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1.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; : 104836, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414581

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Effectiveness of mechanical thrombectomy for mild-deficit stroke due to large-vessel occlusion is controversial. We present a single-center consecutive case series on thrombectomy for large-vessel occlusion mild stroke. We evaluated various thrombectomy parameters to better understand disagreement in the literature. METHODS: Data from a retrospective cohort of large-vessel occlusion mild stroke patients (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale <6) treated with mechanical thrombectomy over 6 years and 2 months were analyzed. Patients were divided into 2 groups: successful reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2b or 3) and failed reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 0,1, or 2a). Ninety-day modified Rankin Scale in-hospital mortality, and symptomatic hemorrhage rates were compared between groups. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to evaluate reperfusion status as a predictor of 90-day favorable (modified Rankin Scale 0-2) and excellent (modified Rankin Scale 0-1) outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 61 patients with large-vessel occlusion mild stroke who underwent thrombectomy. Reperfusion was successful in 49 patients and a failure in 12. The successful group exhibited significantly higher rates of favorable outcome (83.7% vs. 25.0%; p < 0.001) and excellent outcome (69.4% vs.16.7%; p = 0.002) at 90 days. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in the failure group (41.7% vs.10.2%; p = 0.019). Multivariate logistic regression identified successful reperfusion as a significant predictor (p = 0.001) of 90-day favorable outcome. CONCLUSION: Reperfusion success was significantly associated with improved functional outcomes in large-vessel occlusion mild stroke mechanical thrombectomy. Future studies should consider reperfusion rates when evaluating the effectiveness of thrombectomy against that of medical management in these patients.

3.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection from the SARS-CoV-2 virus has led to the covid-19 pandemic. Given the large number of patients affected, healthcare personnel and facility resources are stretched to the limit; however, the need for urgent and emergent neurosurgical care continues. This article describes best practices when performing neurosurgical procedures on patients with covid-19 based on multi-institutional experiences. METHODS: We assembled neurosurgical practitioners from 13 different health systems from across the USA, including those in hot spots, to describe their practices in managing neurosurgical emergencies within the covid-19 environment. RESULTS: Patients presenting with neurosurgical emergencies should be considered as persons under investigation (PUI) and thus maximal personal protective equipment (PPE) should be donned during interaction and transfer. Intubations and extubations should be done with only anesthesia staff donning maximal PPE in a negative pressure environment. Operating room (OR) staff should enter the room once the air has been cleared of particulate matter. Certain OR suites should be designated as covid ORs, thus allowing for all neurosurgical cases on covid/PUI patients to be performed in these rooms, which will require a terminal clean post procedure. Each covid OR suite should be attached to an anteroom which is a negative pressure room with a HEPA filter, thus allowing for donning and doffing of PPE without risking contamination of clean areas. CONCLUSION: Based on a multi-institutional collaborative effort, we describe best practices when providing neurosurgical treatment for patients with covid-19 in order to optimize clinical care and minimize the exposure of patients and staff.

4.
Neurosurgery ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional (3D) printing has revolutionized training, education, and device testing. Understanding the design and physical properties of 3D-printed models is important. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the design, physical properties, accuracy, and experimental outcomes of 3D-printed vascular models used in neurointervention. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature between January 1, 2000 and September 30, 2018. Public/Publisher MEDLINE (PubMed), Web of Science, Compendex, Cochrane, and Inspec databases were searched using Medical Subject Heading terms for design and physical attributes of 3D-printed models for neurointervention. Information on design and physical properties like compliance, lubricity, flow system, accuracy, and outcome measures were collected. RESULTS: A total of 23 articles were included. Nine studies described 3D-printed models for stroke intervention. Tango Plus (Stratasys) was the most common material used to develop these models. Four studies described a population-representative geometry model. All other studies reported patient-specific vascular geometry. Eight studies reported complete reconstruction of the circle of Willis, anterior, and posterior circulation. Four studies reported a model with extracranial vasculature. One prototype study reported compliance and lubricity. Reported circulation systems included manual flushing, programmable pistons, peristaltic, and pulsatile pumps. Outcomes included thrombolysis in cerebral infarction, post-thrombectomy flow restoration, surgical performance, and qualitative feedback. CONCLUSION: Variations exist in the material, design, and extent of reconstruction of vasculature of 3D-printed models. There is a need for objective characterization of 3D-printed vascular models. We propose the development of population representative 3D-printed models for skill improvement or device testing.

