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2.
Curr Opin Support Palliat Care ; 13(4): 394-401, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599815

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we summarize the recently published literature that demonstrates the efficacy and safety of autologous haematopoietic stem cell therapy (AHSCT) in multiple sclerosis (MS) and highlight the importance of supportive care required for the safe and well-tolerated delivery of AHSCT. RECENT FINDINGS: MS is an autoimmune inflammatory and degenerative disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). In the majority of patients, the illness runs a relapsing remitting course (RRMS), culminating in a secondary progressive phase with gradual accumulation of fixed disabilities. Currently available disease-modifying therapies suppress CNS inflammation but have a limited effect on preventing disease progression for which there remains no effective therapy. Over the last two decades, there has been increasing evidence that AHSCT is a highly effective therapeutic strategy for treatment-resistant inflammatory types of MS, especially RRMS. Concerns about the safety of AHSCT in MS, usually a nonlife-threatening disease, have previously limited its use. However, AHSCT can now be delivered safely with major long-term benefits because of increasing transplant centre experience, judicious patient selection and good supportive care. SUMMARY: MS is currently the fastest growing indication for AHSCT in Europe. Supportive care before, during and after the transplant period is key to the successful delivery of AHSCT.

3.
Lancet Haematol ; 6(11): e573-e584, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The introduction of donors other than HLA-matched siblings has been a pivotal change in stem cell transplantation. We aimed to assess the evolution of outcomes within donor groups over time and explore whether donor-recipient HLA disparity might be advantageous in patients with aggressive disease. METHODS: In this retrospective, multicentre study, we assessed the outcomes for adult patients (≥18 years) with haematological malignancies who underwent their first allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) between Jan 3, 2001, and Dec 31, 2015, and were reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. The donor types studied were matched sibling, matched unrelated, mismatched unrelated, haploidentical, and cord blood donors. Unrelated non-cord-blood donors and recipients were typed at the allelic level for HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and HLA-DRB1. We evaluated trends in overall survival, non-relapse mortality, relapse incidence, progression-free survival, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and GVHD-free and relapse-free survival following transplantation from various donor types (matched sibling, matched unrelated, mismatched unrelated, haploidentical, and umbilical cord blood), and compared transplantation outcomes across three epochs (epoch 1: 2001-05; epoch 2: 2006-10; and epoch 3: 2011-15). We used Kaplan-Meier estimators for survival probabilities and cumulative incidence functions accounting for competing risks for probabilities of GHVD, relapse, and non-relapse mortality, using multiple imputations by chained equations to deal with missing data. In epoch 3, we directly compared outcomes by donor group, stratified by a novel three-level disease-risk scheme. FINDINGS: We included 106 188 patients in our analysis. The median follow-up was 4·1 years (IQR 1·7-7·7). Overall survival at 3 years increased with all donor groups between epochs 2 and 3 (matched sibling: 54·0% [95% CI 53·1-54·8] to 54·6% [53·6-55·6]; matched unrelated: 49·1% [48·0-50·2] to 51·6% [50·7-52·6]; mismatched unrelated: 37·4% [35·7-39·2] to 41·3% [39·5-43·1]; haploidentical: 34·5% [31·4-37·9] to 44·2% [42·1-46·3]; and cord blood 36·3% [33·9-39] to 43·7% [40·8-46·8]). Improvement in overall survival seems to be driven by a reduction in non-relapse mortality, except in cord blood HSCT recipients, who had a lower relapse incidence. Comparing donor groups across disease-risk strata using the novel disease-risk scheme, overall survival among recipients of matched sibling transplantations remained better than other donor groups except in high-risk disease, where overall survival with matched unrelated transplantations was not different. INTERPRETATION: Overall survival following allogeneic stem cell transplantation is improving with substantial progress among recipients of haploidentical and cord blood HSCT. Nonetheless, the traditional donor hierarchy of matched sibling donors followed by matched unrelated donors and then other donors holds. Our findings warrant further investigation and could inform decision making and the development of donor-selection algorithms. FUNDING: The Varda and Boaz Dotan Research Center in Haemato-Oncology, Tel Aviv University, and the Shalvi Foundation for Research.


