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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236355, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153474

RESUMO

Abstract Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae) trees have a wide distribution in the Cerrado, and it is protected by federal laws. The need to monitor and understand pest damage to crops and forests is a major motivation for the study of population distribution. The mites (Acari) population distributions on C. brasiliense are unknown. We studied seasonal mite population distribution and their ecological indices on C. brasiliense trees in Cerrado areas during three years. Greatest number of Agistemus sp. (Stigmaeidae), Histiostoma sp. (Histiostomidae), Proctolaelaps sp. (Ascidae), and diversity and species richness on leaves of C. brasiliense occurred in the autumn; Tetranychus sp.1 (Tetranychidae) on leaves in the autumn and winter; Histiostoma sp., and Proctolaelaps sp. in fruits in the summer. No significant effect of season was observed in the abundance of Eutetranychus sp., Tetranychus sp.2 (Tetranychidae) and Acaridae. The populations of Acaridae, Eutetranychus sp., Proctolaelaps sp. and Tetranychus sp.1 negatively correlated with temperature. Proctolaelaps sp. and Tetranychus sp.1 correlated negatively with rainfall and Eutetranychus sp. and Proctolaelaps sp. positively with sunlight. The period with low rainfall and relative humidity increases the phytophagous mites and their predators, especially Agistemus sp.. The Tetranychus sp. and Histiostoma sp. species may become pests in C. brasiliense in the Cerrado domain.


Resumo As árvores Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae) têm ampla distribuição no Cerrado e são protegidas por leis federais. A necessidade de monitorar e entender os danos causados pelas pragas às culturas e florestas é uma das motivações para o estudo da distribuição populacional que para ácaros (Acari) em C. brasiliense é desconhecida. A distribuição sazonal de populações de ácaros e seus índices ecológicos em C. brasiliense em áreas de Cerrado foram estudados durante três anos. Maior número de Agistemus sp. (Stigmaeidae), Histiostoma sp. (Histiostomidae), Proctolaelaps sp. (Ascidae) e diversidade e riqueza de espécies nas folhas de C. brasiliense ocorreram no outono; Tetranychus sp.1 (Tetranychidae) no outono e inverno; Histiostoma sp. e Proctolaelaps sp. em frutos ocorreram no verão. Não foram observados efeitos das estações na abundância de Eutetranychus sp., Tetranychus sp.2 (Tetranychidae) e Acaridae. As populações de Acaridae, Eutetranychus sp., Proctolaelaps sp. e Tetranychus sp.1 correlacionaram-se negativamente com a temperatura. Correlações negativas foram observadas entre chuva e Proctolaelaps sp. e Tetranychus sp.1 e positivas entre luz solar e Eutetranychus sp. e Proctolaelaps sp.. Baixa pluviosidade e umidade relativa do ar aumentaram os ácaros fitófagos e seus predadores, principalmente Agistemus sp.. As espécies Tetranychus sp. e Histiostoma sp. podem se tornar pragas em C. brasiliense no domínio do Cerrado.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e237098, 2022. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153483

RESUMO

Abstract Endosymbiont bacteria can affect biological parameters and reduce the effectiveness of natural enemies in controlling the target insect. The objective of this work was to identify endosymbiont bacteria in Anaphes nitens (Girault, 1928) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), the main natural enemy used to manage Gonipterus platensis (Marelli, 1926) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Genomic DNA from six A. nitens populations was extracted and polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were performed with the primers to detect endosymbiont bacteria in this insect. The PCR products were amplified, sequenced, and compared with sequences deposited in the GenBank for the bacteria identification. All A. nitens populations had the bacterium Yersinia massiliensis (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae). This bacterium was originally described as free-living, and it is associated with and composes part of the A. nitens microbiota. This is the first report of Y. massiliensis in an insect host.