5.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 162(6): 1353-1362, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is wide variation in the reported size of ruptured intracranial aneurysms and methods of size estimation. There is widespread belief that small aneurysms < 7 mm do not rupture. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to determine the size of ruptured aneurysms according to aneurysm locations and methods of size estimation. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases using a combination of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms. We included articles that reported mean aneurysm size in consecutive series of ruptured intracranial. We excluded studies limited to a specific aneurysm location or type. The random-effects model was used to calculate overall mean size and location-specific mean size. We performed meta-regression to explain observed heterogeneity and variation in reported size. RESULTS: The systematic review included 36 studies and 12,609 ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Overall mean aneurysm size was 7.0 mm (95% confidence interval [CI 6.2-7.4]). Pooled mean size varied with location. Overall mean size of 2145 ruptured anterior circulation aneurysms was 6.0 mm (95% CI 5.6-6.4, residual I2 = 86%). Overall mean size of 743 ruptured posterior circulation aneurysms was 6.2 mm (95% CI 5.3-7.0, residual I2 = 93%). Meta-regression identified aneurysm location and definition of size (i.e., maximum dimension vs. aneurysm height) as significant determinants of aneurysm size reported in the studies. CONCLUSIONS: The mean size of ruptured aneurysms in most studies was approximately 7 mm. The general wisdom that aneurysms of this size do not rupture is incorrect. Location and size definition were significant determinants of aneurysm size.

6.
World Neurosurg ; 137: e454-e461, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite an increasing focus on endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms, microsurgical clipping remains an integral part of management. We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of microsurgical clipping performed by dual-trained neurosurgeons at our institute, which has adopted an endovascular first approach. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed clinical and radiographic data of 412 aneurysms in 375 patients treated with microsurgical clipping. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictive outcome factors. We defined favorable outcome as a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0-2 at last clinical follow-up; unfavorable outcome was an mRS score of 3-6. We compared outcomes in our series with those of seminal aneurysm clipping series. RESULTS: Clipping of 330 of 351 unruptured aneurysms (94.01%) was associated with favorable outcome during the follow-up period (mean, 26.5 months). On univariate analysis, older patient age, intraoperative rupture, and higher baseline mRS scores were associated with unfavorable outcome in the unruptured cohort. On multivariate analysis, older age, higher baseline mRS scores, and posterior circulation aneurysm location were predictive of unfavorable outcome. Clipping of 46 of 61 ruptured aneurysms (75.4%) was associated with favorable outcome during the follow-up period (mean, 23.1 months). On univariate analysis, left-sided aneurysms, intraoperative rupture, and large aneurysm size were associated with unfavorable outcome in the ruptured cohort. On multivariate analysis, female sex was predictive of unfavorable outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our ruptured and unruptured cohort results compared favorably with those in seminal series. Treatment by neurosurgeons adept at both endovascular and microsurgical techniques may improve clinical outcomes.

7.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A new dual resolution imaging x-ray detector system (Canon Medical Systems Corporation, Tochigi, Japan) has a standard resolution 194 µm pixel conventional flat-panel detector (FPD) mode and a high-resolution 76 µm high-definition (Hi-Def) mode in a single unit. The Hi-Def mode enhances the visualization of the intravascular devices. OBJECTIVE: We report the clinical experience and physician evaluation of this new detector system with Hi-Def mode for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms using a Pipeline embolization device (PED). METHODS: During intervention at our institute, under large field of view (FOV) regular resolution FPD mode imaging, the catheter systems and devices were first guided to the proximity of the treatment area. Final placement and deployment of the PED was performed under Hi-Def mode guidance. A post-procedure 9-question physician survey was conducted to qualitatively assess the impact of Hi-Def mode visualization on physicians' intraoperative decision-making. One-sample t-test was performed on the responses from the survey. Dose values reported by the x-ray unit were also recorded. RESULTS: Twenty-five cases were included in our study. The survey results indicated that, for each of the nine questions, the physicians in all cases indicated that the Hi-Def mode improved visualization compared with the FPD mode. For the 25 cases, the mean cumulative entrance air kerma was 2.35 Gy, the mean dose area product (DAP) was 173.71 Gy.cm2, and the mean x-ray exposure time was 39.30 min. CONCLUSIONS: The Hi-Def mode improves visualization of flow diverters and may help in achieving more accurate placement and deployment of devices.

