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1.
Psychol Health ; : 1-20, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662259

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Many adolescents report a lack of physical activity (PA) and excess screen time (ST). Psychological theories aiming to understand these behaviours typically focus on predictors of only one behaviour. Yet, behaviour enactment is often a choice between options. This study sought to examine predictors of PA and ST in a single model. Variables were drawn from dual process models, which portray behaviour as the outcome of deliberative and automatic processes. DESIGN: 411 Finnish vocational school students (age 17-19) completed a survey, comprising variables from the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) and automaticity pertaining to PA and ST, and self-reported PA and ST four weeks later. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported time spent on PA and ST and their predictors. RESULTS: PA and ST correlated negatively (r = -.17, p = .03). Structural equation modelling revealed that intentions and habit for PA predicted PA while ST was predicted by intentions and habit for ST and negatively by PA intentions. RAA-cognitions predicted intentions. CONCLUSION: PA and ST and their psychological predictors seem to be weakly interlinked. Future studies should assess more behaviours and related psychological influences to get a better picture of connections between different behaviours.HighlightsPhysical activity and screen time are largely mutually exclusive classes of behaviours and might therefore be related in terms of their psychological predictors.411 adolescent vocational school students self-reported variables from the Reasoned Action Approach and behavioural automaticity related to physical activity and leisure time screen time behaviours as well as those behaviours.Structural equation modelling revealed expected within-behaviour predictions but, against expectations, no strong connections between the two behaviour classes in terms of their predictors. Only intentions to engage in physical activity negatively predicted screen time.Future research should aim to measure a wider range of mutually exclusive classes of behaviours that cover a large share of the day to uncover relations between behaviours and their respective predictors.

2.
Diabet Med ; : e14689, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519099

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Diabetes REmission Clinical Trial (DiRECT) has shown that sustained remission of type 2 diabetes in primary care is achievable through weight loss using total diet replacement (TDR) with continued behavioural support. Understanding participants' experiences can help optimise the intervention, support implementation into healthcare, and understand the process of behaviour change. METHODS: Thirty-four DiRECT participants were recruited into this embedded qualitative evaluation study. In-person and telephone interviews were conducted before the TDR; at week 6-8 of the TDR; 2 weeks into food reintroduction (FR); and at 1 year, to learn about participant experiences with the programme. Transcribed narratives were analysed thematically, and we used interpretation to develop overarching themes. RESULTS: Initiation of the TDR and transition to FR were challenging and required increased behavioural support. In general, adhering to TDR proved easier than the participants had anticipated. Some participants chose the optional extension of TDR. Rapid weight loss and changes in diabetes markers provided ongoing motivation. Further weight loss, behavioural support and occasional use of TDR facilitated weight loss maintenance (WLM). A process of behaviour adaptation to change following regime disruption was identified in three stages: (1) expectations of the new, (2) overcoming difficulties with adherence, and (3) acceptance of continuous effort and establishment of routines. CONCLUSIONS: The DiRECT intervention was acceptable and regularity, continuity, and tailoring of behavioural support was instrumental in its implementation in primary care. The adaptation process accounts for some of the individual variability of experiences with the intervention and highlights the need for programme flexibility.

3.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e046842, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429309

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To synthesise the published literature on practitioner, patient and carer views and experiences of shared medical appointments (SMAs) for the management of long-term conditions in primary care. DESIGN: Systematic review of qualitative primary studies. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted using MEDLINE (Ovid), PsycINFO (Ovid), CINAHL (EBSCOhost), Web of Science, Social Science Premium Collection (Proquest) and Scopus (SciVerse) from database starting dates to June 2019. Practitioner, patient and carer perspectives were coded separately. Deductive coding using a framework approach was followed by thematic analysis and narrative synthesis. Quality assessment was conducted using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme for qualitative studies. RESULTS: We identified 18 unique studies that reported practitioner (n=11), patient (n=14) and/or carer perspectivs(n=3). Practitioners reported benefits of SMAs including scope for comprehensive patient-led care, peer support, less repetition and improved efficiency compared with 1:1 care. Barriers included administrative challenges and resistance from patients and colleagues, largely due to uncertainties and unclear expectations. Skilled facilitators, tailoring of SMAs to patient groups, leadership support and teamwork were reported to be important for successful delivery. Patients' reported experiences were largely positive with the SMAs considered a supportive environment in which to share and learn about self-care, though the need for good facilitation was recognised. Reports of carer experience were limited but included improved communication between carer and patient. CONCLUSION: There is insufficient evidence to indicate whether views and experiences vary between staff, medical condition and/or patient characteristics. Participant experiences may be subject to reporting bias. Policies and guidance regarding best practice need to be developed with consideration given to resource requirements. Further research is needed to capture views about wider and co-occurring conditions, to hear from those without SMA experience and to understand which groups of patients and practitioners should be brought together in an SMA for best effect. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019141893.


