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1.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 115, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Road traffic noise has been linked to increased risk of ischemic heart disease, yet evidence on stroke shows mixed results. We examine the association between long-term exposure to road traffic noise and incidence of stroke, overall and by subtype (ischemic or hemorrhagic), after adjustment for air pollution. METHODS: Twenty-five thousand six hundred and sixty female nurses from the Danish Nurse Cohort recruited in 1993 or 1999 were followed for stroke-related first-ever hospital contact until December 31st, 2014. Full residential address histories since 1970 were obtained and annual means of road traffic noise (Lden [dB]) and air pollutants (particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 µm and < 10 µm [PM2.5 and PM10], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], nitrogen oxides [NOx]) were determined using validated models. Time-varying Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) (95% confidence intervals [CI]) for the associations of one-, three-, and 23-year running means of Lden preceding stroke (all, ischemic or hemorrhagic), adjusting for stroke risk factors and air pollutants. The World Health Organization and the Danish government's maximum exposure recommendations of 53 and 58 dB, respectively, were explored as potential Lden thresholds. RESULTS: Of 25,660 nurses, 1237 developed their first stroke (1089 ischemic, 148 hemorrhagic) during 16 years mean follow-up. For associations between a 1-year mean of Lden and overall stroke incidence, the estimated HR (95% CI) in the fully adjusted model was 1.06 (0.98-1.14) per 10 dB, which attenuated to 1.01 (0.93-1.09) and 1.00 (0.91-1.09) in models further adjusted for PM2.5 or NO2, respectively. Associations for other exposure periods or separately for ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke were similar. There was no evidence of a threshold association between Lden and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to road traffic noise was suggestively positively associated with the risk of overall stroke, although not after adjusting for air pollution.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(20): e021436, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612059

RESUMO

Background We examined the association of long-term exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise with incident heart failure (HF). Methods And Results Using data on female nurses from the Danish Nurse Cohort (aged >44 years), we investigated associations between 3-year mean exposures to air pollution and road traffic noise and incident HF using Cox regression models, adjusting for relevant confounders. Incidence of HF was defined as the first hospital contact (inpatient, outpatient, or emergency) between cohort baseline (1993 or 1999) and December 31, 2014, based on the Danish National Patient Register. Annual mean levels of particulate matter with a diameter <2.5 µm since 1990 and NO2 and road traffic noise since 1970 were estimated at participants' residences. Of the 22 189 nurses, 484 developed HF. We detected associations with all 3 pollutants, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.17 (95% CI, 1.01-1.36), 1.10 (95% CI, 0.99-1.22), and 1.12 (95% CI, 0.99-1.26) per increase of 5.1 µg/m3 in particulate matter with a diameter <2.5 µm, 8.6 µg/m3 in NO2, and 9.3 dB in road traffic noise, respectively. We observed an enhanced risk of HF incidence for those exposed to high levels of the 3 pollutants; however, the effect modification of coexposure was not statistically significant. Former smokers and nurses with hypertension showed the strongest associations with particulate matter with a diameter <2.5 µm (Peffect modification<0.05). Conclusions We found that long-term exposures to air pollution and road traffic noise were independently associated with HF.

3.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(8): 87002, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise have been established for ischemic heart disease, but findings have been mixed for atrial fibrillation (AF). OBJECTIVES: The goal of the study was to examine associations of long-term exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution with AF. METHODS: Time-varying Cox regression models were used to estimate associations of 1-, 3-, and 23-y mean road traffic noise and air pollution exposures with AF incidence in 23,528 women enrolled in the Danish Nurse Cohort (age >44y at baseline in 1993 or 1999). AF diagnoses were ascertained via the Danish National Patient Register. Annual mean weighted 24-h average road traffic noise levels (Lden) at the nurses' residences, since 1970, were estimated using the Nord2000 model, and annual mean levels of particulate matter with a diameter <2.5µm (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were estimated using the DEHM/UBM/AirGIS model. RESULTS: Of 23,528 nurses with no prior AF diagnosis at the cohort baseline, 1,522 developed AF during follow-up. In a fully adjusted model (including PM2.5), the estimated risk of AF was 18% higher [hazard ratio (HR); 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18; 1.02, 1.36] in nurses with residential 3-y mean Lden levels >58 dB vs. <48 dB, with similar findings for 1-y mean exposures. A 3.9-µg/m3 increase in 3-y mean PM2.5 was associated with incident AF before and after adjustment for concurrent exposure to road traffic noise (HR 1.09; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.20 and 1.08; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.19, respectively). Associations with 1-y mean PM2.5 exposures were positive but closer to the null and not significant. Associations with NO2 were null for all time periods before and after adjustment for road traffic noise and inverse when adjusted for concurrent PM2.5. CONCLUSION: Our analysis of prospective data from a cohort of Danish female nurses followed for up to 14 y provided suggestive evidence of independent associations between incident AF and 1- and 3-y exposures to road traffic noise and PM2.5. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8090.