8.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-6, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978888

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The mortality rates for stroke are decreasing, yet it remains a leading cause of disability and the principal neurological diagnosis in patients discharged to nursing homes. The societal and economic burdens of stroke are substantial, with the total annual health care costs of stroke expected to reach $240.7 billion by 2030. Mechanical thrombectomy has been shown to improve functional outcomes compared to medical therapy alone. Despite an incremental cost of $10,840 compared to medical therapy, the improvement in functional outcomes and decreased disability have contributed to the cost-effectiveness of the procedure. In this study the authors describe a physician-led device bundle purchase program implemented for the delivery of stroke care. METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical and radiographic data and device-associated charges of 45 consecutive patients in whom a virtual "stroke bundle" model was used to purchase mechanical thrombectomy devices. RESULTS: Use of the stroke bundle to purchase mechanical thrombectomy devices resulted in an average savings per case of $2900.93. Compared to the traditional model of charging for devices à la carte, this represented an average savings of 25.2% per case. The total amount of savings for these initial 45 cases was $130,542.00. Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction scale grade 2b or 3 recanalization occurred in 38 patients (84.4%) using these devices. CONCLUSIONS: Purchasing devices through a bundled model resulted in substantial cost savings while maintaining the therapeutic efficacy of the procedure, further pushing the already beneficial long-term cost-benefit curve in favor of thrombectomy.

9.
World Neurosurg ; 133: e434-e442, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525478

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of degree of contrast stasis in intracranial aneurysms (IAs) immediately after Pipeline embolization device (PED; Medtronic, Dublin, Ireland) deployment with 6- and 12-month angiographic occlusion rates. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included consecutive patients undergoing PED deployment for saccular IA treatment at a large-volume cerebrovascular center over a 4-year 9-month period. Angiographic images obtained immediately after PED deployment were graded according to amount of intra-aneurysmal contrast flow during the late venous phase: 0 = no stasis; 1 = <50% contrast stasis; 2 = 50%-75% stasis; and 3 = >75%-99% stasis. Follow-up occlusion rates were determined by digital subtraction angiography, computed tomographic angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography. RESULTS: The study included 119 patients in whom 182 PEDs were deployed to treat 141 aneurysms. A single PED was deployed in 105 (74.5%) aneurysms. The internal carotid artery was the commonest aneurysm site (119 [85%]). Fifty-two (36.9%) aneurysms were grade 0; 33 (23.4%) were grade 1; 46 (32.6%) were grade 2; and 10 (7.1%) were grade 3 immediately post-treatment. A 6-month follow-up angiogram available for 101 aneurysms showed complete occlusion (no flow into the aneurysm) in 74 (73.3%) aneurysms. A 12-month follow-up study available for 132 aneurysms showed complete occlusion in 79.5%. At last follow-up, occlusion rates were not significantly different for different contrast stasis grades (P = 0.60). Mean angiographic follow up for all IAs was 23v±v17.7 months. IA size, sex, age, and smoking were not significant predictors of occlusion. CONCLUSIONS: The degree of aneurysm contrast stasis immediately after PED deployment is not statistically associated with 6- and 12-month angiographic occlusion rates.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica/instrumentação , Hemorreologia , Aneurisma Intracraniano/terapia , Stents , Adulto , Idoso , Angiografia Digital , Angiografia Cerebral , Meios de Contraste/farmacocinética , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Método Simples-Cego , Trombose/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Interv Neuroradiol ; : 1591019919888130, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Controversy exists regarding the optimum number of flow diverters for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. We explored the effect of the number of Pipeline embolization devices (PEDs; Medtronic, Dublin, Ireland) deployed on rates of aneurysm occlusion and complications. METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent saccular intracranial aneurysm treatment solely with the PED were included in this retrospective study. Computed tomographic, magnetic resonance, or digital subtraction angiographic images at 6 and 12 months and last follow-up (>12 months) were reviewed for aneurysm occlusion. Complication and retreatment rates were recorded and analyzed statistically. RESULTS: The study included 141 aneurysm treatments in 119 patients. A single PED was deployed in 105 cases, two PEDs in 31 cases, and three PEDs in 5 cases (total = 182 devices). Six-month angiographic data were available for 103 patients. Occlusion rates were 67.1% for single-PED cases and 90.0% for cases with > 1 PED (p = 0.028). The 12-month occlusion rate (follow-up available for 132) for single-PED cases was 74.7% compared to 91.7% for multiple-PED cases (p = 0.04). On multivariate analysis, number of PEDs was an independent predictor of aneurysm occlusion at 12 months (odds ratio 6.3, 95% confidence interval 1.8-22.8, p = 0.005). Thromboembolic complication rates were the same in the single- and multiple-PED treatment groups (2.8%). The retreatment rate was higher in patients treated with a single PED (16.2% vs. 0%, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Deployment of > 1 Pipeline embolization device was associated with higher intracranial aneurysm occlusion and lower retreatment rates. No significant difference was found in complication rates.