Assuntos
Consultas Médicas Compartilhadas , Cuidadores , Comunicação , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa
4.
BMJ ; 374: n1840, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if the characteristics of behavioural weight loss programmes influence the rate of change in weight after the end of the programme. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Trial registries, 11 electronic databases, and forward citation searching (from database inception; latest search December 2019). Randomised trials of behavioural weight loss programmes in adults with overweight or obesity, reporting outcomes at ≥12 months, including at the end of the programme and after the end of the programme. REVIEW METHODS: Studies were screened by two independent reviewers with discrepancies resolved by discussion. 5% of the studies identified in the searches met the inclusion criteria. One reviewer extracted the data and a second reviewer checked the data. Risk of bias was assessed with Cochrane's risk of bias tool (version 1). The rate of change in weight was calculated (kg/month; converted to kg/year for interpretability) after the end of the programme in the intervention versus control groups by a mixed model with a random intercept. Associations between the rate of change in weight and prespecified variables were tested. RESULTS: Data were analysed from 249 trials (n=59 081) with a mean length of follow-up of two years (longest 30 years). 56% of studies (n=140) had an unclear risk of bias, 21% (n=52) a low risk, and 23% (n=57) a high risk of bias. Regain in weight was faster in the intervention versus the no intervention control groups (0.12-0.32 kg/year) but the difference between groups was maintained for at least five years. Each kilogram of weight lost at the end of the programme was associated with faster regain in weight at a rate of 0.13-0.19 kg/year. Financial incentives for weight loss were associated with faster regain in weight at a rate of 1-1.5 kg/year. Compared with programmes with no meal replacements, interventions involving partial meal replacements were associated with faster regain in weight but not after adjustment for weight loss during the programme. Access to the programme outside of the study was associated with slower regain in weight. Programmes where the intensity of the interaction reduced gradually were also associated with slower regain in weight in the multivariable analysis, although the point estimate suggested that the association was small. Other characteristics did not explain the heterogeneity in regain in weight. CONCLUSION: Faster regain in weight after weight loss was associated with greater initial weight loss, but greater initial weight loss was still associated with reduced weight for at least five years after the end of the programme, after which data were limited. Continued availability of the programme to participants outside of the study predicted a slower regain in weight, and provision of financial incentives predicted faster regain in weight; no other clear associations were found. STUDY REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42018105744.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Trajetória do Peso do Corpo , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso
5.
Obes Facts ; 14(3): 320-333, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective interventions and commercial programmes for weight loss (WL) are widely available, but most people regain weight. Few effective WL maintenance (WLM) solutions exist. The most promising evidence-based behaviour change techniques for WLM are self-monitoring, goal setting, action planning and control, building self-efficacy, and techniques that promote autonomous motivation (e.g., provide choice). Stress management and emotion regulation techniques show potential for prevention of relapse and weight regain. Digital technologies (including networked-wireless tracking technologies, online tools and smartphone apps, multimedia resources, and internet-based support) offer attractive tools for teaching and supporting long-term behaviour change techniques. However, many digital offerings for weight management tend not to include evidence-based content and the evidence base is still limited. The Project: First, the project examined why, when, and how many European citizens make WL and WLM attempts and how successful they are. Second, the project employed the most up-to-date behavioural science research to develop a digital toolkit for WLM based on 2 key conditions, i.e., self-management (self-regulation and motivation) of behaviour and self-management of emotional responses for WLM. Then, the NoHoW trial tested the efficacy of this digital toolkit in adults who achieved clinically significant (≥5%) WL in the previous 12 months (initial BMI ≥25). The primary outcome was change in weight (kg) at 12 months from baseline. Secondary outcomes included biological, psychological, and behavioural moderators and mediators of long-term energy balance (EB) behaviours, and user experience, acceptability, and cost-effectiveness. IMPACT: The project will directly feed results from studies on European consumer behaviour, design and evaluation of digital toolkits self-management of EB behaviours into development of new products and services for WLM and digital health. The project has developed a framework and digital architecture for interventions in the context of EB tracking and will generate results that will help inform the next generation of personalised interventions for effective self-management of weight and health.