4.
J Sleep Res ; : e13449, 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309947

RESUMO

The daily rest period (DRP) is the daily inter-work interval and can include a sleep opportunity, leisure time, and other non-work time. A longer DRP may allow workers to increase time in bed (TIB) and adjust sleep timing, and that may reduce sleep problems such as short sleep duration, sleep debt, social jetlag, and poor sleep quality. The present study examined the longitudinal association between the DRP and these sleep problems among Japanese daytime workers. The DRP, TIB on workdays, sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]), sleep debt and social jetlag were measured in November 2016 (n = 10,000) and February 2019 (n = 3,098). Of these, 955 permanent daytime workers were divided into five groups based on the change in the DRP duration: shortened ≥2 hr, shortened ≥1 hr, no change (<1 hr), extended ≥1 hr and extended ≥2 hr. Linear mixed-model analysis revealed significant interaction (group × time) effects on the TIB, PSQI score and sleep debt (all p < 0.001), but not on social jetlag (p = 0.476). Post hoc comparisons revealed that the TIB was decreased, and the sleep debt was increased in the shortened ≥2 hr group, whereas the TIB was increased and PSQI score was improved in the extended ≥2 hr group (all p < 0.01). These findings suggest that an extension of the DRP improves sleep quantity and quality but not sleep debt and social jetlag. Aside from extending the DRP, ensuring a sufficient sleep duration and adjusting sleep timing during the DRP may also be needed to prevent sleep problems.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 149(11): 1887-1897, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278567

RESUMO

Particulate matter air pollution and diesel engine exhaust have been classified as carcinogenic for lung cancer, yet few studies have explored associations with liver cancer. We used six European adult cohorts which were recruited between 1985 and 2005, pooled within the "Effects of low-level air pollution: A study in Europe" (ELAPSE) project, and followed for the incidence of liver cancer until 2011 to 2015. The annual average exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), particulate matter with diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5 ), black carbon (BC), warm-season ozone (O3 ), and eight elemental components of PM2.5 (copper, iron, zinc, sulfur, nickel, vanadium, silicon, and potassium) were estimated by European-wide hybrid land-use regression models at participants' residential addresses. We analyzed the association between air pollution and liver cancer incidence by Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for potential confounders. Of 330 064 cancer-free adults at baseline, 512 developed liver cancer during a mean follow-up of 18.1 years. We observed positive linear associations between NO2 (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.02-1.35 per 10 µg/m3 ), PM2.5 (1.12, 0.92-1.36 per 5 µg/m3 ), and BC (1.15, 1.00-1.33 per 0.5 10-5 /m) and liver cancer incidence. Associations with NO2 and BC persisted in two-pollutant models with PM2.5 . Most components of PM2.5 were associated with the risk of liver cancer, with the strongest associations for sulfur and vanadium, which were robust to adjustment for PM2.5 or NO2 . Our study suggests that ambient air pollution may increase the risk of liver cancer, even at concentrations below current EU standards.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
6.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While air pollution has been linked to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), evidence on the role of environmental noise is just emerging. We examined the associations of long-term exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise with COPD incidence. METHODS: We defined COPD incidence for 24 538 female nurses from the Danish Nurse Cohort (age>44 years) as the first hospital contact between baseline (1993 or 1999) and 2015. We estimated residential annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with diameter<2.5 µm (PM2.5) since 1990 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) since 1970 by the Danish DEHM/UBM/AirGIS modeling system, and road traffic noise (Lden) since 1970 by the Nord2000 model. Time-varying Cox regression models were applied to assess the associations of air pollution and road traffic noise with COPD incidence. RESULTS: 977 nurses developed COPD during 18.6 years' mean follow-up. We observed associations with COPD for all three exposures with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of 1.19 (1.01, 1.41) per 6.26 µg·m-3 for PM2.5, 1.13 (1.05, 1.20) per 8.19 µg·m-3 for NO2, and 1.15 (1.06, 1.25) per 10 dB for Lden. Associations with NO2 and Lden attenuated slightly after mutual adjustment, but were robust to adjustment for PM2.5. Associations with PM2.5 were attenuated to null after adjustment for either NO2 or Lden. No potential interaction effect was observed between air pollutants and noise. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to air pollution, especially traffic-related NO2, and road traffic noise were independently associated with COPD.