11.
BMC Med Genomics ; 12(1): 149, 2019 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetics play an important role in intracranial aneurysm (IA) pathophysiology. Genome-wide association studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are linked to IA but how they affect disease pathobiology remains poorly understood. We used Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) data to investigate the epigenetic landscapes surrounding genetic risk loci to determine if IA-associated SNPs affect functional elements that regulate gene expression and if those SNPs are most likely to impact a specific type of cells. METHODS: We mapped 16 highly significant IA-associated SNPs to linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks within the human genome. Within these regions, we examined the presence of H3K4me1 and H3K27ac histone marks and CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) and transcription-factor binding sites using chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-Seq) data. This analysis was conducted in several cell types relevant to endothelial (human umbilical vein endothelial cells [HUVECs]) and inflammatory (monocytes, neutrophils, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMCs]) biology. Gene ontology analysis was performed on genes within extended IA-risk regions to understand which biological processes could be affected by IA-risk SNPs. We also evaluated recently published data that showed differential methylation and differential ribonucleic acid (RNA) expression in IA to investigate the correlation between differentially regulated elements and the IA-risk LD blocks. RESULTS: The IA-associated LD blocks were statistically significantly enriched for H3K4me1 and/or H3K27ac marks (markers of enhancer function) in endothelial cells but not in immune cells. The IA-associated LD blocks also contained more binding sites for CTCF in endothelial cells than monocytes, although not statistically significant. Differentially methylated regions of DNA identified in IA tissue were also present in several IA-risk LD blocks, suggesting SNPs could affect this epigenetic machinery. Gene ontology analysis supports that genes affected by IA-risk SNPs are associated with extracellular matrix reorganization and endopeptidase activity. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that known genetic alterations linked to IA risk act on endothelial cell function. These alterations do not correlate with IA-associated gene expression signatures of circulating blood cells, which suggests that such signatures are a secondary response reflecting the presence of IA rather than indicating risk for IA.

12.
J Neuroimaging ; 29(5): 565-572, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Visualization of structural details of treatment devices during neurointerventional procedures can be challenging. A new true two-resolution imaging X-ray detector system features a 194 µm pixel conventional flat-panel detector (FPD) mode and a 76 µm pixel high-resolution high-definition (Hi-Def) zoom mode in one detector panel. The Hi-Def zoom mode was developed for use in interventional procedures requiring superior image quality over a small field of view (FOV). We report successful use of this imaging system during intracranial aneurysm treatment in 1 patient with a Pipeline-embolization device and 1 patient with a low-profile visualized intramural support (LVIS Blue) device plus adjunctive coiling. METHODS: A guide catheter was advanced from the femoral artery insertion site to the proximity of each lesion using standard FPD mode. Under magnified small FOV Hi-Def imaging mode, an intermediate catheter and microcatheters were guided to the treatment site, and the PED and LVIS Blue plus coils were deployed. Radiation doses were tracked intraprocedurally. RESULTS: Critical details, including structural changes in the PED and LVIS Blue and position and movement of the microcatheter tip within the coil mass, were more readily apparent in Hi-Def mode. Skin-dose mapping indicated that Hi-Def mode limited radiation exposure to the smaller FOV of the treatment area. CONCLUSIONS: Visualization of device structures was much improved in the high-resolution Hi-Def mode, leading to easier, more controlled deployment of stents and coils than conventional FPD mode.

