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1.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(6)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200736

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to summarize the associations of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (SED) with metabolic health and examine the effects of time reallocation on metabolic health in adolescents using accelerometer data. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Cochran Library, and Google Scholar, and 27 articles were reviewed. Recent research generally confirms the associations of PA and SED with metabolic health. High PA levels and low SED levels had a positive relationship with metabolic health. Moreover, reallocating 10 min of daily SED to PA was associated with better metabolic health indicators. These results were stronger for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity than for light intensity PA. Thus, efforts to convert SED into PA of at least moderate intensity appear to be an effective strategy to prevent metabolic disease development in children and adolescents. However, some of the associations between PA and metabolic health indicators were inconsistent, depending on age, obesity degree, and PA intensity. Additionally, various accelerometer data collection and processing criteria impact the interpretation of the results. Therefore, consistent accelerometer data collection and analysis methods are needed in future studies. Further, intervention studies are required to verify the causality and effectiveness of the isotemporal substitution model.

2.
J Hum Kinet ; 77: 245-259, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168708

RESUMO

This study aims to identify the most accurate prediction model for the possibility of victory from the annual average data of 25 seasons (1993-2017) of the Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA), and to determine the importance of the predicting factors. The four prediction models considered in this study were a decision tree, discriminant analysis, logistic regression, and artificial neural network analysis. The mean difference in the classification accuracy of these models was analyzed using SPSS 22.0 software (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) and the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). When the prediction was based on technical variables, the most important predicting variables for determining victory were greens in regulation (GIR) and putting average (PA) in all four prediction models. When the prediction was based on the output of the technical variables, the most important predicting variable for determining victory was birdies in all four prediction models. When the prediction was based on the season outcome, the most important predicting variables for determining victory were the top 10 finish% (T10) and official money. A significant mean difference in classification accuracy was observed while performing the one-way ANOVA, and the least significant difference post-hoc test showed that artificial neural network analysis exhibited higher accuracy than the other models, especially, for larger data sizes. From the results of this study, it can be inferred that the player who wants to win the LPGA should aim to increase GIR, reduce PA, and improve driving distance and accuracy through training to increase the birdies chance at each hole, which can lead to lower average strokes and increased possibility of being within T10.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799424

RESUMO

As adolescents spend the majority of their time focused on exams and assignments, they do not have sufficient time to engage in physical activity; this lack of physical activity is an important public health concern. This study aimed to investigate how school-based physical activity programs affect the health-related physical fitness of adolescents in the Republic of Korea. For this study, a total of 120 high school students participated in a school-based physical activity program that included badminton and table tennis for 15 weeks each (35 min/day, three times a week), with a total of 30 weeks for one academic year. The parameters for health-related physical fitness measured muscle strength (handgrip strength), power (standing long jump), cardiorespiratory fitness (shuttle run test), flexibility (sit and reach), body mass index (BMI), and the total score. The results revealed a statistically significant improvement in muscle strength (p < 0.001), power (p < 0.001), cardiorespiratory fitness (p < 0.001), flexibility (p = 0.005), and the overall health-related physical fitness score (p = 0.001). However, students' BMI showed no significant difference before and after participation (p = 0.825). The results of this study indicated that school-based physical activity programs can have a positive effect on the health-related physical fitness of adolescents.


Assuntos
Força da Mão , Aptidão Física , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício Físico , Humanos , República da Coreia , Instituições Acadêmicas
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810531

RESUMO

Asthma is a very common condition that affects 5-10% of the global population, and its prevalence is increasing. Vigorous physical activity (PA) is effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness and managing stress. This study aimed to investigate the association between vigorous PA and stress among Korean adolescents with asthma using large-scale survey data. The questionnaire data of 57,303 adolescents were analyzed using raw data from the 2019 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey. We performed logistic regression analysis to calculate the stress odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for asthma and non-asthma groups using models 1 and 2. We also performed logistic regression analysis to calculate the stress OR for the asthma group with vigorous PA and non-vigorous PA using models 1, 2, and 3. Model 1 was adjusted for age, sex, obesity, smoking, and alcohol status; model 2 was further adjusted for household income, academic achievement, and comorbidities. Model 3 was further adjusted for moderate activity and resistance exercise. The OR of stress was 20% higher in the asthma group than in the non-asthma group (p < 0.05). In the fully adjusted models, the OR for the non-asthma group with vigorous PA versus non-vigorous PA was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.84-0.94). However, the OR for the asthma group with vigorous PA versus non-vigorous PA was 0.70 (95% CI: 0.57-0.86), indicating that adolescents who engage in vigorous PA had lower stress in the asthma group (p < 0.05). This study demonstrated that adolescents with asthma had higher stress levels than those without asthma; however, vigorous PA was associated with lower stress. These effects were more pronounced in adolescents with asthma.