7.
Environ Epidemiol ; 5(3): e148, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33912785

RESUMO

Background: Evidence of nonauditory health effects of road traffic noise exposure is growing. This prospective cohort study aimed to estimate the association between long-term exposure to road traffic noise above a threshold and incident myocardial infarction (MI) in Denmark. Methods: In the Danish Nurse Cohort study, we used data of 22,378 women, at recruitment in 1993 and 1999, who reported information on MI risk factors. The participants' first hospital contact or out-of-hospital death due to MI were followed-up until 2014. We investigated a relationship between residential exposures to road traffic noise levels (Lden) up to 23 years and incident MI (overall, nonfatal, and fatal) using time-varying Cox regression models adjusting for potential confounders and air pollutants. We estimated thresholds of road traffic noise (53, 56, and 58 dB) associated with incident MI in a piece-wise linear regression model. Results: Of the 22,378 participants, 633 developed MI, 502 of which were nonfatal. We observed a non-linear relationship between the 23-year running mean of Lden and incident MI with a threshold level of 56 dB, above which hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.30 (0.97, 1.75) for overall and 1.46 (1.05, 2.03) for nonfatal MI per 10 dB. The association with nonfatal MI attenuated slightly to 1.34 (0.95, 1.90) after adjustment for fine particles. Conclusions: We found that long-term exposure to road traffic noise above 56 dB may increase the risk of MI. The study findings suggest that road traffic noise above 56 dB may need regulation in addition to the regulation of ambient pollutants.

8.
Toxicol Res ; 37(2): 261-275, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33868982

RESUMO

N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (acetaminophen, APAP) is a well-known component of analgesic and antipyretic monotherapy products. However, exceeding the recommended dose can lead to serious injury to the liver. We conducted this study to determine the potential of Centella asiatica as a natural substance to protect against APAP-induced liver injury. When acute hepatotoxicity was induced in mice by APAP overdose, their liver weight decreased significantly (p < 0.05). However, mice treated with C. asiatica 50% ethanol extract (CA-HE50, 200 mg/kg) for a week before induction of hepatotoxicity by APAP had similar liver weights to those of mice in which hepatotoxicity was not induced. In particular, levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase, which are biomarkers of liver injury, were significantly increased by APAP and dose-dependently decreased by CA-HE50 (p < 0.05). Glutathione and malondialdehyde, indicators of oxidative stress, were significantly changed by APAP and CA-HE50 (p < 0.05). In addition, hepatic necrosis and expression of genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1ß, and IL-4) induced by APAP were inhibited by CA-HE50, and these results were dose-dependent. Through our in vivo studies, we found that CA-HE50 can help prevent APAP-induced hepatic tissue injury in BALB/c mice. Furthermore, CA-HE50 was effective at protecting RAW 264.7 cells from lipopolysaccharide-induced cytotoxicity and inhibiting the release of nitric oxide from these cells; in particular, asiaticoside was found to be a key component of CA-HE50 responsible for these effects. Therefore, we suggest that CA-HE50 has potential applications in functional health foods and drugs.

9.
J Phys Ther Sci ; 33(2): 137-141, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33642688

RESUMO

[Purpose] To determine the potential factors for difference in metabolic profiles between metabolically healthy obesity and metabolically unhealthy obesity, we investigated the difference in abdominal fat volume, metabolic characteristics, and physical activity levels between metabolically healthy obesity and metabolically unhealthy obesity identified with cardiovascular disease risk factors in Japanese males. [Participants and Methods] Of 305 volunteers recruited, 130 obese males (age: 46.9 ± 8.9 years; body mass index: 29.6 ± 3.5 kg/m2) met the criteria for the study. They were divided into two groups; metabolically healthy obesity and metabolically unhealthy obesity according to cardiovascular disease risk factors including low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Abdominal fat volumes were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and metabolic characteristics were evaluated by blood pressure and blood parameters. Physical activity levels were measured using an accelerometer. [Results] Despite the fact that metabolically healthy obesity had a more favorable metabolic profile than the metabolically unhealthy obesity, no significant differences in visceral and subcutaneous fat volumes were found between the two groups. Moreover, the metabolically healthy obesity had a significantly greater physical activity expenditure and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity level than the metabolically unhealthy obesity. [Conclusion] A more favorable metabolic profile in metabolically healthy obesity may be associated with physical activity level rather than abdominal fat volumes in Japanese males.

