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1.
Ecol Evol ; 8(4): 1954-1965, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29468015

RESUMO

The importance and prevalence of phylogenetic tracking between hosts and dependent organisms caused by co-evolution and shifting between closely related host species have been debated for decades. Most studies of phylogenetic tracking among phytophagous insects and their host plants have been limited to insects feeding on a narrow range of host species. However, narrow host ranges can confound phylogenetic tracking (phylogenetic tracking hypothesis) with host shifting between hosts of intermediate relationship (intermediate hypothesis). Here, we investigated the evolutionary history of the Enchenopa binotata complex of treehoppers. Each species in this complex has high host fidelity, but the entire complex uses hosts across eight plant orders. The phylogenies of E. binotata were reconstructed to evaluate whether (1) tracking host phylogeny; or (2) shifting between intermediately related host plants better explains the evolutionary history of E. binotata. Our results suggest that E. binotata primarily shifted between both distant and intermediate host plants regardless of host phylogeny and less frequently tracked the phylogeny of their hosts. These findings indicate that phytophagous insects with high host fidelity, such as E. binotata, are capable of adaptation not only to closely related host plants but also to novel hosts, likely with diverse phenology and defense mechanisms.

2.
ACS Nano ; 6(10): 8887-95, 2012 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22947081

RESUMO

Core-shell nanowires (NWs) composed of silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) are key structures for realizing high mobility transistor channels, since the site-selective doping and band-offset in core-shell NWs separate the carrier transport region from the impurity doped region, resulting in the suppression of impurity scattering. Four different types of Si/Ge (i-Si/n-Ge, p-Si/i-Ge) and Ge/Si (n-Ge/i-Si, i-Ge/p-Si) core-shell NWs structures were rationally grown. The surface morphology significantly depended on the types of the core-shell NWs. Raman and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements clearly characterized the compressive and tensile stress in the core and shell regions. The observation of boron (B) and phosphorus (P) local vibrational peaks and the Fano effect clearly demonstrated that the B and P atoms are selectively doped into the shell and core regions and electrically activated in the substitutional sites, showing the success of site-selective doping.


Assuntos
Cristalização/métodos , Germânio/química , Nanotubos/química , Nanotubos/ultraestrutura , Silício/química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Teste de Materiais , Conformação Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Estresse Mecânico , Propriedades de Superfície
3.
Nano Lett ; 12(2): 576-81, 2012 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22214217

RESUMO

It is known that bulk ZnO is a nonmagnetic material. However, the electronic band structure of ZnO is severely distorted when the ZnO is in the shape of a very thin plate with its dimension along the c-axis reduced to a few nanometers while keeping the bulk scale sizes in the other two dimensions. We found that the chemically synthesized ZnO nanoplates exhibit magnetism even at room temperature. First-principles calculations show a growing asymmetry in the spin distribution within the distorted bands formed from Zn (3d) and O (2p) orbitals with the reduction of thickness of the ZnO nanoplates, which is suggested to be responsible for the observed magnetism. In contrast, reducing the dimension along the a- or b-axes of a ZnO crystal does not yield any magnetism for ZnO nanowires that grow along c-axis, suggesting that the internal electric field produced by the large {0001} polar surfaces of the nanoplates may be responsible for the distorted electronic band structures of thin ZnO nanoplates.


Assuntos
Magnetismo , Nanoestruturas/química , Óxido de Zinco/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
4.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 12(11): 8554-60, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23421243

RESUMO

The effects of surface relaxation in the powder diffraction pattern from metal nanoparticles are discussed. Molecular dynamics simulations are carried out to simulate the structure of a series of free-standing Al and Cu nanoparticles of different sizes and stabilization temperatures. The diffraction patterns found from considering the average atomic positions are then modeled, assuming different forms for the effects of the surface strain field. The modeling finds that the strain field in the simulated Al particles does not result in an appreciable effect on the peak broadening. However, that of the Cu particles results in anisotropic peak broadening, which is not able to be properly accounted for by the existing isotropic surface strain models.


Assuntos
Módulo de Elasticidade , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Moleculares , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Simulação por Computador , Tamanho da Partícula , Estresse Mecânico
5.
Nanotechnology ; 22(47): 475401, 2011 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22048156

RESUMO

GaN nanowires (NWs) were synthesized through a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process. Based on structural analysis, the c-axis of the NW was confirmed to be perpendicular to the growth direction. Nanogenerators (NGs) fabricated by rational assembly of the GaN NWs produced an output voltage up to 1.2 V and output current density of 0.16 µA cm⁻². The measured performance of the GaN NGs was consistent with the calculations using finite element analysis (FEA).