Assuntos
Doenças Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Adulto , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doenças Hematológicas/mortalidade , Doenças Hematológicas/patologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Teste de Histocompatibilidade , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sociedades Médicas , Transplante Homólogo
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554929

RESUMO

This retrospective study explored the incidence of autoimmune cytopenia (AIC) in 530 paediatric and adult patients with acquired aplastic anaemia (aAA) who underwent first allogeneic HSCT between 2002 and 2012. AIC was a rare complication with a cumulative incidence of AIC at 1, 3, 5 and 10 years post HSCT of 2.5% (1.2-3.9 95% CI), 4.4% (2.6-6.2 95% CI), 4.6% (2.8-6.5 95% CI) and 5.1% (3.1-7.2 95% CI). Overall survival at 5 years after diagnosis of AIC was 85.9% (71-100 95% CI). Twenty-five patients were diagnosed with AIC at a median of 10.6 (2.6-91.5) months post HSCT. Eight (32%) patients were diagnosed with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), seven (28%) with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA), seven (24%) with Evans syndrome and four (16%) with autoimmune neutropenia (AIN). Treatment strategies were heterogeneous. Complete responses were seen in 12 of 25 patients, with death in three patients. In multivariable Cox analysis of a subgroup of 475 patients, peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplant was associated with higher risk of AIC compared with bone marrow (BM) when conditioning regimens contained fludarabine and/or alemtuzumab (2.81 [1.06-7.49 95% CI]; p = 0.038), or anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) (2.86 [1.11-7.37 95% CI]; p = 0.029). Myeloablative conditioning was associated with a lower risk of AIC compared with reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) in fludarabine and/or alemtuzumab (0.34 [0.12-0.98 95% CI]; p = 0.046) and ATG containing regimens (0.34 [0.12-0.95 95% CI]; p = 0.04). These findings provide clinically useful information regarding the incidence of a rare and potentially life-threatening complication of allogeneic HSCT for aAA, and further support for BM as the preferred stem cell source for transplant of patients with aAA.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558790

RESUMO

These updated EBMT guidelines review the clinical evidence, registry activity and mechanisms of action of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in multiple sclerosis (MS) and other immune-mediated neurological diseases and provide recommendations for patient selection, transplant technique, follow-up and future development. The major focus is on autologous HSCT (aHSCT), used in MS for over two decades and currently the fastest growing indication for this treatment in Europe, with increasing evidence to support its use in highly active relapsing remitting MS failing to respond to disease modifying therapies. aHSCT may have a potential role in the treatment of the progressive forms of MS with a significant inflammatory component and other immune-mediated neurological diseases, including chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, neuromyelitis optica, myasthenia gravis and stiff person syndrome. Allogeneic HSCT should only be considered where potential risks are justified. Compared with other immunomodulatory treatments, HSCT is associated with greater short-term risks and requires close interspeciality collaboration between transplant physicians and neurologists with a special interest in these neurological conditions before, during and after treatment in accredited HSCT centres. Other experimental cell therapies are developmental for these diseases and patients should only be treated on clinical trials.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455899

RESUMO

Information on incidence, and factors associated with mortality is a prerequisite to improve outcome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Therefore, 55'668 deaths in 114'491 patients with HSCT (83.7% allogeneic) for leukemia were investigated in a landmark analysis for causes of death at day 30 (very early), day 100 (early), at 1 year (intermediate) and at 5 years (late). Mortality from all causes decreased from cohort 1 (1980-2001) to cohort 2 (2002-2015) in all post-transplant phases after autologous HSCT. After allogeneic HSCT, mortality from infections, GVHD, and toxicity decreased up to 1 year, increased at 5 years; deaths from relapse increased in all post-transplant phases. Infections of unknown origin were the main cause of infectious deaths. Lethal bacterial and fungal infections decreased from cohort 1 to cohort 2, not unknown or mixed infections. Infectious deaths were associated with patient-, disease-, donor type, stem cell source, center, and country- related factors. Their impact varied over the post-transplant phases. Transplant centres have successfully managed to reduce death after HSCT in the early and intermediate post-transplant phases, and have identified risk factors. Late post-transplant care could be improved by focus on groups at risk and better identification of infections of "unknown origin".