Assuntos
Asma , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Adolescente , Asma/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Humanos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Assunção de Riscos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805732

RESUMO

This study was aimed at providing practical information to improve Korean adolescents' wellness by empirically identifying its correlation with sports participation and having an internal health locus of control (IHLC) during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study comprised both a pilot test and a main study. We recruited 844 Korean adolescents as subjects in January 2021 to participate in an online self-reported survey. The reliability and validity of the scales used (sports participation, IHLC, and wellness) were verified through a pilot test. In the main study, we verified the differences between all variables according to adolescents' demographic characteristics and the structural relationship of sports participation, IHLC, and wellness. Sports participation had a positive effect on IHLC (p < 0.001) and wellness (p < 0.001). Additionally, IHLC had a positive effect on wellness (p < 0.001). In juvenile educational institutions, there is a need to develop strategies to increase wellness, sports participation, and IHLC among adolescent students, which can improve their wellness in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle Interno-Externo , Adolescente , Humanos , Pandemias , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572665

RESUMO

This study assessed the health perceptions of 333 Korean adolescents during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic via an online questionnaire administered in October 2020, which queried the perceived importance and actual performance of health behaviors. The health perception scales used in the survey consists of the six dimensions of mental health, disease, physical activity, sleep, diet, and sanitary health. The data were primarily analyzed using paired sample t-test for analysis of difference and importance-performance analysis (IPA). The IPA results were presented in four quadrants-"keep up the good work," "concentrate here," "low priority," and "possible overkill." The results indicated that first, there was a positive relationship between the importance and performance of all the subdimensions of health perception. Second, sanitary healthcare was rated as being of the greatest importance and was performed most, while physical activity management was rated least important and performed least. Third, statistically significant differences were found between importance and performance for all items of mental health, disease, physical activity, sleep, and diet dimensions, and some differences were found for items assessing the hygiene control dimension. Fourth, in the two-dimensional IPA model, "sanitary health" and "disease" are in Quadrant I (keep up the good work); "mental health," in Quadrant II (concentrate here); and "physical activity," "sleep," and "diet," in Quadrant III (low priority). No components of healthcare were in Quadrant IV (possible overkill). Based on these results, we emphasize the importance of adolescent health education and discuss solutions to enhance the performance of healthcare activities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias , Adolescente , Humanos , República da Coreia
9.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(2)2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572288

RESUMO

Although previous studies have examined the relationship between smoking and physical fitness, they only considered current smoking status and the same fitness measurements regardless of age. This study investigated differences in physical fitness based on tobacco smoking habits. A total of 2830 non-elderly adults (NEA; 19-64 years) and 629 elderly (65-89 years) participated in the study, using data extracted from a Korean national database. One-way ANCOVA and ANOVA were conducted to analyze the results. The subjects were classified into three groups (smokers, those who had quit, and never-smokers). In NEA men, a significant difference was observed in 50-m dash (p = 0.003) and 20-m shuttle-run (p < 0.001), while in elderly men differences were only seen in sit-ups (p = 0.015). In the case of NEA and elderly women, no significant differences were observed in physical fitness levels (p > 0.05). The decreased fitness level due to smoking was more noticeable in men than in women, and in NEA more than in elderly persons. A non-smoking policy and customized training based on age or gender are necessary to increase fitness and improve health conditions.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028002

RESUMO

This study examined the difficulties of running online physical education classes in the context of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and used the findings to develop an efficient operation plan to address these difficulties. Six middle and high school physical education teachers participated; three were experts in online physical education and active in the Korea Council School Physical Education Promotion, and three were recommended teachers making efforts to improve the online classes offered by the Korea Ministry of Education. A qualitative case study method employing phenomenological procedures to collect and analyze the data was used. The difficulties of operating middle and high school online physical education classes for the first time included (1) the monotony of the classes within their limited environmental conditions and limited educational content that did not adequately convey the value of physical education, (2) trial-and-error methods applied nationwide, resulting from a lack of expertise in operating online physical education classes, and (3) very limited evaluation guidelines proposed by the Korea Ministry of Education, which made systematic evaluation with online methods impossible. To address the identified problems and facilitate the efficient operation of online physical education classes, changes in strategic learning methods are needed to understand online physical education characteristics and thereby better communicate the value of physical education. It is also necessary to cultivate teaching expertise through sharing online physical education classes, where collaboration among physical education teachers is central. In addition, evaluation processes should be less formal to encourage active student participation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Educação à Distância/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Eficiência Organizacional , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947940