Resumo As bactérias endossimbiontes podem afetar os parâmetros biológicos e reduzirem a eficácia de inimigos naturais no controle do inseto alvo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar bactérias endossimbiontes em Anaphes nitens (Girault, 1928) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), o principal inimigo natural usado no manejo de Gonipterus platensis (Marelli, 1926) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). O DNA genômico de seis populações de A. nitens foi extraído e as reações em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) realizadas com os primers para detectar bactérias endossimbiontes neste inseto. Os produtos de PCR foram amplificados, sequenciados e comparados com as sequências depositadas no GenBank para identificação das bactérias. Todas as populações de A. nitens tinham a bactéria Yersinia massiliensis (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae). Esta bactéria foi originalmente descrita como de vida livre e está associada e compõe parte da microbiota de A. nitens. Este é o primeiro relato de Y. massiliensis em um hospedeiro.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 251-257, Jan.-May 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153347

RESUMO

Abstract Genetically modified plants are one of the tactics used in integrated pest management - IPM. There is great concern about the impact of these plants on non-target organisms. On the other hand, there is little information in the literature on the effects of transgenics (Bacillus thuringiensis) Bt on populations of phytophagous mites, and the physiological responses that this attack promotes on plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the biology of the T. ludeni mite in Bt cotton, expressing the Cry1F and Cry1Ac proteins. To evaluate the behavior of food and oviposition preference of the T. ludeni with Bt cotton and isohybrid. Verify if the physiological stress caused by T. ludeni's attack is differentiated in Bt cotton. The mites were reared in Bt cotton and isohybrid, in a total of 40 replicates in the completely randomized design and the biological cycle was evaluated. The food preference and oviposition analysis were done with 10 replicates, with choice. The physiological stress was evaluated through chlorophyll fluorescence, under greenhouse conditions. The data of the T. ludeni biology were analyzed by Student's t-test, for food and oviposition preference the chi-square test was performed. Regression models were fitted for the fluorescence parameters. The model identity test was used to evaluate the differences between Bt and isohybrid treatments. Cry1F and Cry1Ac proteins have not affected the biology of T. ludeni. The photosynthetic parameters in Bt cotton plants were less influenced by T. ludeni infestation.


Resumo O uso de plantas geneticamente modificadas é uma das táticas utilizadas no manejo integrado de pragas - MIP. Observa-se grande preocupação com o impacto dessas plantas sobre organismos não alvos. Por outro lado, existe pouca informação na literatura sobre efeitos dos transgênicos (Bacillus thuringiensis) Bt em populações de ácaros fitófagos, e as respostas fisiológicas que esse ataque promove nas plantas. Objetivou-se com esse trabalho avaliar a biologia do ácaro T. ludeni em algodoeiro Bt, expressando as proteínas Cry1F e Cry1Ac. Avaliar se há comportamento de preferência alimentar e postura de T. ludeni em relação ao algodoeiro Bt e seu iso-híbrido. E verificar se o estresse fisiológico causado pelo ataque de T. ludeni é diferenciado em algodoeiro Bt. Os ácaros foram criados em algodoeiro Bt e iso-híbrido, em um total de 40 repetições no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, onde foi avaliado o ciclo biológico. A análise de preferência alimentar e de posturas foi feita com 10 repetições, com escolha. O estresse fisiológico foi avaliando através da fluorescência da clorofila, em casa de vegetação. Os dados da biologia de T. ludeni foram analisados pelo teste t Student, para preferência alimentar e postura foi realizado o teste qui-quadrado. Para os parâmetros da fluorescência, foram ajustados modelos de regressão. Para testar as diferenças entre Bt e iso-híbrido foi utilizado o teste de identidade de modelos. As proteínas Cry1F e Cry1Ac não afetaram a biologia de T. ludeni. Os parâmetros fotossintéticos em plantas de algodoeiro Bt foram menos influenciados pela infestação de T. ludeni.

5.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e236355, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729382

RESUMO

Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae) trees have a wide distribution in the Cerrado, and it is protected by federal laws. The need to monitor and understand pest damage to crops and forests is a major motivation for the study of population distribution. The mites (Acari) population distributions on C. brasiliense are unknown. We studied seasonal mite population distribution and their ecological indices on C. brasiliense trees in Cerrado areas during three years. Greatest number of Agistemus sp. (Stigmaeidae), Histiostoma sp. (Histiostomidae), Proctolaelaps sp. (Ascidae), and diversity and species richness on leaves of C. brasiliense occurred in the autumn; Tetranychus sp.1 (Tetranychidae) on leaves in the autumn and winter; Histiostoma sp., and Proctolaelaps sp. in fruits in the summer. No significant effect of season was observed in the abundance of Eutetranychus sp., Tetranychus sp.2 (Tetranychidae) and Acaridae. The populations of Acaridae, Eutetranychus sp., Proctolaelaps sp. and Tetranychus sp.1 negatively correlated with temperature. Proctolaelaps sp. and Tetranychus sp.1 correlated negatively with rainfall and Eutetranychus sp. and Proctolaelaps sp. positively with sunlight. The period with low rainfall and relative humidity increases the phytophagous mites and their predators, especially Agistemus sp.. The Tetranychus sp. and Histiostoma sp. species may become pests in C. brasiliense in the Cerrado domain.