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449780

RESUMO

Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a highly complex procedure that requires a dedicated multidisciplinary team to optimize its safety. In addition, institutions may have different needs regarding indications based on regional disease prevalence or may have an interest in developing specialized services. Yet, structured recommendations are not commonly available. Here, the Transplant Center and Recipient Issues Standing Committee for the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (WBMT) organized a structured review of all pertinent elements to establish a transplant program. First, we solicited components from committee members and grouped them in domains (infrastructure, staff, cell processing laboratory, blood banking, laboratory, radiology, pharmacy, HLA testing, ancillary services and quality). Subsequently, reviewers scored all elements on a 7-point scale, from an absolute requirement (score of 1) to not required (score of 7). An independent group of five experienced transplant physicians reviewed the rankings. Minimum requirements to establish any HCT program were identified among elements with mean score of ≤2.0, and specific elements for allogeneic and autologous HCT were identified. Mean scores >2.0-4.0 were classified as preferred recommendation, and mean scores of >4.0 to ≤7.0 were considered ideal recommendations for advanced and complex types of transplantation. This structured set of recommendations guides the prioritization of minimum requirements to establish a transplant program and to set the path for expansion and further development.

10.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1570, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333680

RESUMO

Background: This retrospective study assessed the use and long-term outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with severe autoimmune diseases (ADs), reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) registry. Methods: Between 1997 and 2014, 128 patients received allogeneic HSCT for various hematological (n = 49) and non-hematological (n = 79) refractory ADs. The median age was 12.7 years (0.2-62.2). Donors were syngeneic for seven, matched related for 46, unrelated for 51, haploidentical for 15, and cord blood for nine patients. Results: The incidence of grades II-IV acute graft-vs.-host disease (GvHD) was 20.8% at 100 days. Cumulative incidence of chronic GvHD was 27.8% at 5-years. Non-relapse mortality (NRM) was 12.7% at 100-days. Overall survival (OS) and Progression-Free Survival (PFS) were 70.2 and 59.4% at 5-years, respectively. By multivariate analysis, age <18 years, males, and more recent year of transplant were found to be significantly associated with improved PFS. Reduced conditioning intensity was associated with a lower NRM. On a subgroup of 64 patients with detailed information a complete clinical response was obtained in 67% of patients at 1-year. Conclusions: This large EBMT survey suggests the potential of allogeneic HSCT to induce long-term disease control in a large proportion of refractory ADs, with acceptable toxicities and NRM, especially in younger patients.

11.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 19(1): 82, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestinal inflammation in Crohn's disease (CD) is caused by mucosal immune system reactivity to luminal antigen and results in debilitating symptoms, reduced quality of life, impaired work productivity and significant health care costs. Not all patients respond to conventional and biologic therapies, with chronic inflammation ensuing. Although surgical resection may be required, disease frequently returns and surgery may not be an option, or may be declined. Case reports suggest potential benefit after haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) for patients with refractory CD. The ASTIC trial asked whether HSCT could cure CD. Few patients achieved the primary endpoint of clinical remission for 3 months, off all medication with no evidence of active disease, and there were a high number of adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs), including one patient death. However, beneficial effects were observed in some aspects of disease activity. The ASTIClite trial will investigate these potential benefits and safety using a lower intensity regimen than ASTIC. METHODS: Ninety-nine participants will be recruited from secondary care IBD centres in the UK into a multicentre, randomised controlled trial (RCT, ASTIClite) and an observational follow-up, and randomised to autologous HSCT versus standard care (ratio 2:1). The primary endpoint is treatment success at week 48, defined as mucosal healing without surgery or death. Secondary endpoints relating to efficacy, safety and mechanistic analyses will be evaluated at week 8, 14, 24, 32, 40 and 48. Long-term safety of the low intensity HSCT regimen forms the primary endpoint for the EBMT follow-up study and will be assessed annually for 4-7 years. DISCUSSION: ASTIClite will compare HSCTlite with standard care with respect to safety, efficacy and quality of life, and capture outcomes allowing findings to be generalised to current clinical practice in the UK. It will also provide significant mechanistic insights into the immunological consequences of HSCTlite and its impact on treatment outcomes. The observational follow-up will provide information, which is currently unavailable for this population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The ASTIClite RCT was registered on 31st October 2017 ( ISRCTN17160440 ) and the EBMT follow-up study on 19th January 2018 ( ISRCTN31981313 ).