10.
Environ Int ; 152: 106464, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution is likely a risk factor for asthma, and recent evidence suggests the possible relevance of road traffic noise. OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations of long-term exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise with adult-asthma incidence. METHODS: We followed 28,731 female nurses (age > 44 years) from the Danish Nurse Cohort, recruited in 1993 and 1999, for first hospital contact for asthma from 1977 until 2015. We estimated residential annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5) since 1990 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) since 1970 with the Danish DEHM/UBM/AirGIS modeling system, and road traffic noise (Lden) since 1970 with the Nord2000 model. Time-varying Cox regression models were used to associate air pollution and road traffic noise exposure with asthma incidence. RESULTS: During 18.6 years' mean follow-up, 528 out of 23,093 participants had hospital contact for asthma. The hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for asthma incidence associated with 3-year moving average exposures were 1.29 (1.03, 1.61) per 6.3 µg/m3 for PM2.5, 1.16 (1.07, 1.27) per 8.2 µg/m3 for NO2, and 1.12 (1.00, 1.25) per 10 dB for Lden. The HR for NO2 remained unchanged after adjustment for either PM2.5 or Lden, while the HRs for PM2.5 and Lden attenuated to unity after adjustment for NO2. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to air pollution was associated with adult-asthma incidence independently of road traffic noise, with NO2 most relevant. Road traffic noise was not independently associated with adult-asthma incidence.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Ruído dos Transportes , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
11.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12187, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528871

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This survey aims to investigate consciousness regarding habitual exercise among workers in urban areas and to analyze the associations of workers' socioeconomic status with their habitual exercise and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). METHODS: Ten thousand participants, who worked in the Tokyo area of Japan, were recruited for the questionnaire-based survey. The questionnaire elicited participant's characteristics, socioeconomic status (eg, employment status and annual income), habitual exercise status, and consciousness regarding exercising. After the data-cleaning procedure, 9406 participants were selected for analyses. CRF was estimated by a validated equation model. RESULTS: Some (32.9%) participants had an exercise habit, and 93% recognized that exercise is good for health. Of the nonexercise habit group (n = 6308), 73% wanted to develop an exercise habit, and "spare time (40%)" and "financial capability (16%)" were the two most necessary conditions for habituating exercise. As socioeconomic statuses increased, the odds ratios (ORs) for engaging in habitual exercise increased among full-time (1.22) versus part-time (reference) employees and those having high (1.76) versus low (reference) incomes, whereas the ORs for low CRF risk decreased among full-time (0.78) versus part-time (reference) employees and those having high (0.53) versus low (reference) incomes. CONCLUSIONS: Although most workers recognized the benefits of exercise, many were unable to develop exercise habits and believed that they could develop exercise habits if they had the time and financial capabilities. The survey suggests that workers with a higher socioeconomic status more likely to obtain favorable physical fitness, indicating a health disparity among workers in urban areas.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tóquio
12.
Behav Sleep Med ; 19(1): 99-109, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969021