Assuntos
Malpighiales , Ácaros , Tetranychidae , Animais , Demografia , Estações do Ano , Árvores
6.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e237098, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787747

RESUMO

Endosymbiont bacteria can affect biological parameters and reduce the effectiveness of natural enemies in controlling the target insect. The objective of this work was to identify endosymbiont bacteria in Anaphes nitens (Girault, 1928) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), the main natural enemy used to manage Gonipterus platensis (Marelli, 1926) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Genomic DNA from six A. nitens populations was extracted and polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were performed with the primers to detect endosymbiont bacteria in this insect. The PCR products were amplified, sequenced, and compared with sequences deposited in the GenBank for the bacteria identification. All A. nitens populations had the bacterium Yersinia massiliensis (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae). This bacterium was originally described as free-living, and it is associated with and composes part of the A. nitens microbiota. This is the first report of Y. massiliensis in an insect host.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Gorgulhos , Animais , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Himenópteros/genética , Yersinia/genética
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 105-113, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153319

RESUMO

Abstract Microorganisms have been efficiently used for the biological control of phytopathogens through the production of antimicrobial substances. However, the objectives of this work were: to study the germination of Butia purpurascens Glassman and Butia archeri Glassman seeds in different substrates, to select and identify the endophytic and rhizospheric bacterial isolates of B. purpurascens and B. archeri, and to perform antibiosis tests based on the isolated microorganisms of these tree species. No difference was found between the cultivation substrates for the percentages of germination, hard seeds, and fungal contamination in the B. purpurascens seeds. The Bacillus subtilis isolated showed the best capacity for suppressing the growth of the two deteriorative fungi tested in B. purpurascens seeds. No difference was found for inhibition of the growth of Aspergillus niger fungus (deteriorative fungus of B. archeri seeds) between the microorganisms with Bacillus sp. and Brevibacillus brevis compared to the control. In the microbiolization of B. purpurascens and B. archeri seeds performed with microbiological solutions produced from the endophytic and rhizospheric strains of Bacillus sp., no differences were observed in the percentages of germination and contamination by fungi. For B. archeri seeds, there was contamination by fungi and bacteria after one day of cultivation, primarily in the regions with lesions caused by the extraction and scarification process.


Resumo Microorganismos específicos tem sido usados eficientemente para o controle biológico de fitopatógenos através da produção de substâncias antimicrobianas. Portanto, os objetivos deste estudo foram: estudar a germinação de sementes de Butia purpurascens Glassman e Butia archeri Glassman em diferentes substratos; selecionar e identificar isolados bacterianos rizosféricos e endofíticos de B. purpurascens e B. archeri, e realizar testes de antibiose a partir de microorganismos isolados dessas espécies arbóreas. Não houve diferença entre os substratos de cultivo para as porcentagens de germinação, de sementes duras e de contaminação por fungos nas sementes de B. purpurascens. O isolado bacteriano Bacillus subtilis apresentou melhor capacidade de supressão do crescimento dos dois fungos deterioradores testados nas sementes de B. purpurascens. Não foi encontrada diferença para a inibição do crescimento do fungo Aspergillus niger (fungo deteriorador de sementes de B. archeri) entre os microorganismos com Bacillus sp. e Brevibacillus brevis em comparação ao controle. Na microbiolização das sementes de B. purpurascens e B. archeri realizada com soluções microbiológicas produzidas a partir de cepas endofíticas e rizosféricas de Bacillus sp. não foram observadas diferenças na porcentagem de germinação e contaminação por fungos. Para B. archeri houve contaminação por fungos e bactérias após um dia de cultivo, principalmente nas regiões de lesão proporcionadas pelo processo de extração e escarificação.