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071457

RESUMO

Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a highly complex procedure that requires a dedicated multidisciplinary team to optimize safety. In addition, institutions may have different needs regarding indications based on regional disease prevalence or may have an interest in developing specialized services. Structured recommendations are not commonly available, however. The Transplant Center and Recipient Issues Standing Committee of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (WBMT) organized a structured review of all pertinent elements for establishing a transplantation program. First, we solicited components from committee members and grouped them into domains (infrastructure, staff, cell processing laboratory, blood banking, laboratory, radiology, pharmacy, HLA testing, ancillary services, and quality). Subsequently, reviewers scored each element on a 7-point scale, ranging from an absolute requirement (score of 1) to not required (score of 7). An independent group of 5 experienced transplantation physicians reviewed the rankings. The minimum requirements for establishing any HCT program were identified among elements with mean score of ≤2.0, and specific elements for allogeneic and autologous HCT were identified. Mean scores of >2.0 to 4.0 were classified as preferred recommendation, and mean scores of >4.0 to ≤ 7.0 were considered ideal recommendations for advanced and complex types of transplantation. This structured set of recommendations guides the prioritization of minimum requirements to establish a transplantation program and set the stage for expansion and further development.

13.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(19): 1617-1628, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969846

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Salvage autologous stem-cell transplantation (sASCT) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) relapsing after a prior autologous stem-cell transplantation leads to increased remission duration and overall survival. We report a comprehensive study on patient-reported outcomes, including quality of life (QoL) and pain in sASCT. METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to either sASCT or nontransplantation consolidation (NTC). Pain and QoL were assessed as secondary outcomes using validated QoL instruments (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and myeloma-specific module, QLQ-MY20; the Brief Pain Inventory [Short Form]; and the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs [Self-Assessment] scale). RESULTS: A total of 288 patients (> 96%) consented to the QoL substudy. The median follow-up was 52 months. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 Global health status scores were higher (better) in the NTC group at 100 days after random assignment (P = .0496), but not at later time points. Pain interference was higher (worse) in the sASCT group than in the NTC group at 6 months after random assignment (P = .0267), with patients with sASCT reporting higher scores for Pain interference with daily living for up to 2 years after random assignment. Patients reporting lower concerns about adverse effects of treatment after sASCT had a time to progression advantage. CONCLUSION: Patients with sASCT with relapsed MM demonstrated a comparative reduction in QoL and greater impact of treatment adverse effects lasting for 6 months and up to 2 years for pain, after which patients who had received sASCT reported better outcomes. Patients who experienced lower adverse effects after sASCT had longer time to progression and overall survival, showing the need to improve symptom management peritransplantation. To our knowledge, this study provides the most comprehensive picture of QoL before and after sASCT in patients with relapsed MM.

14.
Curr Hematol Malig Rep ; 14(2): 136, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030389

RESUMO

Modifications have been made to the 5th paragraph of the section "Efficacy", and in Table 3; Additional authors' information has also been added as an article note in the front matter.