6.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 94, 2021 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Letters are regularly sent by healthcare organisations to healthcare professionals to encourage them to take action, change practice or implement guidance. However, whether letters are an effective tool in delivering a change in healthcare professional behaviour is currently uncertain. In addition, there are currently no evidence-based guidelines to support health providers and authorities with advice on how to formulate the communication, what information and behaviour change techniques to include in order to optimise the potential effect on the behaviour of the receivers. To address this research gap, we seek to inform such guidance through this systematic review, which aims to provide comprehensive evidence of the effectiveness of personal letters to healthcare professionals in changing their professional behaviours. METHODS/DESIGN: A comprehensive literature search of published and unpublished studies (the grey literature) in electronic databases will be conducted to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that meet our inclusion criteria. We will include RCTs evaluating the effectiveness of personal letters to healthcare professionals in changing professional behaviours. The primary outcome will be behavioural change. The search will be conducted in five electronic databases (from their inception onwards): MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library and CINAHL. We will also conduct supplementary searches in Google Scholar, hand search relevant journals, and conduct backward and forward citation searching for included studies and relevant reviews. A systematic approach to searching, screening, reviewing and data extraction will be applied in accordance with the process recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration. Two researchers will examine titles, abstracts, full-texts for eligibility independently. Risk of bias will be assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias 2 (RoB 2) tool for randomised controlled trials. Disagreements will be resolved by a consensus procedure. DISCUSSION: Health policy makers across government are expected to benefit from being able to increase compliance in clinical settings by applying theories of behaviour to design of policy communications. The synthesised findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publication. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020167674.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Terapia Comportamental , Viés , Humanos , Políticas , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
7.
Obes Facts ; 14(2): 246-258, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662958

RESUMO

There is substantial evidence documenting the effects of behavioural interventions on weight loss (WL). However, behavioural approaches to initial WL are followed by some degree of longer-term weight regain, and large trials focusing on evidence-based approaches to weight loss maintenance (WLM) have generally only demonstrated small beneficial effects. The current state-of-the-art in behavioural interventions for WL and WLM raises questions of (i) how we define the relationship between WL and WLM, (ii) how energy balance (EB) systems respond to WL and influence behaviours that primarily drive weight regain, (iii) how intervention content, mode of delivery and intensity should be targeted to keep weight off, (iv) which mechanisms of action in complex interventions may prevent weight regain and (v) how to design studies and interventions to maximise effective longer-term weight management. In considering these issues a writing team within the NoHoW Consortium was convened to elaborate a position statement, and behaviour change and obesity experts were invited to discuss these positions and to refine them. At present the evidence suggests that developing the skills to self-manage EB behaviours leads to more effective WLM. However, the effects of behaviour change interventions for WL and WLM are still relatively modest and our understanding of the factors that disrupt and undermine self-management of eating and physical activity is limited. These factors include physiological resistance to weight loss, gradual compensatory changes in eating and physical activity and reactive processes related to stress, emotions, rewards and desires that meet psychological needs. Better matching of evidence-based intervention content to quantitatively tracked EB behaviours and the specific needs of individuals may improve outcomes. Improving objective longitudinal tracking of energy intake and energy expenditure over time would provide a quantitative framework in which to understand the dynamics of behaviour change, mechanisms of action of behaviour change interventions and user engagement with intervention components to potentially improve weight management intervention design and evaluation.