8.
J Dairy Sci ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189279

RESUMO

Development of ketosis in high-producing dairy cows contributes to several animal health issues and highlights the need for a better understanding of the genetic basis of metabolic diseases. To evaluate the pattern of differential gene expression in the liver of cows under negative energy balance (NEB), and under subclinical and clinical ketosis, a meta-analysis of gene expression and genome-wide association studies results was performed. An initial systematic review identified 118 articles based on the key words "cow," "liver," "negative energy balance," "ketosis," "expression," "qPCR," "microarray," "proteomic," "RNA-Seq," and "GWAS." After further screening for only peer-reviewed and pertinent articles for gene expression during NEB and clinical and subclinical ketosis (considering plasma levels of ß-hydroxybutyrate), 20 articles were included in the analysis. From the systematic review, 430 significant SNPs identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were assigned to genes reported in gene expression studies by considering chromosome and base pair positions in the ARS-UCD 1.2 bovine assembly. Venn diagrams were created to integrate the data obtained in the systematic review, and Gene Ontology enrichment analysis was carried out using official gene names. A QTL enrichment analysis was also performed to identify potential positional candidate loci. Twenty-four significant SNPs were located within the coordinates of differentially expressed genes located on chromosomes 2, 3, 6, 9, 11, 14, 27, and 29. Three significant metabolic pathways were associated with NEB and subclinical and clinical ketosis. In addition, 2 important genes, PPARA (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha) and ACACA (acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase α), were identified, which were differentially expressed in the 3 metabolic conditions. The PPARA gene is involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism and fatty liver disease and the ACACA gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the carboxylation of acetyl-coenzyme A to malonyl-coenzyme A, which is a rate-limiting step in fatty acid synthesis. Gene network analysis revealed co-expression interactions among 34 genes associated with functions involving fatty acid transport and fatty acid metabolism. For the annotated QTL, 9 QTL were identified for ketosis. The genes FN1 (fibronectin 1) and PTK2 (protein tyrosine kinase 2), which are mainly involved in cell adhesion and formation of extracellular matrix constituents, were enriched for QTL previously associated with the trait "ketosis" on chromosome 2 and for the trait "milk iron content" on chromosome 14, respectively. This integration of gene expression and GWAS data provides an additional understanding of the genetic background of NEB and subclinical and clinical ketosis in dairy cattle. Thus, it is a useful approach to identify biological mechanisms underlying these metabolic conditions in dairy cattle.

10.
Braz J Biol ; 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844904

RESUMO

Genetically modified plants are one of the tactics used in integrated pest management - IPM. There is great concern about the impact of these plants on non-target organisms. On the other hand, there is little information in the literature on the effects of transgenics (Bacillus thuringiensis) Bt on populations of phytophagous mites, and the physiological responses that this attack promotes on plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the biology of the T. ludeni mite in Bt cotton, expressing the Cry1F and Cry1Ac proteins. To evaluate the behavior of food and oviposition preference of the T. ludeni with Bt cotton and isohybrid. Verify if the physiological stress caused by T. ludeni's attack is differentiated in Bt cotton. The mites were reared in Bt cotton and isohybrid, in a total of 40 replicates in the completely randomized design and the biological cycle was evaluated. The food preference and oviposition analysis were done with 10 replicates, with choice. The physiological stress was evaluated through chlorophyll fluorescence, under greenhouse conditions. The data of the T. ludeni biology were analyzed by Student's t-test, for food and oviposition preference the chi-square test was performed. Regression models were fitted for the fluorescence parameters. The model identity test was used to evaluate the differences between Bt and isohybrid treatments. Cry1F and Cry1Ac proteins have not affected the biology of T. ludeni. The photosynthetic parameters in Bt cotton plants were less influenced by T. ludeni infestation.

11.
Braz J Biol ; 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159616

RESUMO

Microorganisms have been efficiently used for the biological control of phytopathogens through the production of antimicrobial substances. However, the objectives of this work were: to study the germination of Butia purpurascens Glassman and Butia archeri Glassman seeds in different substrates, to select and identify the endophytic and rhizospheric bacterial isolates of B. purpurascens and B. archeri, and to perform antibiosis tests based on the isolated microorganisms of these tree species. No difference was found between the cultivation substrates for the percentages of germination, hard seeds, and fungal contamination in the B. purpurascens seeds. The Bacillus subtilis isolated showed the best capacity for suppressing the growth of the two deteriorative fungi tested in B. purpurascens seeds. No difference was found for inhibition of the growth of Aspergillus niger fungus (deteriorative fungus of B. archeri seeds) between the microorganisms with Bacillus sp. and Brevibacillus brevis compared to the control. In the microbiolization of B. purpurascens and B. archeri seeds performed with microbiological solutions produced from the endophytic and rhizospheric strains of Bacillus sp., no differences were observed in the percentages of germination and contamination by fungi. For B. archeri seeds, there was contamination by fungi and bacteria after one day of cultivation, primarily in the regions with lesions caused by the extraction and scarification process.