13.
World Neurosurg ; 128: e513-e521, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various studies have suggested that age ≥80 years is associated with a higher rate of complications after carotid artery stenting (CAS). The Buffalo Risk Assessment Scale (BRASS) predicts complications in symptomatic patients undergoing CAS. Application of the BRASS has shown the ability to improve patient selection. We used the BRASS system to evaluate whether the higher rate of complications associated with CAS in the elderly is related to vascular anatomy. METHODS: A retrospective review of CAS was performed at our institution over 7 years. Demographic information, anatomic characteristics, BRASS categorization, and outcome measures were compared between elderly (≥80 years) and younger patients (<80 years). RESULTS: The study included 447 patients: 335 patients (75%) <80 years and 112 patients (25%) ≥80 years. There were significantly more elderly patients in the high-risk BRASS category (P < 0.01), and more young patients in the low-risk BRASS category (P = 0.04). The complication rates in the 2 groups were similar. Older patients were more likely to harbor complex vascular anatomy: they had significantly higher rates of types II and III aortic arches (P = 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively), higher percentage of tortuous carotid vessels (P < 0.01), and higher rates of hostile anatomy for deployment of distal embolic protection devices (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Complex vascular anatomy, rather than age, is the key factor behind the higher CAS-associated complication rate in the elderly. Complications can be avoided through proper patient selection and stratifying patients based on anatomic characteristics, which can be achieved through the BRASS scoring system.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Stents , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aorta Torácica/anatomia & histologia , Artérias Carótidas/anatomia & histologia , Artérias Carótidas/cirurgia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/cirurgia , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Calcificação Vascular/epidemiologia
15.
Lancet ; 393(10175): 998-1008, 2019 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stent retriever thrombectomy of large-vessel occlusion results in better outcomes than medical therapy alone. Alternative thrombectomy strategies, particularly a direct aspiration as first pass technique, while promising, have not been rigorously assessed for clinical efficacy in randomised trials. We designed COMPASS to assess whether patients treated with aspiration as first pass have non-inferior functional outcomes to those treated with a stent retriever as first line. METHODS: We did a multicentre, randomised, open label, blinded outcome, core lab adjudicated non-inferiority trial at 15 sites (ten hospitals and four specialty clinics in the USA and one hospital in Canada). Eligible participants were patients presenting with acute ischaemic stroke from anterior circulation large-vessel occlusion within 6 h of onset and an Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score of greater than 6. We randomly assigned participants (1:1) via a central web-based system without stratification to either direct aspiration first pass or stent retriever first line thrombectomy. Those assessing primary outcomes via clinical examinations were masked to group assignment as they were not involved in the procedures. Physicians were allowed to use adjunctive technology as was consistent with their standard of care. The null hypothesis for this study was that patients treated with aspiration as first pass achieve inferior outcomes compared with those treated with a stent retriever first line approach. The primary outcome was non-inferiority of clinical functional outcome at 90 days as measured by the percentage of patients achieving a modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2, analysed by intent to treat; non-inferiority was established with a margin of 0·15. All randomly assigned patients were included in the safety analyses. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number: NCT02466893. FINDINGS: Between June 1, 2015, and July 5, 2017, we assigned 270 patients to treatment: 134 to aspiration first pass and 136 to stent retriever first line. A modified Rankin score of 0-2 at 90 days was achieved by 69 patients (52%; 95% CI 43·8-60·3) in the aspiration group and 67 patients (50%; 41·6-57·4) in the stent retriever group, showing that aspiration as first pass was non-inferior to stent retriever first line (pnon-inferiority=0·0014). Intracranial haemorrhage occurred in 48 (36%) of 134 in the aspiration first pass group, and 46 (34%) of 135 in the stent retriever first line group. All-cause mortality at 3 months occurred in 30 patients (22%) in both groups. INTERPRETATION: A direct aspiration as first pass thrombectomy conferred non-inferior functional outcome at 90 days compared with stent retriever first line thrombectomy. This study supports the use of direct aspiration as an alternative to stent retriever as first-line therapy for stroke thrombectomy. FUNDING: Penumbra.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/cirurgia , Stents , Trombectomia/métodos , Tromboembolia/cirurgia , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Estudos de Equivalência como Asunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Trombólise Mecânica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Neurosurgery ; 84(2): 421-427, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29528449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neck remnants are not uncommon after endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms. Critics of endovascular treatments for cerebral aneurysms cite neck remnants as evidence in favor of microsurgical clipping. However, studies have failed to evaluate the true clinical significance of aneurysm neck remnants following endovascular therapies. OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical significance of residual aneurysm necks and to determine the rate of subsequent rupture following coiling or stent-assisted coiling of cerebral aneurysms. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 1292 aneurysm cases that underwent endovascular treatment at 4 institutions. Aneurysms treated by primary coiling or stent-assisted coiling were included in the study; those treated by flow diversion were excluded Aneurysms with residual filling (i.e., Raymond-Roy Occlusion Classification II, neck remnant; or III, residual aneurysm filling) were assessed for their risk of subsequent rupture. RESULTS: A total of 626 aneurysms were identified as having residual filling immediately posttreatment. Of these, 13 aneurysms (2.1%) ruptured during the follow-up period (mean 7.3 mo; range 1-84 mo). Eleven of the 13 (84.6%) were ruptured at presentation. Rupture at presentation, the size of the aneurysm, and the increasing age of the patient were predictive of posttreatment rupture. CONCLUSION: We found that unruptured aneurysms with residual necks following endovascular treatment posed a very low risk of rupture (0.6%). However, patients presenting with ruptured aneurysms had a higher risk of rerupture from a neck remnant (3.4%). These results highlight the importance of achieving complete angiographic occlusion of ruptured aneurysms.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Roto/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Aneurisma Roto/cirurgia , Progressão da Doença , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Stents , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Transl Med ; 16(1): 373, 2018 12 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are dangerous because of their potential to rupture and cause deadly subarachnoid hemorrhages. Previously, we found significant RNA expression differences in circulating neutrophils between patients with unruptured IAs and aneurysm-free controls. Searching for circulating biomarkers for unruptured IAs, we tested the feasibility of developing classification algorithms that use neutrophil RNA expression levels from blood samples to predict the presence of an IA. METHODS: Neutrophil RNA extracted from blood samples from 40 patients (20 with angiography-confirmed unruptured IA, 20 angiography-confirmed IA-free controls) was subjected to next-generation RNA sequencing to obtain neutrophil transcriptomes. In a randomly-selected training cohort of 30 of the 40 samples (15 with IA, 15 controls), we performed differential expression analysis. Significantly differentially expressed transcripts (false discovery rate < 0.05, fold change ≥ 1.5) were used to construct prediction models for IA using four well-known supervised machine-learning approaches (diagonal linear discriminant analysis, cosine nearest neighbors, nearest shrunken centroids, and support vector machines). These models were tested in a testing cohort of the remaining 10 neutrophil samples from the 40 patients (5 with IA, 5 controls), and model performance was assessed by receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curves. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to corroborate expression differences of a subset of model transcripts in neutrophil samples from a new, separate validation cohort of 10 patients (5 with IA, 5 controls). RESULTS: The training cohort yielded 26 highly significantly differentially expressed neutrophil transcripts. Models using these transcripts identified IA patients in the testing cohort with accuracy ranging from 0.60 to 0.90. The best performing model was the diagonal linear discriminant analysis classifier (area under the ROC curve = 0.80 and accuracy = 0.90). Six of seven differentially expressed genes we tested were confirmed by quantitative PCR using isolated neutrophils from the separate validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate the potential of machine-learning methods to classify IA cases and create predictive models for unruptured IAs using circulating neutrophil transcriptome data. Future studies are needed to replicate these findings in larger cohorts.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Roto/sangue , Aneurisma Roto/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Aneurisma Intracraniano/sangue , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Aneurisma Roto/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Neurosurg Focus ; 45(1): E11, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29961386