8.
Soc Sci Med ; 273: 113778, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, antibody testing was proposed by several countries as a surveillance tool to monitor the spread of the virus and potentially to ease restrictions. In the UK, antibody testing originally formed the third pillar of the UK Government's COVID-19 testing programme and was thought to offer hope that those with a positive antibody test result could return to normal life. However, at that time scientists and the public had little understanding of the longevity of COVID-19 antibodies, and whether they provided immunity to reinfection or transmission of the virus. OBJECTIVE: This paper explores the UK public's understanding of COVID-19 testing, perceived test accuracy, the meaning of a positive test result, willingness to adhere to restrictive measures in response to an antibody test result and how they expect other people to respond. METHODS: On-line synchronous focus groups were conducted in April/May 2020 during the first wave of the pandemic and the most stringent period of the COVID-19 restrictive measures. Data were analysed thematically. RESULTS: There was confusion in responses as to whether those with a positive or negative test should return to work and which restrictive measures would apply to them or their household members. Participants raised concerns about the wider public response to positive antibody test results and the adverse behavioural effects. There were worries that antibody tests could create a divided society particularly if those with a positive test result were given greater freedoms or chose to disregard the restrictive measures. CONCLUSION: Should these tests be offered more widely, information should be developed in consultation with the public to ensure clarity and address uncertainty about test results and subsequent behaviours.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Pandemias , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , SARS-CoV-2 , Testes Sorológicos/métodos
9.
Health Psychol Rev ; 15(1): 51-55, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608326

RESUMO

This commentary expands on the recent critical review by Swann et al. (2020) which aimed to update the applications of Goal-Setting Theory (Locke & Latham, 2019) in physical activity promotion. Drawing from other work on goal striving and behaviour change, we make four key points to further elaborate on Swann et al.'s review. First, goals are more likely to be enacted if they are specific, personally relevant and pursued for autonomous motives; performance goals can be useful for inactive individuals if set appropriately and self-endorsed. Second, goal striving needs to be flexible and adjustable, and to consider goal priorities and time factors relevant to goal engagement and disengagement. Goal-Setting Theory would therefore benefit from being expanded to add the factors of goal priority, context, and time. Third, research on goal setting in physical activity could benefit from embracing idiographic designs and interventions. Fourth, other theoretical approaches to goal striving should be considered when discussing goal setting in physical activity promotion.

10.
Appetite ; 155: 104794, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781081

RESUMO

Food consumption decisions require consumers to evaluate the characteristics of products. However, the literature has given limited attention to how consumers determine the impact of food on health (e.g., kilocalories) and on the environment (e.g., carbon footprint). In this exercise, 1511 consumers categorised 43 food products as healthy/unhealthy and good/bad for the environment, and estimated their kilocalories and carbon footprint, which were known to the investigator. The task was performed either with no stimuli (a control group), under time pressure only, with traffic-light labels only, or both. Results show that traffic-light labels: 1) operate through improvements in knowledge, rather than facilitating information processing under pressure; 2) improve the ability to rank products by both kilocalories and carbon footprint, rather than the ability to use the metric; 3) reduce the threshold used to categorise products as unhealthy/bad for the environment, whilst raising the threshold used to classify products as good for the environment (but not healthy). Notably, traffic-light increase accuracy by reducing the response compression of the metric scale. The benefits of labels are particularly evident for carbon footprint. Overall, these results indicate that consumers struggle to estimate numerical information, and labels are crucial to ensure consumers make sustainable decisions, particularly for unfamiliar metrics like carbon footprint.


Assuntos
Pegada de Carbono , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Comportamento do Consumidor , Alimentos , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo
12.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 44(7): 1452-1466, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Childhood obesity has increased enormously. Several lifestyle factors have been implicated, including decreased physical activity, partially involving a decline in active travel to school. We aimed to establish the association between school transport mode and physical activity levels of primary 6 and 7 children (aged 10-12). Secondary outcomes were body mass index standard deviation scores, blood pressure levels and lung function. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a total number of 432 children from three primary schools in North East Scotland. Actigraph accelerometers were used to provide objective measures of physical activity. Ninety-two children in primary 6 and 90 children in primary 7 (40 in common) had adequate data. Modes of transport to school were assessed by a questionnaire. Two hundred and seventeen children in primary 6 and one hundred and sixty-five in primary 7 returned adequate questionnaires. Children who used active transport modes for >70% of their journeys to school over the week were coded as active travellers and <30% were coded as passive travellers. All children also had height, weight, blood pressure levels and lung function measured. RESULTS: Children who lived further away from school, and in more expensive properties were more likely to travel passively to school. Actively commuting children (70% walking) had significantly higher activity levels than passive commuters during the 30 min that encompassed their journey to and from school. However, there were no significant differences between active and passive school travellers in total daily physical activity, BMI SDS, and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and lung function. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence that more days of active travel to school had a significant influence on total physical activity, obesity and related health parameters. Public health interventions promoting active travel to school may have limited success in quelling the childhood obesity epidemic.