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to verify the structural relationship between health perceptions, sports participation, and health promoting behavior in adolescents. A total of 507 adolescents living in Seoul, Republic of Korea, in 2020, participated in this study. This study was conducted using a preliminary survey and a main survey. In the preliminary survey, the reliability and validity of the scales used in this study were analyzed, and in the main survey, the relationships between individual variables were verified. Specifically, descriptive statistical analysis, path analysis, and mediating effect analysis were conducted in the main survey. The results of the study are as follows: first, health perceptions were found to have a positive effect on sports participation (p < 0.001). Furthermore, health perceptions were found to have no direct effect on health promoting behavior (p = 0.554), while sports participation was found to have a positive effect on health promoting behavior (p < 0.001). Additionally, sports participation completely mediated the relationship between health perceptions and health promoting behavior. Based on the results of this study, suggestions are presented on how to enhance health perceptions in adolescents who are in a critical period for forming healthy life habits, and to prepare measures to encourage sports participation.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Esportes , Adolescente , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , República da Coreia , Seul , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967252

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the relationships between activity restriction, quality of life (QoL), and hematopoietic profile in breast cancer survivors according to exercise modality. The subjects in this study were 187 female breast cancer survivors among a total of 32,631 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted from 2016 to 2018. The selected subjects participated in a questionnaire survey and blood analysis. A cross-analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between participation in various modality of exercise (e.g., aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, walking exercise). The phi coefficients or Cramer's V value for activity restriction and QoL were calculated; an independent t-test was conducted to evaluate the differences between hematopoietic profiles based on the modality of exercise. Statistically significant correlations were seen between obesity and aerobic exercise and walking frequency, as well as between diabetes and aerobic exercise and activity restriction. With respect to QoL, there was a statistically significant correlation between participation in aerobic exercise and exercise ability, participation in aerobic exercise and anxiety/depression, participation in resistance exercise and subjective health status, participation in resistance exercise and exercise ability, and participation in weekly walking exercise and self-care ability. Regarding hemodynamic changes, red blood cells increased significantly in breast cancer survivors who participated in weekly resistance exercise compared to in those who did not. In conclusion, exercise participation had a positive effect on activity restriction, QoL, and hematopoietic profile in breast cancer survivors; in particular, some modalities of aerobic exercise were more effective.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Exercício Físico , Qualidade de Vida , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/reabilitação , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , República da Coreia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748858

RESUMO

The Korean government (Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, Ministry of Health and Welfare, and Ministry of Education) has framed policies and conducted many projects to encourage adolescents to be more physically active. Despite these efforts, the participation rate of physical activity in Korean adolescents keeps decreasing. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyze the perception of sports and physical activity in Korean adolescents through big data analysis of the last 10 years and to provide research data and statistical direction with regard to sports and physical activity participation in Korean adolescents. For data collection, data from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2019 were collected from Naver (NAVER Corp., Seongnam, Korea), Daum (Kakao Corp., Jeju, Korea), and Google (Alphabet Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA), which are the most widely used search engines in Korea, using TEXTOM 4.0 (The Imc Inc., Daegu, Korea), a big data collection and analysis solution. Keywords such as "adolescent + sports + physical activity" were used. TEXTOM 4.0 can generate various collection lists at once using keywords. Collected data were processed through text mining (frequency analysis, term frequency-inverse document frequency analysis) and social network analysis (SNA) (degree centrality, convergence of iterated correlations analysis) by using TEXTOM 4.0 and UCINET 6 social network analysis software (Analytic Technologies Corp., Lexington, KY, USA). A total of 9278 big data (10.36 MB) were analyzed. Frequency analysis of the top 50 terms through text mining showed exercise (872), mind (851), health (824), program (782), and burden (744) in a descending order. Term frequency-inverse document frequency analysis revealed exercise (2108.070), health (1961.843), program (1928.765), mind (1861.837), and burden (1722.687) in a descending order. SNA showed that the terms with the greatest degree of centrality were exercise (0.02857), program (0.02406), mind (0.02079), health (0.02062), and activity (0.01872) in a descending order. Convergence of the iterated correlations analysis indicated five clusters: exercise and health, child to adult, sociocultural development, therapy, and program. However, female gender, sports for all, stress, and wholesome did not have a high enough correlation to form one cluster. Thus, this study provides basic data and statistical direction to increase the rate of physical activity participation in Korean adolescents by drawing significant implications based on terms and clusters through bid data analysis.