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a commonly occurring disease, particularly among young women of child-bearing age. The underlying pathophysiology for this disease has remained largely unclear; however, the recent literature suggests that focal outflow obstruction of the transverse sinus may be the cause. The purpose of this study was to report one group's early experience with transverse venous sinus stenting in the treatment of IIH and assess its effectiveness. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective chart review to identify patients who had undergone stenting of an outflow-obstructed transverse venous sinus for the treatment of IIH at Gates Vascular Institute between January 2015 and November 2017. Patient demographic data of interest included age, sex, BMI, and history of smoking, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, hormonal contraceptive use, and acetazolamide therapy. Each patient's presenting signs and symptoms and whether those symptoms improved with treatment were reviewed. The average opening lumbar puncture (LP) pressure preprocedure, average pressure gradient across the obstructed segment prior to stenting, treatment failure rate (need for shunt placement), and mean follow-up period were calculated. RESULTS Of the 18 patients who had undergone transverse venous stenting for IIH, 16 (88.9%) were women. The mean age of all the patients was 38.3 years (median 38 years). Mean BMI was 34.2 kg/m2 (median 33.9 kg/m2). Presenting symptoms were headache (16 patients [88.9%]), visual disturbances (13 patients [72.2%]), papilledema (8 patients [44.4%]), tinnitus (3 patients [16.7%]), and auditory bruit (3 patients [16.7%]). The mean opening LP pressure pre-procedure was 35.6 cm H2O (median 32 cm H2O). The mean pressure gradient measured proximally and distally to the area of focal obstruction within the transverse sinus was 16.5 cm H2O (median 15 cm H2O). Postprocedurally, 14 patients (77.8%) continued to have headaches; 6 (33.3%) continued to have visual disturbances. No patients continued to have auditory bruit (0%) or papilledema (0%). One patient (5.6%) had new-onset tinnitus postprocedure. Overall improvement of symptoms was noted in 16 patients (88.9%) postprocedure, with 1 patient (5.6%) requiring shunt placement and 2 other patients (11.1%) requiring postprocedural LP to monitor intracranial pressure to determine candidacy for further surgical interventions to treat residual symptoms. The mean duration of follow-up was 194.2 days. CONCLUSIONS Transverse sinus stenting is a rapidly developing technique that has shown good effectiveness and safety in the literature. Authors of the present study found that stenting a flow-obstructed transverse sinus in patients with IIH was a safe and effective way to treat the condition.