13.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 123: 59-68, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229251

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The question-behavior effect (QBE) refers to whether asking people questions can result in changes in behavior. Such changes in behavior can lead to bias in trials. This study aims to update a systematic review of randomized controlled trials investigating the QBE, in light of several large preregistered studies being published. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A systematic search for newly published trials covered 2012 to July 2018. Eligible trials randomly allocated participants to measurement vs. non-measurement control conditions or to different forms of measurement. Studies that reported health-related behavior as outcomes were included. RESULTS: Forty-three studies (33 studies from the original systematic review and 10 new studies) compared measurement vs. no measurement. An overall small effect was found using a random effect model: standardized mean difference = 0.06 (95% CI: 0.02-0.09), n = 104,388. Statistical heterogeneity was substantial (I2 = 54%). In an analysis restricted to studies with a low risk of bias, the QBE remained small but significant. There was positive evidence of publication bias. CONCLUSION: This update shows a small but significant QBE in trials with health-related outcomes but with considerable unexplained heterogeneity. Future trials with lower risk of bias are needed, with preregistered protocols and greater attention to blinding.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Viés , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 307, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The National Health Service diabetes prevention programme in England, (NHS DPP) aims to identify people at high risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and offer them a face-to-face, group-based, behaviour change intervention for at least 9 months. The NHS DPP was rolled out in phases. We aimed to elicit stakeholders' perceptions and experiences of the factors influencing implementation of, and participation in, the programme during the development phase. METHODS: Individual, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 50 purposively sampled stakeholders: service users (n = 20); programme commissioners (n = 7); referrers (n = 8); and intervention deliverers (n = 15). Topic guides were structured using a pragmatic, theory-informed approach. Analysis employed the framework method. RESULTS: We identified factors that influenced participation: Risk communication at referral - stakeholders identified point of referral as a window of opportunity to offer brief advice, to provide an understanding of T2D risk and information about the programme; Perceived impact of the NHS DPP - service users highlighted the positive perceived impact on their behaviour change, the peer support provided by participating in the programme, the option to involve a relative, and the 'knock on' effect on others. Service users also voiced disappointment when blood test results still identified them at high risk after the programme; and Behavioural maintenance - participants highlighted the challenges linked to behavioural maintenance (e.g. discontinuation of active support). Factors influencing implementations were also identified: Case finding - stakeholders suggested that using community involvement to identify service users could increase reach and ensure that the workload was not solely on GP practices; Adaptability: intervention deliverers acknowledged the need to tailor advice to service users' preferences and needs; Accountability - the need to acknowledge who was responsible for what at different stages of the NHS DPP pathway; and Fidelity - stakeholders described procedures involved in monitoring service users' satisfaction, outcome data collection and quality assurance assessments. CONCLUSIONS: The NHS DPP offers an evidence-informed behavioural intervention for T2D prevention. Better risk communication specification could ensure consistency at the referral stage and improve participation in the NHS DPP intervention. Cultural adaptations and outreach strategies could ensure the NHS DPP contributes to reducing health inequalities.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Participação dos Interessados , Medicina Estatal/organização & administração , Adulto , Idoso , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(2): 104499, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Benefits of reperfusion therapies in acute ischemic stroke are highly time-dependent. It is crucial that people who witness the onset of symptoms call emergency medical services (EMS) immediately. The aim of this study was to examine whether there is a gap between recognition of stroke and responding correctly by calling EMS using a scenario-based measure. METHODS: Population-based survey of 1406 individuals from Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, examining stroke recognition and response knowledge using 12 scenario-based vignettes. The response rate was 32% out of 5000 contacted individuals. In total, 16,574 responses to scenarios were examined to investigate whether respondents would recognise stroke symptoms and indicate to call EMS immediately. RESULTS: In 16% of cases people recognised stroke but did not correctly respond by indicating to call EMS. In 49% of responses people recognised stroke and would respond correctly, while in 31% of cases people both failed to correctly recognise and failed to identify the correct response to the stroke scenario. In 5% of cases stroke was not identified but a correct response was indicated. When stroke was recognised, in 25% of responses people indicated that they would not call EMS. Recognition self-efficacy and response self-efficacy were associated with correct response. CONCLUSIONS: A recognition-response gap was identified among UK adults in hypothetical scenarios concerning stroke. Both recognition and translation to adequate EMS response should be explicitly addressed in interventions aiming to improve witness response to stroke. Self-efficacy may be a promising target to close the recognition-response gap.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Reperfusão , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Autoeficácia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telefone , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 48(5): 433-439, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448485