15.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(10): 1525-1552, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953028

RESUMO

This is the seventh special EBMT report on the indications for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for haematological diseases, solid tumours and immune disorders. Our aim is to provide general guidance on transplant indications according to prevailing clinical practice in EBMT countries and centres. In order to inform patient decisions, these recommendations must be considered together with the risk of the disease, the risk of the transplant procedure and the results of non-transplant strategies. In over two decades since the first report, the EBMT indications manuscripts have incorporated changes in transplant practice coming from scientific and technical developments in the field. In this same period, the establishment of JACIE accreditation has promoted high quality and led to improved outcomes of patient and donor care and laboratory performance in transplantation and cellular therapy. An updated report with operating definitions, revised indications and an additional set of data with overall survival at 1 year and non-relapse mortality at day 100 after transplant in the commonest standard-of-care indications is presented. Additional efforts are currently underway to enable EBMT member centres to benchmark their risk-adapted outcomes as part of the Registry upgrade Project 2020 against national and/or international outcome data.

16.
Curr Hematol Malig Rep ; 14(2): 127-135, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30828772

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We summarise the current development of autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) in treating multiple sclerosis (MS) and discuss future directions for the general neurologist, transplant haematologist and oncologist. RECENT FINDINGS: AHSCT was initially performed to treat MS over 20 years ago. Over recent years, the evidence base has grown, especially in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), with significant improvements in safety and efficacy through better patient selection, choice of transplant technique and increase in centre experience. AHSCT is now a treatment option in very carefully selected patients with severe, treatment-resistant RRMS. However, it is important for transplant haematologists and oncologists to work closely with specialist MS neurologists in patient selection, during transplant and in long-term follow-up of patients. Data should be registered into international transplant registries and, ideally, patients should be enrolled on prospective clinical trials in order to build the evidence base and refine transplant techniques.

17.
Br J Haematol ; 185(3): 450-467, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30729512

RESUMO

The Myeloma X trial (ISCRTN60123120) registered patients with relapsed multiple myeloma. Participants were randomised between salvage autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) or weekly cyclophosphamide following re-induction therapy. Cytogenetic analysis performed at trial registration defined t(4;14), t(14;16) and del(17p) as high-risk. The effect of cytogenetics on time to progression (TTP) and overall survival was investigated. At 76 months median follow-up, ASCT improved TTP compared to cyclophosphamide (19 months (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 16-26) vs. 11 months (9-12), hazard ratio [HR]: 0·40, 95% CI: 0·29-0·56, P < 0·001), on which the presence of any single high-risk lesion had a detrimental impact [likelihood ratio test (LRT): P = 0·011]. ASCT also improved OS [67 months (95% CI 59-not reached) vs. 55 months (44-67), HR: 0·64, 95% CI: 0·42-0·99, P = 0·0435], with evidence of a detrimental impact with MYC rearrangement (LRT: P = 0·021). Twenty-one (24·7%) cyclophosphamide patients received an ASCT post-trial, median OS was not reached (95% CI: 39-not reached) for these participants compared to 31 months (22-39), in those who did not receive a post-trial ASCT. The analysis further supports the benefit of salvage ASCT, which may still be beneficial after second relapse in surviving patients. There is evidence that this benefit reduces in cytogenetic high-risk patients, highlighting the need for targeted study in this patient group.

18.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(7): 933-942, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30705338

RESUMO

Over the last 20 years, haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been used to treat patients with severe autoimmune and inflammatory diseases whose response to standard treatment options has been limited, resulting in a poor long-term prognosis in terms of survival or disability. The vast majority of patients have received autologous HSCT where an increasing evidence-base supports its use in a wide range of autoimmune diseases, particularly relapsing remitting MS, systemic sclerosis and Crohn's disease. Compared with standard treatments for autoimmune diseases, HSCT is associated with greater short-term risks, including a risk of treatment-related mortality and long-term complications. There is a need for a careful appraisal of potential benefits and risks by disease and transplant specialists working closely together with patients and carers to determine individual suitability for HSCT. HSCT should be conducted in accredited transplant centres with robust arrangements for long-term follow-up with both disease and transplant specialists. The aim of this open-access position statement is to provide plainly worded guidance for patients and non-specialist clinicians considering HSCT for an autoimmune disease, especially when treatment abroad is being considered. Recent technical publications in the field have been referenced to support the statement and provide more detail for clinicians advising patients.

