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Spec Care Dentist ; 41(5): 579-587, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825219


AIMS: To evaluate the effect of visual pedagogy-guided toothbrushing training on oral hygiene, toothbrushing ability, and fine motor skills in individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and impaired fine motor skills. METHODS: This quasi-experimental study comprised 37 subjects aged 6-24 years. The plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), toothbrushing ability, and fine motor skills were evaluated before and after 3 and 6 months of individual visual pedagogy-guided toothbrushing training. Friedman's post hoc test and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: The PI, GI, toothbrushing ability, and fine motor skills of the 23 subjects who remained in the study at the 6-month follow-up period significantly improved from those measured at baseline (p < 0.05). A significant association was observed between the improvements in both toothbrushing ability and fine motor skills (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Visual pedagogy-guided toothbrushing training could improve the oral hygiene and toothbrushing ability of individuals with ID and impaired fine motor skills. Moreover, improvements in the toothbrushing ability could enhance the fine motor skills of these individuals.

Deficiência Intelectual , Índice de Placa Dentária , Humanos , Destreza Motora , Higiene Bucal , Índice Periodontal , Escovação Dentária
J Int Soc Prev Community Dent ; 10(4): 415-423, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042882


Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate toothbrushing effectiveness in children with mild and moderate levels of severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) after using visual pedagogy. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was carried out with 30 children with ASD aged 5-17 years; 21 had mild ASD and 9 had moderate ASD. Informed consent and the subject's demographic information were obtained from caregivers. All subjects were then asked to show their toothbrushing practices, which were recorded by video. The toothbrushing ability, toothbrushing cooperation, and plaque index were evaluated before the study and at 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after visual pedagogy had been used. Results were analyzed by the Friedman test, Pearson's chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and Mann‒Whitney U test. Results: Toothbrushing ability was significantly improved at all periods of follow-up. Toothbrushing cooperation and the dental plaque index were significantly better than before the study at 4 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months of follow-up. The toothbrushing ability of subjects with mild ASD was significantly better than that of subjects with moderate ASD at 4 weeks and 6 months of follow-up. The toothbrushing cooperation of the mild group was significantly better than that of the moderate group at 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 3 months. There was no statistically significant reduction in the plaque index between the two groups. Conclusion: Visual pedagogy is useful for improving toothbrushing effectiveness in children with mild or moderate severity ASD. However, children with moderate severity ASD take longer to improve.

J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(3): 274-279, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004726


Background: Parental acceptance of behavior management techniques (BMTs) in dental practice is important and subjected to change with the dynamics of the society. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the parental acceptance of eight selected BMTs: tell-show-do (TSD), voice control (VC), passive restraint (PR), active restraint (AR), parental presence/absence (PP/PA), oral sedation (OS), inhalation sedation nitrous oxide/oxygen (N2O/O2), and general anesthesia (GA) and its associated factors in a group of Thai parents. Design: The cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 parents of preschool children in Bangkok metropolitan. Materials and Methods: Parents were asked to rate the BMTs demonstrated in video with a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Possible relevant factors were collected via questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the samples. BMTs were ranked by mean VAS using the general linear model repeated measure. The association between the mean VASs and parental and child's factors was analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and independent t-test. Significant factors were further analyzed by multiple linear regression. The level of confidence was set at 95%. Results: All BMTs were acceptable. TSD was rated the highest, followed by PR, VC, AR, N2O/O2, OS, GA, and PP/PA, respectively. Parental dental anxiety was associated with less acceptance of PP/PA. Child's experience of VC, AR, OS, and PP/PA was related to better acceptance of the techniques. Conclusions: The BMTs were better accepted with similar pattern compared to past studies. PP/PA was the least accepted related to high parental anxiety. Child's experience with BMTs increased the acceptance.

Comportamento Infantil , Pais , Terapia Comportamental , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Tailândia
Int J Paediatr Dent ; 30(4): 505-513, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011037


BACKGROUND: Sensory over-responsivity (SOR) is common in autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), and it leads to a more intense response to sensory stimuli. AIM: To compare toothbrushing cooperation at home and in a dental office between SOR and sensory not over-responsivity (SNOR) children with ASD. DESIGN: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted with 51 children with ASD aged 4-17 years. Caregivers assessed each subject's sensory response by completing a back-translation questionnaire listing eight sensitivities. Subjects who had three or more of the sensitivities were considered SOR subjects. Toothbrushing cooperation in the dental office was recorded on videos. Statistical analysis used the Spearman correlation coefficient, chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: SNOR subjects (n = 10) had significantly higher scores in toothbrushing cooperation at home and in the dental office than did SOR subjects (n = 41) (P < .05). Oral sensitivity was significantly associated with toothbrushing cooperation at home, whereas oral, light, sound, and touch (face) sensitivities were significantly correlated with toothbrushing cooperation in the dental office (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: SOR subjects showed less toothbrushing cooperation than SNOR subjects both at home and in the dental office.

Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Escovação Dentária , Adolescente , Cuidadores , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários
Int J Paediatr Dent ; 21(4): 278-83, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21332852


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of the horizontal Scrub and modified Bass methods of toothbrushing in visually impaired students for 6 months. METHODS: Sixty visually impaired students, aged 10-12 years, were recruited to a randomized controlled clinical trial. At baseline, plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI) were assessed, and then subjects were randomly divided into the horizontal Scrub and modified Bass groups. Subjects received verbal and tactile toothbrushing instruction and used their assigned methods twice daily. They were recalled at 1 and 6 months for clinical measurement and reinforce of instruction. Significance of PI and GI over time was compared using the paired t-test and between brushing group at each time point using the t-test. RESULTS: Over the 6-month period, there were significant reduction from baseline for the mean PI and GI in both groups (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences between two methods at each time point (P > 0.05), however. CONCLUSIONS: Both the horizontal Scrub and modified Bass methods can be effectively reduced plaque index and gingival index in visually impaired students. The efficacy of both methods was not different, however.

Escovação Dentária/métodos , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual , Criança , Índice CPO , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Índice de Placa Dentária , Feminino , Seguimentos , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Índice Periodontal , Fatores de Tempo , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Resultado do Tratamento
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20578505


This study was performed to compare the remineralizing effects of various concentrations of fluoride containing dentifrices against artificial demineralization of primary enamel. One hundred twenty primary incisors were partly covered with a nail varnish, leaving a 1 x 1 mm window, then placed in demineralizing solution for 96 hours to produce artificial carious lesions 60-100 microm in depth. They were assigned to 8 groups (A to H; n = 15). Groups A-D were exposed to a half pea-sized portion of dentifrice (0.16 g) and groups E-H were exposed to a pea-sized portion of dentifrice (0.32 g), both groups with fluoride concentrations of 0, 250, 500 and 1,000 ppm. The pH-cycling method was carried out for 7 days, then the teeth were cut through the lesions and examined under a polarized light microscope; photographs were taken and analyzed. Lesion depth was measured using a computerized method using the Image-Pro Plus Program. The results were analyzed using the One way ANOVA and LSD tests. The mean lesion depth in the 2 non-fluoridated control groups (A and E) were significantly deeper than in the fluoridated groups. There were no differences found between the half pea-sized and pea-sized dentifrice.

Cariostáticos/farmacologia , Dentifrícios/farmacologia , Fluoretos/farmacologia , Desmineralização do Dente/fisiopatologia , Dente Decíduo/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Técnicas In Vitro , Incisivo , Dente Decíduo/fisiopatologia