RESUMO

Objectives: The work interval duration between the end of one workday and the start of the following workday is referred to as the daily rest period (DRP). The present study examined whether DRP - a proxy for sleep opportunity between work shifts - is associated with indicators of sleep debt and social jetlag among daytime workers. Methods: We used a web-based survey to gather data on demographics, average DRP in the previous month, time in bed (TIB), bedtime, wake-up time, and sleep timing on workdays and non-workdays. The Japanese daytime workers (n = 3,914) were divided into seven DRP groups (hours) as follows: <11, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, and ≥16. Results: The two-way analyses of covariance (DRP group x day) for TIB, mid-sleep as sleep timing, bedtime, and wake-up time showed significant interactions (all p < .001). Specifically, TIB was significantly shorter, and mid-sleep and wake-up time were significantly earlier on workdays than on non-workdays, across all DRP groups (all p < .001). Additionally, the different values for TIB (sleep debt), sleep timing (social jetlag), bedtime, and wake-up time were calculated by subtracting workdays from non-workdays. The trend analysis showed that workers with longer DRP (sleep opportunity) had smaller differences in TIB, sleep timing, and wake-up time between workdays and non-workdays (all p < .001). Conclusions: Overall, daytime workers reported significant sleep debt and misalignment between work and free sleep-wake periods. However, workers with shorter DRPs (less sleep opportunity between shifts) reported significantly greater amounts of sleep debt and social jetlag than did workers with longer DRPs.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Jet Lag/complicações , Privação do Sono/complicações , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Adulto , Ritmo Circadiano , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Environ Int ; 143: 105983, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between air pollution and mortality is well established, yet some uncertainties remain: there are few studies that account for road traffic noise exposure or that consider in detail the shape of the exposure-response function for cause-specific mortality outcomes, especially at low-levels of exposure. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between long-term exposure to particulate matter [(PM) with a diameter of <2.5 µm (PM2.5), <10 µm (PM10)], and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and total and cause-specific mortality, accounting for road traffic noise. METHODS: We used data on 24,541 females (age > 44 years) from the Danish Nurse Cohort, who were recruited in 1993 or 1999, and linked to the Danish Causes of Death Register for follow-up on date of death and its cause, until the end of 2013. Annual mean concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 at the participants' residences since 1990 were estimated using the Danish DEHM/UBM/AirGIS dispersion model, and annual mean road traffic noise levels (Lden) were estimated using the Nord2000 model. We examined associations between the three-year running mean of PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 with total and cause-specific mortality by using time-varying Cox Regression models, adjusting for individual characteristics and residential road traffic noise. RESULTS: During the study period, 3,708 nurses died: 843 from cardiovascular disease (CVD), 310 from respiratory disease (RD), and 64 from diabetes. In the fully adjusted models, including road traffic noise, we detected associations of three-year running mean of PM2.5 with total (hazard ratio; 95% confidence interval: 1.06; 1.01-1.11), CVD (1.14; 1.03-1.26), and diabetes mortality (1.41; 1.05-1.90), per interquartile range of 4.39 µg/m3. In a subset of the cohort exposed to PM2.5 < 20 µg/m3, we found even stronger association with total (1.19; 1.11-1.27), CVD (1.27; 1.01-1.46), RD (1.27; 1.00-1.60), and diabetes mortality (1.44; 0.83-2.48). We found similar associations with PM10 and none with NO2. All associations were robust to adjustment for road traffic noise. DISCUSSION: Long-term exposure to low-levels of PM2.5 and PM10 is associated with total mortality, and mortality from CVD, RD, and diabetes. Associations were even stronger at the PM2.5 levels below EU limit values and were independent of road traffic noise.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ruído dos Transportes , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
14.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 120(11): 2445-2454, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812102

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Step test protocols are typically based on the heart rate (HR) measured either during exercise or during recovery. This study developed a new step test protocol to estimate maximal oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) based on HRs measured during and after exercise, assessed the criterion validity of the model, and evaluated the protocol's test-retest reliability. METHODS: The protocol estimates [Formula: see text] from HR measurements made once a minute during 3 min of step exercise and 2 min of recovery. The model was derived using a group of 118 working adults and cross-validated using a second group of 74 working adults. Furthermore, [Formula: see text] was measured using a conventional treadmill test. While multiple regression analyses were used to develop prediction equations for [Formula: see text], intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to examine test-retest reliability. RESULTS: HRs during and after exercise significantly correlated with the measured [Formula: see text]. The highest correlation (r = - 0.61) was for an HR index that combined values of HRs during and after exercise. A model including age, sex, body mass index, and the HR index accounted for 60% of the variance in measured [Formula: see text] (standard error of the estimate, 4.05 mL kg-1 min-1 or 10.5%). Cross-validation analyses demonstrated good stability of the [Formula: see text] prediction models. The ICC for the HR index was 0.65 (0.53-0.74), indicating fair to good reliability. CONCLUSION: The HR index, based on a combination of HR measurements during and after stepping exercise, offers a validated [Formula: see text] estimation procedure suitable for use in the workplace.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Frequência Cardíaca , Consumo de Oxigênio , Local de Trabalho , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Teste de Esforço/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486232