19.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(10): 1575-1585, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728439

RESUMO

Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is widely used for acquired and congenital disorders of the hematopoietic system. Number of transplants done in Europe and associated countries continues to rise with 45,418 HCT in 41,100 patients [(17,155 allogeneic (42%) and 23,945 autologous (58%)] reported by 683 centers in 50 countries in 2017. Main indications were myeloid malignancies 10,147 (25%; 96% allogeneic), lymphoid malignancies 26,488 (64%; 19% allogeneic), solid tumors 1,607 (3.9%; 2% allogeneic), and nonmalignant disorders 2,667 (7%; 81% allogeneic). Trends in donor choice seen before continue, with growing numbers of haploidentical HCT and decreasing use of cord blood. Of interest is that after many years of continued growth, the number of patients receiving an allogeneic HCT for marrow failure is decreasing slightly (p < 0.001). Such a change may be explained by the use of thrombopoietin analogs in aplastic anemia patients. Other nonmalignant indications, however continue to grow, most importantly HCT for hemoglobinopathies by 36%, equally for thalassemias and sickle cell disease. Non-HCT cell therapies have increased by 28% since 2015 and genetically modified T cells is type of cell therapy with the fastest growth. These annual reports reflect current activity and trends and are useful for health-care planning.

20.
JAMA ; 321(2): 165-174, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30644983

RESUMO

Importance: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) represents a potentially useful approach to slow or prevent progressive disability in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective: To compare the effect of nonmyeloablative HSCT vs disease-modifying therapy (DMT) on disease progression. Design, Setting, and Participants: Between September 20, 2005, and July 7, 2016, a total of 110 patients with relapsing-remitting MS, at least 2 relapses while receiving DMT in the prior year, and an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS; score range, 0-10 [10 = worst neurologic disability]) score of 2.0 to 6.0 were randomized at 4 US, European, and South American centers. Final follow-up occurred in January 2018 and database lock in February 2018. Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive HSCT along with cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg) and antithymocyte globulin (6 mg/kg) (n = 55) or DMT of higher efficacy or a different class than DMT taken during the previous year (n = 55). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was disease progression, defined as an EDSS score increase after at least 1 year of 1.0 point or more (minimal clinically important difference, 0.5) on 2 evaluations 6 months apart, with differences in time to progression estimated as hazard ratios. Results: Among 110 randomized patients (73 [66%] women; mean age, 36 [SD, 8.6] years), 103 remained in the trial, with 98 evaluated at 1 year and 23 evaluated yearly for 5 years (median follow-up, 2 years; mean, 2.8 years). Disease progression occurred in 3 patients in the HSCT group and 34 patients in the DMT group. Median time to progression could not be calculated in the HSCT group because of too few events; it was 24 months (interquartile range, 18-48 months) in the DMT group (hazard ratio, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.02-0.24; P < .001). During the first year, mean EDSS scores decreased (improved) from 3.38 to 2.36 in the HSCT group and increased (worsened) from 3.31 to 3.98 in the DMT group (between-group mean difference, -1.7; 95% CI, -2.03 to -1.29; P < .001). There were no deaths and no patients who received HSCT developed nonhematopoietic grade 4 toxicities (such as myocardial infarction, sepsis, or other disabling or potential life-threatening events). Conclusions and Relevance: In this preliminary study of patients with relapsing-remitting MS, nonmyeloablative HSCT, compared with DMT, resulted in prolonged time to disease progression. Further research is needed to replicate these findings and to assess long-term outcomes and safety. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00273364.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Soro Antilinfocitário/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
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