12.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 377-382, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001454

RESUMO

Abstract Brazil is a leading palm oil producer, but the defoliating caterpillars Opsiphanes invirae Hübner Brassolis sophorae L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) can reduce the productivity of this crop. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development and reproduction of the parasitoid Trichospilus diatraeae Cherian & Margabandhu (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in pupae of these oil palm defoliators. Ten O. invirae or B. sophorae pupae with up to two days old were exposed each to 30 T. diatraeae females for 48 hours. Parasitism and emergence of the progeny of T. diatraeae were similar in pupae of both Lepidoptera defoliators. The life cycle of this parasitoid was shorter in O. invirae (21.50 ± 0.42 days) pupae than with those of B. sophorae (27.60 ± 1.80 days). The number of the progeny (669.00 ± 89.62) and dead immature (217.13 ± 58.18) of T. diatraeae were higher in B. sophorae pupae than in those of O. invirae with 447.83 ± 51.52 and 13.50 ± 5.23, respectively. The sex ratio and female and male longevity of T. diatraeae emerged from these hosts were similar. The reproductive traits, especially the number of individuals (offspring) of T. diatraeae were better with B. sophorae pupae than with those of O. invirae.


Resumo O Brasil é um dos principais produtores de óleo de palma, porém as lagartas desfolhadoras Opsiphanes invirae Hübner e Brassolis sophorae L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) podem comprometer a produtividade dessa cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento e aspectos reprodutivos do parasitoide Trichospilus diatraeae Cherian & Margabandhu (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) em pupas desses desfolhadores da palma de óleo. Dez pupas de O. invirae ou de B. sophorae com até dois dias de idade, foram expostas, cada uma, ao parasitismo por 30 fêmeas de T. diatraeae , por 48 horas. O parasitismo e a emergência da progênie de T. diatraeae foram semelhantes em pupas de ambas as espécies de lepidópteros desfolhadores da palma de óleo. O ciclo de vida desse parasitoide foi mais curto em pupas de O. invirae (21,50 ± 0,42 dias) que com as de B. sophorae (27,60 ± 1,80 dias). O número de progênie (669,00 ± 89,62) e de imaturos mortos (217,13 ± 58,18) de T. diatraeae foram maiores em pupas de B. sophorae que naquelas de O. invirae com 447,83 ± 51,52 e 13,50 ± 5,23, respectivamente. A razão sexual e a longevidade de fêmeas e machos de T. diatraeae emergidos desses hospedeiros foram semelhantes. As características reprodutivas, especialmente, o número de indivíduos (progênie) de T. diatraeae foram melhores com pupas de B. sophorae que com as de O. invirae .


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Vespas/fisiologia , Borboletas/parasitologia , Herbivoria , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Reprodução , Vespas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brasil , Borboletas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arecaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Larva/parasitologia
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 208-212, Apr.-June 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-989447

RESUMO

Abstract Tetranychus ludeni damages the sweet potato. Pest development can vary between plant genotypes. The objective was to identify the preference of Tetranychus ludeni for Ipomoea batatas genotypes, from the germplasm bank at the Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM). Natural infestations of this mite were observed on 54 sweet potato genotypes in potted, in a greenhouse. Three mite-infested leafs of each genotype were collected and analyzed. The red mite showed different population density rate in genotypes. The BD 29 genotype was found to be highly susceptible, the BD 08, BD 57, BD 17 and Espanhola genotypes were moderately susceptible, and the others forty-nine genotypes showed low susceptibility to the mite.