7.
Nano Lett ; 11(6): 2572-7, 2011 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21604749

RESUMO

We demonstrate the first self-powered system driven by a nanogenerator (NG) that works wirelessly and independently for long-distance data transmission. The NG was made of a free cantilever beam that consisted of a five-layer structure: a flexible polymer substrate, ZnO nanowire textured films on its top and bottom surfaces, and electrodes on the surfaces. When it was strained to 0.12% at a strain rate of 3.56% S(-1), the measured output voltage reached 10 V, and the output current exceeded 0.6 µA (corresponding power density 10 mW/cm(3)). A system was built up by integrating a NG, rectification circuit, capacitor for energy storage, sensor, and RF data transmitter. Wireless signals sent out by the system were detected by a commercial radio at a distance of 5-10 m. This study proves the feasibility of using ZnO nanowire NGs for building self-powered systems, and its potential application in wireless biosensing, environmental/infrastructure monitoring, sensor networks, personal electronics, and even national security.


Assuntos
Nanotecnologia/instrumentação , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Nanofios/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Polímeros/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Óxido de Zinco/química
8.
Acta Crystallogr A ; 67(Pt 3): 252-63, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21487183

RESUMO

The effects that planar faults have on the powder diffraction peak profiles of a face-centered cubic (f.c.c.) material are studied considering the case of small crystallites. In doing so a new method to calculate the planar probability correlation function of a faulted crystallite is presented which considers the finite extent of the planar sequence. The resulting correlation function is demonstrated to be dependent on the position of a fault in a crystallite through its proximity to a crystallite boundary. The average correlation function found considering equal probability of a fault existing on each plane in a crystallite is compared with that found by solving a system of recursion relations. The broadened subcomponents of the f.c.c. powder profiles are shown to be related to the correlation function through a general Fourier series expression. This expression is then used to simulate peak profiles from the developed model, and then compare them with those predicted by the recursion relation treatment.

9.
ACS Nano ; 4(7): 3807-16, 2010 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20565120

RESUMO

Impurity doping is the most important technique to functionalize semiconductor nanowires. The crucial point is how the states of impurity atoms can be detected. The chemical bonding states and electrical activity of boron (B) and phosphorus (P) atoms in germanium nanowires (GeNWs) are clarified by micro-Raman scattering measurements. The observation of B and P local vibrational peaks and the Fano effect clearly demonstrate that the B and P atoms are doped into the crystalline Ge region of GeNWs and electrically activated in the substitutional sites, resulting in the formation of p-type and n-type GeNWs. This method can be a useful technique for the characterization of semiconductor nanowire devices. The B-doped GeNWs showed an increasingly tapered structure with increasing B concentration. To avoid tapering and gain a uniform diameter along the growth direction of the GeNWs, a three step process was found to be useful, namely growth of GeNWs followed by the deposition of an amorphous Ge layer with high B concentration and then annealing.

10.
ACS Nano ; 4(7): 4220-4, 2010 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20521769

RESUMO

Using a metal-semiconductor-metal back-to-back Schottky contacted ZnO microwire device, we have demonstrated the piezoelectric effect on the output of a photocell. An externally applied strain produces a piezopotential in the microwire, which tunes the effective height of the Schottky barrier (SB) at the local contact, consequently changing the transport characteristics of the device. An equivalent circuit model together with the thermionic emission theory has explained the four kinds of relationships observed between the photocurrent and the applied strain. Our study shows the possibility of maximizing the output of a photocell by controlling strain in the device.

11.
ACS Nano ; 4(2): 1234-40, 2010 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20078071

RESUMO

The localized coupling between piezoelectric and photoexcitation effects of a ZnO micro/nanowire device has been studied for the first time with the goal of designing and controlling the electrical transport characteristics of the device. The piezoelectric effect tends to raise the height of the local Schottky barrier (SB) at the metal-ZnO contact, while photoexcitation using a light that has energy higher than the band gap of ZnO lowers the SB height. By tuning the relative contributions of the effects from piezoelectricity via strain and photoexcitation via light intensity, the local contact can be tuned step-by-step and/or transformed from Schottky to Ohmic or from Ohmic to Schottky. This study describes a new principle for controlling the coupling among mechanical, photonic, and electrical properties of ZnO nanowires, which could be potentially useful for fabricating piezo-phototronic devices.