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Many factors lead to the commencement and maintenance of smoking, and better understanding of these is relevant in the management of oral health, particularly as smoking cessation advice (SCA) from the dental team is a key component of patient care. Whereas most previous research has focused on dental professionals' perceptions of providing SCA, and identified facilitators and barriers to its provision, there has been more limited research focusing on patients' perceptions of receiving SCA in the dental context. Accordingly, this study aimed to explore the views of smokers with periodontitis receiving dentist-delivered SCA. METHODS: One-to-one, semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 28 adults who smoked tobacco and had recently received SCA during dentist-delivered periodontal therapy. Participants were sampled to reflect a range of ages and smoking behaviours. The interview schedule was based on the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to explore perceived influences on smoking behaviour. Interviews also elicited participants' views on dentist-delivered SCA. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically, drawing on the TDF. RESULTS: A broad range of perceived influences on smoking behaviour emerged from the data. Influences were allocated into seven prominent TDF domains: (i) social influences (family and friends, social pressures); (ii) social/professional role and identity (secret smoking); (iii) knowledge (experiences/perceptions of smoking cessation medications); (iv) environmental context and resources (social, home and workplace environment, cost of smoking, resentment towards authority); (v) emotions (stress management, pleasure of smoking and fear of quitting); (vi) nature of the behaviour (habitual nature, link to other behaviours, smell); and (vii) beliefs about consequences (health). With regard to views on dentist-delivered SCA, five main themes emerged: (i) opportunistic nature; (ii) personal impact and tangible prompts; (iii) positive context of cessation attempt; (iv) lack of previous support; and (v) differences between dentist-delivered SCA and other setting SCA. CONCLUSIONS: Smokers with periodontitis consider that a wide range of factors influence their smoking behaviour. Dentist-delivered SCA was supported and positively received. Important aspects included the opportunistic nature, personal impact, use of tangible prompts and positive context (of the quit attempt). Future research should focus on optimizing dentist-led smoking cessation intervention based on the themes identified.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adulto , Odontólogos , Humanos , Percepção , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fumar
18.
Eur Psychol ; 24(1): 7-25, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496632

RESUMO

More people than ever are living longer with chronic conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease. Behavior change for effective self-management can improve health outcomes and quality of life in people living with such chronic illnesses. The science of developing behavior change interventions with impact for patients aims to optimize the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of interventions and rigorous evaluation of outcomes and processes of behavior change. The development of new services and technologies offers opportunities to enhance the scope of delivery of interventions to support behavior change and self-management at scale. Herein, we review key contemporary approaches to intervention development, provide a critical overview, and integrate these approaches into a pragmatic, user-friendly framework to rigorously guide decision-making in behavior change intervention development. Moreover, we highlight novel emerging methods for rapid and agile intervention development. On-going progress in the science of intervention development is needed to remain in step with such new developments and to continue to leverage behavioral science's capacity to contribute to optimizing interventions, modify behavior, and facilitate self-management in individuals living with chronic illness.