RESUMO

The effects of domain-specific (i.e., occupational, leisure-time on workday, and holiday) sitting time (ST), and exercise on metabolic syndrome (MetS) development are insufficiently studied. The present study aimed to examine the single and combined effects of each domain-specific ST and exercise habits on MetS. The total and domain-specific STs of 5530 participants were collected using a validated questionnaire. The multiple logistic regression analyses determined the effects of each domain-specific ST and exercise habit on MetS. Of all participants, 7.8% had MetS. Odds ratios (ORs) for MetS were significant only in the group with the longest leisure-time ST on holidays (OR, 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.83); we found no significant associations with any other domain-specific ST after statistical adjustment for confounders. The no-habitual-exercise group clearly had a higher risk for MetS (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.15-1.80). The significantly higher ORs for MetS was shown in only the combined longer total ST (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.12-2.39) and holiday ST (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.30-2.59) with no habitual exercise. These findings suggested that accumulated daily total ST, particularly leisure-time ST on holidays with no-habitual exercise, can increase the risk of MetS and it could possibly be mitigated by habitual exercise.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Atividades de Lazer , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Postura Sentada , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário
16.
Nutr Res Pract ; 14(3): 203-217, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Centella asiatica, also known as Gotu kola, is a tropical medicinal plant native to Madagascar, Southeast Asia, and South Africa. It is well known to have biological activities, including wound healing, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, cytotoxic, and antioxidant effects. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of extracts of C. asiatica against age-related eye degeneration and to examine their physiological activities. MATERIALS/METHODS: To determine the effects of CA-HE50 (C. asiatica 50% EtOH extract) on retinal pigment cells, we assessed the cytotoxicity of CoCl2 and oxidized-A2E in ARPE-19 cells and observed the protective effects of CA-HE50 against N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced retinal damage in C57BL/6 mice. In particular, we measured factors related to apoptosis and anti-oxidation and the protein levels of rhodopsin/opsin. We also measured glucose uptake to characterize glucose metabolism, a major factor in cell protection. RESULTS: Induction of cytotoxicity with CoCl2 and oxidized-A2E inhibited decreases in the viability of ARPE-19 cells when CA-HE50 was administered, and promoted glucose uptake under normal conditions (P < 0.05). In addition, CA-HE50 inhibited degeneration/apoptosis of the retina in the context of MNU-induced toxicity (P < 0.05). In particular, CA-HE50 at 200 mg/kg inhibited the cleavage of pro-caspase-3 and pro-poly (ADP-ribose)-polymerase and maintained the expressions of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase-1 similar to normal control levels. Rhodopsin/opsin expression was maintained at a higher level than in normal controls. CONCLUSION: A series of experiments confirmed that CA-HE50 was effective for inhibiting or preventing age-related eye damage/degeneration. Based on these results, we believe it is worthwhile to develop drugs or functional foods related to age-related eye degeneration using CA-HE50.

17.
Nutrition ; 75-76: 110666, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279030

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Studies of the effectiveness of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) combined with calorie restriction (CR) are very limited, and the most effective order of intervention is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the impact of time-efficient HIIT with CR intervention on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the impact of the intervention order on changes in MetS risk factors. METHODS: Thirty-two participants with MetS underwent an 11-wk intervention program comprising 8 wk of HIIT and 3 wk of CR. Participants were randomly assigned to either the HIIT-then-CR or CR-then-HIIT groups. Thereafter, the CR-then-HIIT group performed a further 8 wk of training once per week after the initial intervention period. Risk factors for MetS and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) were assessed during the entire study period. RESULTS: During the 11-wk intervention period, body composition, MetS risk factors, and VO2peak significantly improved in both groups. No significant differences in these improvements were attributable to the intervention order; nonetheless, there was a tendency toward larger effect sizes in the CR-then-HIIT group. During the postintervention period (8 wk), a single weekly HIIT session prevented VO2peak reduction in the CR-then-HIIT group (-2.0 ± 7.2%; P = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: The time-efficient intervention program with HIIT and CR had a beneficial effect on MetS; however, the intervention order had no influence on the changes in risk factors.