12.
PLoS One ; 4(9): e7203, 2009 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19779617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The katydid genus Neoconocephalus (25+ species) has a prominent acoustic communication system and occurs in large parts of the Neotropics and Nearctic. This group has been subject of numerous behavioral, physiological, and evolutionary studies of its acoustic communication system. Two distinct life histories occur in this group: The tropical life history incorporates multiple generations/year and direct egg development without environmental triggers. Temperate life history is characterized by overwintering in the egg stage, cold trigger of egg development, and one generation/year. This study reconstructs the phylogenetic relationships within the genus to (1) determine the evolutionary history of the temperate life history, and (2) to support comparative studies of evolutionary and physiological problems in this genus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP), and sequences of two nuclear loci and one mitochondrial locus to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships. The analysis included 17 ingroup and two outgroup species. AFLP and mitochondrial data provided resolution at the species level while the two nuclear loci revealed only deeper nodes. The data sets were combined in a super-matrix to estimate a total evidence tree. Seven of the temperate species form a monophyletic group; however, three more temperate species were placed as siblings of tropical species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analyses support the reliability of the current taxonomic treatment of the Neoconocephalus fauna of Caribbean, Central, and North America. Ancestral state reconstruction of life history traits was not conclusive, however at least four transitions between life histories occurred among our sample of species. The proposed phylogeny will strengthen conclusions from comparative work in this group.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Temperatura Baixa , Ortópteros/genética , Acústica , Animais , Comunicação , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Geografia , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Filogenia , Polimorfismo Genético , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Nanotechnology ; 20(8): 085609, 2009 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19417457

RESUMO

Texture-controlled growth of ZnO films on substrates of general materials at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition was demonstrated. The texture of the film changed progressively from (001) to (110) to (100) as the laser fluence increased from 2 J cm(-2) up to 45 J cm(-2). Application of the textured films on Si wafers as seed layers for growing aligned ZnO nanowire arrays (grown along the c-axis) with controlled orientation relative to the substrate surface was demonstrated. The individual nanowire forms an epitaxial orientation relationship with the orientation of the grain that nucleated it; therefore the long axis of the nanowire aligns in conformity with the texture of the seed layer.


Assuntos
Cristalização/métodos , Membranas Artificiais , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Óxido de Zinco/química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Teste de Materiais , Conformação Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície , Temperatura Ambiente
14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 130(45): 14958-9, 2008 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18921981

RESUMO

We report an approach for growing aligned ZnO nanowire arrays with a high degree control over size, orientation, dimensionality, uniformity, and possibly shape. Our method combines e-beam lithography and a low temperature hydrothermal method to achieve patterned and aligned growth of ZnO NWs at <100degreesC on general inorganic substrates, such as Si and GaN, without using catalyst. This approach opens up the possibility of applying ZnO nanowires as sensor arrays, piezoelectric antenna arrays, two-dimensional photonic crystals, IC interconnects, and nanogenerators.


Assuntos
Gálio/química , Nanofios/química , Silício/química , Óxido de Zinco/química , Catálise , Temperatura Baixa , Cristalização , Polimetil Metacrilato/química , Difração de Raios X
15.
Nanotechnology ; 19(44): 445708, 2008 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21832750

RESUMO

For the first time, the growth of ZnO nanobelts was monitored in situ using x-ray diffraction. The growth was carried out by heating metallic zinc powder in air at temperatures ranging from 368 to 568 °C. The morphology depends on both the growth temperature and the rate of heating to that temperature. A morphology diagram for the synthesized products was generated after systematic study of the experimental parameters. Higher temperatures and faster heating rates favor one-dimensional growth. Faster growth was observed for samples with higher growth temperatures, lower heating rates, and one-dimensional growth. These results give insight into the mechanism for the growth of ZnO nanobelts by metal oxidation.

16.
Evolution ; 62(1): 12-20, 2008 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18005157

RESUMO

Divergence between populations adapting to different environments may be facilitated when the populations differ in their sexual traits. We tested whether colonizing a novel environment may, through phenotypic plasticity, change sexual traits in a way that could alter the dynamics of sexual selection. This hypothesis has two components: changes in mean phenotypes across environments, and changes in the genetic background of the phenotypes that are produced -- or genotype x environment interaction (G x E). We simulated colonization of a novel environment and tested its effect on the mating signals of a member of the Enchenopa binotata species complex of treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae), a clade that has diverged in a process involving host plant shifts and signal diversification. We found substantial genetic variation and G x E in most signal traits measured, with little or no change in mean signal phenotypes. We suggest that the expression of extant genetic variation across old and novel environments can initiate signal divergence.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Evolução Biológica , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Rutaceae/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Hemípteros/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Masculino
17.
J Phys Chem B ; 110(43): 21672-9, 2006 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17064124

RESUMO

We report here a systematic synthesis and characterization of aligned alpha-Fe2O3 (hematite), epsilon-Fe2O3, and Fe3O4 (magnetite) nanorods, nanobelts, and nanowires on alumina substrates using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. The presence of spherical gold catalyst particles at the tips of the nanostructures indicates selective growth via the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. Through a series of experiments, we have produced a primitive "phase diagram" for growing these structures based on several designed pressure and temperature parameters. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis has shown that the rods, wires, and belts are single-crystalline and grow along <111>m or <110>h directions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements confirm phase and structural analysis. Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurements show that the iron oxide structures exhibit interesting magnetic behavior, particularly at room temperature. This work is the first known report of magnetite 1D nanostructure growth via the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism without using a template, as well as the first known synthesis of long epsilon-Fe2O3 nanobelts and nanowires.

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