19.
BMJ Open ; 9(7): e028577, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320353

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Poor adherence to photoprotection for people with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) can be life-threatening. A randomised controlled trial (RCT) is being conducted to test the efficacy of a personalised adherence intervention (XPAND) to reduce the level of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) reaching the face, by improving photoprotection activities in adults with XP. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A two-armed parallel groups RCT, where we randomised 24 patients with suboptimal adherence to either an intervention group who received XPAND in 2018 or a delayed intervention group who will receive XPAND in 2019. XPAND involves seven sessions, one-to-one with a facilitator, using behaviour change techniques and specially designed materials to target barriers to photoprotection. Following baseline assessment in April 2018 (t0) and intervention, the primary outcome will be measured across 21 consecutive days in June and July 2018 (t1). The primary outcome is the average daily UVR dose to the face (D-to-F), calculated by combining objective UVR exposure at the wrist (measured by a dosimeter) with face photoprotection activities recorded on a daily UVR protection diary. Secondary outcomes include average daily UVR D-to-F across 21 days in August (t2); psychosocial process variables measured by daily questions (t0, t1, t2) and self-report questionnaires (t0, t1, t2, December 2018 (t3)). Intervention cost-utility is assessed by service use and personal cost questionnaires (t0, t3). The delayed intervention control arm participants will complete three further assessments in April 2019 (t4) and June-July 2019 (t5), and December 2019 (t6) with dosimetry and UVR protection diary completed for 21 days at t4 and t5. A process evaluation will be conducted using mixed methods. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been received from West London & GTAC REC 17/LO/2110. Results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and at conferences. This study tests a novel intervention, which, if successful, will be integrated into routine care. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03445052; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Cooperação do Paciente , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Xeroderma Pigmentoso/terapia , Adulto , Aconselhamento/métodos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Xeroderma Pigmentoso/psicologia
20.
Br J Health Psychol ; 24(3): 668-686, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183946

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is an extremely rare genetic disorder (approximately 100 known cases in the United Kingdom), where DNA damage caused by ultraviolet radiation in daylight cannot be repaired. Adherence to photoprotection is essential to prevent skin cancer. We investigated psychological correlates of photoprotection in the XP population of Western Europe and the United States. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of adults with XP and caregivers of patients <16 years and those with cognitive impairment in the United Kingdom, Germany, the United States, and France (n = 156). METHODS: Photoprotection activities to protect the face and body when outdoors; avoidance of going outside during daylight hours; intention; self-efficacy; and social support were assessed using measures developed for this study. Participants answered questions about their illness representations of XP (BIPQ); beliefs about photoprotection (BMQ); automaticity (i.e., without conscious effort) (SRBAI); clinical and demographic characteristics. Ordinal logistic regressions determined factors associated with photoprotection. RESULTS: One third did not achieve optimal face photoprotection. After controlling for demographic and clinical factors, modifiable correlates of higher photoprotection included greater perceived control of XP, stronger beliefs in necessity and effectiveness of photoprotection, and higher intention. Avoidance of going outside was associated with greater photoprotection concerns, more serious illness consequences, and higher XP-related distress. Greater automaticity and higher self-efficacy were associated with better protection across all outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately half of all known cases across three European countries participated. Identified modifiable predictors of photoprotection may be targeted by interventions to reduce the incidence of skin cancers in the immediate future, when a treatment breakthrough is unlikely. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Adherence to photoprotection in other populations at elevated risk from skin cancer is poor; however, the level in XP is unknown. Research across chronic conditions shows that adherence to treatment and lifestyle recommendations are influenced by illness perceptions, self-efficacy, and treatment beliefs. Studies on photoprotection conducted with the general population have found that perceived risk, perceptions of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) protection, self-efficacy for the behaviour, and automaticity (behaviours that are enacted with little conscious awareness) are related to better photoprotection. What does this study add? This is the first international survey to examine adherence and its correlates in people with XP (an under-researched group at very high risk of fatal skin cancer). Adherence varies and at least one third have potential for improvement. Perceptions about XP, photoprotection beliefs, self-efficacy, intention, and automaticity were associated with photoprotection of the face and body when outdoors. Negative emotional representations of XP were associated with avoidance of going outside during daylight hours.


Assuntos
Proteção Radiológica , Autoeficácia , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Raios Ultravioleta , Xeroderma Pigmentoso , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Alemanha , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Doenças Raras , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Reino Unido , Xeroderma Pigmentoso/terapia
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