Assuntos
Big Data , Exercício Físico , Esportes , Adolescente , Criança , Análise de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847040

RESUMO

This study aimed to develop a physical education fitness program for adolescents to counteract the declining physical activity levels caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as to investigate the program's effect. This mixed-methods study developed and implemented a five-component "Music Beeps" (MB) program to promote adolescents' physical fitness. A total of 240 students from two high schools in South Korea-divided into experimental and control groups-participated in 32 sessions over 16 weeks. The changes in students' fitness were analyzed, and the educational effects were examined via inductive analysis of the observation logs and group and in-depth interviews. The results demonstrated that, whereas the comparison group demonstrated no statistically significant changes in power, muscular strength and endurance, or cardiopulmonary endurance, the experimental group showed changes in all these variables, along with changes in flexibility. Further, the MB program had significant educational effects. First, students reported that musical cues enhanced their fitness motivation and sense of responsibility. Second, record-keeping and active participation contributed to self-led fitness management. Third, activity in a small space with few pieces of equipment led to the positive perception that the program was efficient and enabled regular exercise regardless of climate conditions.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Música , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Aptidão Física , Adolescente , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , República da Coreia , Instituições Acadêmicas
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545655

RESUMO

NAD(P)H oxidases (NOXs) constitute a principal source of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and contribute to exercise-induced ROS production in the skeletal muscle. Here, we aimed to investigate the effect of single-bout exhaustive exercise on redox state biomarkers and oxidative DNA damage based on the C242T polymorphism in the gene encoding NOXs subunit p22phox (CYBA) and aerobic fitness levels. We enrolled 220 healthy adults in their 20s (men, n = 110; women, n = 110), who were divided into CC genotype and T allele groups through the analysis of the CYBA C242T polymorphism. Furthermore, maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was evaluated to divide subjects into high fitness (HF; 70th percentile for aerobic fitness) and mid-range fitness (MF; 40-60th percentile for aerobic fitness) groups, with a total of 32 subjects assigned to four groups (eight subjects per group): CC genotype and HF group (CC + HF), CC genotype and MF group (CC + MF), T allele and HF group (T + HF), and T allele and MF group (T + MF). All subjects performed treadmill running exercise at 85% of VO2max until exhaustion. Plasma lactate, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and lymphocyte DNA damage (tail DNA percentage [TD], tail length [TL], and the tail moment [TM]) were measured in the blood samples obtained immediately before (IBE), immediately after (IAE), and 30 min after exercise (30 MAE). Plasma lactate levels, SOD activities, and lymphocyte DNA damage markers (TD, TL, and TM) were significantly increased at IAE than that at IBE and significantly decreased at 30 MAE (p < 0.05). All groups displayed increased plasma MDA levels at IAE rather than at IBE, with CC + MF being significantly higher than T + HF (p < 0.05); only the CC + HF and T + HF groups exhibited a significant reduction at 30 MAE (p < 0.05). Moreover, TL at IAE was significantly higher in the CC + MF group than in the T + HF group (p < 0.05), and significantly higher in the CC + MF and CC + HF groups than in the T + HF group at 30 MAE (p < 0.05). TM was significantly higher in the T + MF than in the T + HF group at IAE (p < 0.05) and that of CC + MF was significantly higher than CC + HF and T + HF values at IAE and 30 MAE (p < 0.05). These results suggest that single-bout exhaustive exercise could induce peripheral fatigue and the accumulation of temporary redox imbalance and oxidative DNA damage. Moreover, high aerobic fitness levels combined with the T allele may protect against exercise-induced redox imbalance and DNA damage.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , NADPH Oxidases , Oxazóis , Oxirredução , Oxigênio , Consumo de Oxigênio , Adulto Jovem
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