

18.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(12): 3129-3139, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377000

RESUMO

Advances in genomics are opening new windows into the biology of schizophrenia. Though common variants individually have small effects on disease risk, GWAS provide a powerful opportunity to explore pathways and mechanisms contributing to pathophysiology. Here, we highlight an underappreciated biological theme emerging from GWAS: the role of glycosylation in schizophrenia. The strongest coding variant in schizophrenia GWAS is a missense mutation in the manganese transporter SLC39A8, which is associated with altered glycosylation patterns in humans. Furthermore, variants near several genes encoding glycosylation enzymes are unambiguously associated with schizophrenia: FUT9, MAN2A1, TMTC1, GALNT10, and B3GAT1. Here, we summarize the known biological functions, target substrates, and expression patterns of these enzymes as a primer for future studies. We also highlight a subset of schizophrenia-associated proteins critically modified by glycosylation including glutamate receptors, voltage-gated calcium channels, the dopamine D2 receptor, and complement glycoproteins. We hypothesize that common genetic variants alter brain glycosylation and play a fundamental role in the development of schizophrenia. Leveraging these findings will advance our mechanistic understanding of disease and may provide novel avenues for treatment development.

19.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 390, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32435212

RESUMO

There is a very high suicide rate in the year after psychiatric hospital discharge. Intensive postdischarge case management programs can address this problem but are not cost-effective for all patients. This issue can be addressed by developing a risk model to predict which inpatients might need such a program. We developed such a model for the 391,018 short-term psychiatric hospital admissions of US veterans in Veterans Health Administration (VHA) hospitals 2010-2013. Records were linked with the National Death Index to determine suicide within 12 months of hospital discharge (n=771). The Super Learner ensemble machine learning method was used to predict these suicides for time horizon between 1 week and 12 months after discharge in a 70% training sample. Accuracy was validated in the remaining 30% holdout sample. Predictors included VHA administrative variables and small area geocode data linked to patient home addresses. The models had AUC=.79-.82 for time horizons between 1 week and 6 months and AUC=.74 for 12 months. An analysis of operating characteristics showed that 22.4%-32.2% of patients who died by suicide would have been reached if intensive case management was provided to the 5% of patients with highest predicted suicide risk. Positive predictive value (PPV) at this higher threshold ranged from 1.2% over 12 months to 3.8% per case manager year over 1 week. Focusing on the low end of the risk spectrum, the 40% of patients classified as having lowest risk account for 0%-9.7% of suicides across time horizons. Variable importance analysis shows that 51.1% of model performance is due to psychopathological risk factors accounted, 26.2% to social determinants of health, 14.8% to prior history of suicidal behaviors, and 6.6% to physical disorders. The paper closes with a discussion of next steps in refining the model and prospects for developing a parallel precision treatment model.

20.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398722

RESUMO

Substantial genetic liability is shared across psychiatric disorders but less is known about risk variants that are specific to a given disorder. We used multi-trait conditional and joint analysis (mtCOJO) to adjust GWAS summary statistics of one disorder for the effects of genetically correlated traits to identify putative disorder-specific SNP associations. We applied mtCOJO to summary statistics for five psychiatric disorders from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium-schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BIP), major depression (MD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism (AUT). Most genome-wide significant variants for these disorders had evidence of pleiotropy (i.e., impact on multiple psychiatric disorders) and hence have reduced mtCOJO conditional effect sizes. However, subsets of genome-wide significant variants had larger conditional effect sizes consistent with disorder-specific effects: 15 of 130 genome-wide significant variants for schizophrenia, 5 of 40 for major depression, 3 of 11 for ADHD and 1 of 2 for autism. We show that decreased expression of VPS29 in the brain may increase risk to SCZ only and increased expression of CSE1L is associated with SCZ and MD, but not with BIP. Likewise, decreased expression of PCDHA7 in the brain is linked to increased risk of MD but decreased risk of SCZ and BIP.

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