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Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 45(4): 303-20, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19670069


A sensitive laser spectrometer, named IRIS (water isotope ratio infrared spectrometer), was developed for the in situ detection of the isotopic composition of water vapour in the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere. Isotope ratio measurements can be used to quantify troposphere-stratosphere exchange, and to study the water chemistry in the stratosphere. IRIS is based on the technique of optical feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy. It uses a room temperature near-infrared laser, and does not require cryogenic cooling of laser or detectors. The instrument weighs 51 kg including its support structure. Airborne operation was demonstrated during three flights aboard the European M55-Geophysica stratospheric research aircraft, as part of the AMMA/SCOUT-03 (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis/Stratospheric Climate links with emphasis on the Upper Troposphere and lower stratosphere) campaign in Burkina Faso in August 2006. One-second averaged, vertical profiles of delta(2)H, delta(17)O and delta(18)O in the upper troposphere are shown, as are the delta(17)O-delta(18)O and delta(2)H-delta(18)O relations. The data are discussed with reference to a Rayleigh distillation model. As expected, there is no indication of non-mass-dependent fractionation (also known as mass-independent fractionation) in the troposphere. Furthermore, improvements to the thermal management system and a move to a (cryogen-free) longer-wavelength laser source are discussed, which together should result in approximately two orders of magnitude improvement of the sensitivity.

Atmosfera/química , Deutério/química , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/métodos , Lasers , Isótopos de Oxigênio/química
J Chem Phys ; 125(19): 194319, 2006 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17129115


High resolution (0.004 and 0.01 cm(-1) instrumental bandwidth) interferometric Fourier transform infrared spectra of (14)NH2D and (14)ND2H were measured on a Bomem DA002 spectrometer in a supersonic jet expansion and at room temperature. We report the analysis of the bending fundamentals of (14)NH2D with term values Tv(s)=1389.9063(2) cm(-1) and Tv(a)=1390.4953(2) cm(-1) for the nu(4b) fundamental and Tv(s)=1605.6404(7) cm(-1) and Tv(a)=1591.0019(7) cm(-1) for the nu(4a) fundamental, and of (14)ND2H with term values of Tv(s)=1233.3740(2) cm(-1) and Tv(a)=1235.8904(2) cm(-1) for the nu(4a) fundamental and Tv(s)=1461.7941(9) cm(-1) and Tv(a)=1461.9918(19) cm(-1) for the nu(4b) fundamental. In all cases Tv(s) gives the position of the symmetric inversion sublevel (with positive parity) and Tv(a) the position of the antisymmetric inversion sublevel (with negative parity). The notation for the fundamentals nu(4a) and nu(4b) is chosen by correlation with the degenerate nu(4) mode in the C(3v) symmetric molecules NH3 and ND3. The degeneracy is lifted in Cs symmetry and a indicates the symmetric, b the antisymmetric normal mode with respect to the Cs symmetry plane in NH2D and ND2H. Assignments were established with certainty by means of ground state combination differences. About 20 molecular parameters of the effective S-reduced Hamiltonian could be determined accurately for each fundamental. In particular, the effect of Fermi resonances of the 2nu(2) overtone with the nu(4a) bending mode was observed, leading to an increased inversion splitting in the case of ND2H and to a strongly increased inversion splitting and an inverted order of the two inversion levels in NH2D. Rotational perturbations observed with the nu(4b) bending fundamentals are probably due to Coriolis interactions with the inversion overtone 2nu(2). The results are important for understanding isotope effects on the inversion in ammonia as well as its selective catalysis and inhibition by excitation of different vibrational modes, as treated by quantum dynamics on high dimensional potential hypersurfaces of this molecule.

Appl Opt ; 45(22): 5701-8, 2006 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16855669


An innovative balloonborne microjoule lidar (MULID) has been developed within the framework of the HIBISCUS project to provide nighttime measurements of visible and subvisible cirrus and aerosols. MULID has been designed to be a low-cost and an ultralow consumption instrument, due to the remote possibilities of payload recovery and the necessity of a low-weight battery power supply. Ground tests have been performed at the Observatory of Haute Provence (France), and the first technical flight has been made from Trapani, Italy, on a stratospheric balloon; finally, the instrument has been scientifically deployed during the pre-HIBISCUS and HIBISCUS tropical campaigns in Bauru, Brazil, in February 2003 and February 2004, respectively. A description of the instrument is provided together with the results of the ground-based and flight tests as well as an overview and discussion of the first results.

Appl Opt ; 44(16): 3302-11, 2005 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15943267


A new algorithm to infer structural parameters such as refractive index and asphericity of cloud particles has been developed by use of in situ observations taken by a laser backscattersonde and an optical particle counter during balloon stratospheric flights. All three main particles, liquid, ice, and a no-ice solid (NAT, nitric acid trihydrate) of polar stratospheric clouds, were observed during two winter flights performed from Kiruna, Sweden. The technique is based on use of the T-matrix code developed for aspherical particles to calculate the backscattering coefficient and particle depolarizing properties on the basis of size distribution and concentration measurements. The results of the calculations are compared with observations to estimated refractive indices and particle asphericity. The method has also been used in cases when the liquid and solid phases coexist with comparable influence on the optical behavior of the cloud to estimate refractive indices. The main results prove that the index of refraction for NAT particles is in the range of 1.37-1.45 at 532 nm. Such particles would be slightly prolate spheroids. The calculated refractive indices for liquid and ice particles are 1.51-1.55 and 1.31-1.33, respectively. The results for solid particles confirm previous measurements taken in Antarctica during 1992 and obtained by a comparison of lidar and optical particle counter data.

Algoritmos , Atmosfera/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Lasers , Refratometria/métodos , Água/análise , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Clima Frio , Coloides/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Espalhamento de Radiação