Assuntos
Pseudotumor Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pseudotumor Cerebral/cirurgia , Stents , Seios Transversos/diagnóstico por imagem , Seios Transversos/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Vasc Interv Neurol ; 10(1): 39-44, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29922404

RESUMO

Background and Purpose: Traditional methods of computed tomographic angiography (CTA) can be unreliable in detecting carotid artery pseudo-occlusions or in accurately locating the site of carotid artery occlusion. With these methods, lack of adequate distal runoff due to pseudo-occlusion or intracranial occlusion can result in the inaccurate diagnoses of complete occlusion or cervical carotid occlusion, respectively. The site of carotid occlusion has important therapeutic and interventional considerations. We present several cases in which 4D CTA was utilized to accurately and noninvasively diagnose carotid pseudo-occlusion and intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. Methods: We identified five patients who presented to our institute with ischemic stroke symptoms and evaluated images from traditional CTA protocols and 4D CTA protocols in each of these patients, comparing diagnoses rendered by each imaging technique. Results: In two patients, traditional CTA suggested the presence of complete ICA occlusion. However, 4D CTA demonstrated pseudo-occlusion. Similarly, in three patients, traditional CTA demonstrated cervical ICA occlusion, whereas the 4D CTA demonstrated intracranial ICA occlusion. Conclusion: 4D CTA may be a more effective noninvasive imaging technique than traditional CTA to detect intracranial carotid artery occlusions and carotid artery pseudo-occlusions. Accurate, rapid, and noninvasive diagnosis of carotid artery lesions may help tailor and expedite endovascular intervention.

20.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 10(11): 1079-1084, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29511114

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Effective triage of patients with emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO) to endovascular therapy capable centers may decrease time to treatment and improve outcome for these patients. Here we performed a derivation study to evaluate the accuracy of a portable, non-invasive, and easy to use severe stroke detector. METHODS: The volumetric impedance phase shift spectroscopy (VIPS) device was used to assign a bioimpedance asymmetry score to 248 subjects across three cohorts, including 41 subjects presenting as acute stroke codes at a major comprehensive stroke center (CSC), 79 healthy volunteers, and 128 patients presenting to CSCs with a wide variety of brain pathology including additional stroke codes. Diagnostic parameters were calculated for the ability of the device to discern (1) severe stroke from minor stroke and (2) severe stroke from all other subjects. Patients with intracranial hardware were excluded from the analysis. RESULTS: The VIPS device was able to differentiate severe stroke from minor strokes with a sensitivity of 93% (95% CI 83 to 98), specificity of 92% (95% CI 75 to 99), and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.93 (95% CI 0.85 to 0.97). The device was able to differentiate severe stroke from all other subjects with a sensitivity of 93% (95% CI 83 to 98), specificity of 87% (95% CI 81 to 92), and an AUC of 0.95 (95% CI 0.89 to 0.96). CONCLUSION: The VIPS device is a portable, non-invasive, and easy to use tool that may aid in the detection of severe stroke, including ELVO, with a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 92% in this derivation study. This device has the potential to improve the triage of patients suffering severe stroke.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Espectroscopia Dielétrica/instrumentação , Espectroscopia Dielétrica/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/cirurgia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/cirurgia , Trombectomia/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Triagem/métodos
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