Assuntos
Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Síndrome Metabólica , Composição Corporal , Restrição Calórica , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Fatores de Risco
18.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 22, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sedentary behavior (SB) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are important issues in occupational health. Developing a questionnaire to concurrently assess workers' SB and CRF could fundamentally improve epidemiological research. The Worker's Living Activity-time Questionnaire (WLAQ) was developed previously to assess workers' sitting time. WLAQ can be modified to evaluate workers' CRF if additional physical activity (PA) data such as PA frequency, duration, and intensity are collected. METHODS: A total of 198 working adults (93 women and 105 men; age, 30-60 years) completed anthropometric measurements, a treadmill exercise test for measuring maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), and modified WLAQ (m-WLAQ, which included questions about PA data additional to the original questions). Multiple regression analyses were performed to develop prediction equations for VO2max. The generated models were cross-validated using the predicted residual error sum of squares method. Among the participants, the data of 97 participants who completed m-WLAQ twice after a 1-week interval were used to calculate intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the test-retest reliability analyses. RESULTS: Age (r = - 0.29), sex (r = 0.48), body mass index (BMI, r = - 0.20), total sitting time (r = - 0.15), and PA score (total points for PA data, r = 0.47) were significantly correlated with VO2max. The models that included age, sex, and BMI accounted for 43% of the variance in measured VO2max [standard error of the estimate (SEE) = 5.04 ml·kg- 1·min- 1]. These percentages increased to 59% when the PA score was included in the models (SEE = 4.29 ml·kg- 1·min- 1). Cross-validation analyses demonstrated good stability of the VO2max prediction models, while systematic underestimation and overestimation of VO2max were observed in individuals with high and low fitness, respectively. The ICC of the PA score was 0.87 (0.82-0.91), indicating excellent reliability. CONCLUSIONS: The PA score obtained using m-WLAQ, rather than sitting time, correlated well with measured VO2max. The equation model that included the PA score as well as age, sex, and BMI had a favorable validity for estimating VO2max. Thus, m-WLAQ can be a useful questionnaire to concurrently assess workers' SB and CRF, which makes it a reasonable resource for future epidemiological surveys on occupational health.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Saúde do Trabalhador , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Phytomedicine ; 65: 153114, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adonis amurensis Regel & Radde, commonly found in East Asia, has been traditionally used to treat cardiac insufficiency and edema. Although this plant extract has been shown to regulate cell growth and neovascularization, the anti-cancer mechanism of A. amurensis has not been fully investigated. PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to examine the anti-cancer activity of A. amurensis and identify its underlying mechanism. METHODS: The growth of cancer cells was evaluated by MTT and hollow fiber assays. A cancer xenograft nude mouse model was used to assess the anti-cancer activities in vivo. Autophagic activity was measured by the detection of autophagosome formation and by performing a monodansylcadaverine (MDC) assay. RESULT: A. amurensis extract showed potent anti-cancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, the treatment of cancer cells with A. amurensis extract dramatically increased the formation of autophagosomes and was involved in the activation of multiple signaling components including AKT, ERK, and MAPK. Furthermore, we isolated an active ingredient, Multioside, which exhibited strong anti-cancer activity through autophagy. CONCLUSION: A. amurensis displays anti-cancer activity that is mediated by the activation of autophagy, suggesting that A. amurensis could be a useful therapeutic anti-cancer agent.


Assuntos
Adonis/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Autofagossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
Vasc Specialist Int ; 35(4): 193-201, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915663

RESUMO

Purpose: The prevalence and treatment patterns of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) vary according to ethnicity and region. This study analyzed nationwide data on the epidemiology, practice patterns, and mortality rates of AAA in Korea. Materials and Methods: Data from patients treated for AAA from 2012 to 2016 were extracted from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment (HIRA) database. Results: A total of 30,766 patients in Korea had treatment codes for AAA and 2,618 patients were treated for ruptured AAA. Of the 6,356 patients treated surgically, 1,849 and 4,507 underwent open surgical aneurysmal repairs (OSAR) or endovascular aneurysmal repairs (EVAR), respectively. The number of surgical treatments performed annually for AAA increased from 1,129 cases in 2012 to 1,501 cases in 2016. The number of EVAR cases increased from 753 to 1,109 during these five years, while the number of OSAR cases remained similar, at 376 and 392, respectively. The 30-day mortality rates after EVAR and OSAR were 4.2% and 10.6%, respectively. The mortality rates were significantly higher in patients with hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic renal disease, diabetes mellitus, and congestive heart failure. There were significant differences in the prevalence, proportion of EVAR, and mortality rates according to the regional area. Conclusion: The prevalence of AAA and the proportion of EVAR in Korea increased in the past 5 years, while the rupture rate and the proportion of OSAR remained similar. To minimize mortality and regional discrepancies, nationwide registry and treatment standardization are needed.

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