Resumo Tetranychus ludeni danifica plantas de batata-doce. O desenvolvimento de pragas pode variar entre genótipos de plantas. O objetivo foi identificar a preferência de T. ludeni para genótipos de Ipomoea batatas do banco de germoplasma da Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM). Infestações naturais deste ácaro foram observadas em 54 genótipos de batata doce plantados em vasos e mantidos em estufa. Três folhas infestadas por ácaros, de cada genótipo, foram coletadas e analisadas. Tetranychus ludeni mostrou diferentes taxas de crescimento populacional entres os genótipos. O genótipo BD 29 foi altamente suscetível, os BD 08, BD 57, BD 17 e Espanhola foram moderadamente suscetíveis e os outros 49 genótipos mostraram baixa suscetibilidade ao ácaro.


Assuntos
Animais , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Ipomoea batatas/parasitologia , Tetranychidae/patogenicidade , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo
14.
Acta Histochem ; 121(3): 376-379, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819509

RESUMO

Vilification in the chick gut involves the formation of longitudinal ridges, establishment of their zigzag pattern and emergence of individual villi. Although the morphological changes during vilification are well known in the chick gut, the pattern of cell proliferation during this process is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to correlate spatial and temporal changes in cell proliferation to folding of the longitudinal ridges into zigzags. Embryos on the 13th pos-incubation day were injected with BrdU and sacrificed at 8 h intervals up to 64 h after injection. Spatial and temporal changes in cell proliferation were observed during the folding the longitudinal ridges into zigzags. Cell proliferation occurred throughout the epithelium of the folded ridges, was predominant in the epithelial cells at the sides of the zigzagging ridges, and finally appeared in the epithelial cells at the tips of the zigzag ridges. In conclusion, cell proliferation might be a requirement for the folding of the longitudinal ridges into zigzags.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Epitélio , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Jejuno/citologia , Animais , Galinhas , Duodeno/citologia
15.
Braz J Biol ; 79(3): 377-382, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30484477

RESUMO

Brazil is a leading palm oil producer, but the defoliating caterpillars Opsiphanes invirae Hübner Brassolis sophorae L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) can reduce the productivity of this crop. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development and reproduction of the parasitoid Trichospilus diatraeae Cherian & Margabandhu (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in pupae of these oil palm defoliators. Ten O. invirae or B. sophorae pupae with up to two days old were exposed each to 30 T. diatraeae females for 48 hours. Parasitism and emergence of the progeny of T. diatraeae were similar in pupae of both Lepidoptera defoliators. The life cycle of this parasitoid was shorter in O. invirae (21.50 ± 0.42 days) pupae than with those of B. sophorae (27.60 ± 1.80 days). The number of the progeny (669.00 ± 89.62) and dead immature (217.13 ± 58.18) of T. diatraeae were higher in B. sophorae pupae than in those of O. invirae with 447.83 ± 51.52 and 13.50 ± 5.23, respectively. The sex ratio and female and male longevity of T. diatraeae emerged from these hosts were similar. The reproductive traits, especially the number of individuals (offspring) of T. diatraeae were better with B. sophorae pupae than with those of O. invirae.


Assuntos
Borboletas/parasitologia , Herbivoria , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Arecaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brasil , Borboletas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/parasitologia , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reprodução , Vespas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Braz J Biol ; 79(2): 208-212, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29947646

RESUMO

Tetranychus ludeni damages the sweet potato. Pest development can vary between plant genotypes. The objective was to identify the preference of Tetranychus ludeni for Ipomoea batatas genotypes, from the germplasm bank at the Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM). Natural infestations of this mite were observed on 54 sweet potato genotypes in potted, in a greenhouse. Three mite-infested leafs of each genotype were collected and analyzed. The red mite showed different population density rate in genotypes. The BD 29 genotype was found to be highly susceptible, the BD 08, BD 57, BD 17 and Espanhola genotypes were moderately susceptible, and the others forty-nine genotypes showed low susceptibility to the mite.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Tetranychidae/patogenicidade , Animais , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Ipomoea batatas/parasitologia
17.
Acta Histochem ; 118(7): 729-735, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27640084

RESUMO

Membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is involved in numerous biological processes, including morphogenesis. However, the role of MT1-MMP in the development of the vertebrate intestine is poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of MT1-MMP in the intestine of rats and chickens along the embryonic and postnatal periods using immunohistochemistry. Results revealed a remarkable spatiotemporal correlation between MT1-MMP expression and intestinal villi morphogenesis in both vertebrates. However, the villi morphogenesis process was found to be different in chickens to that of rats. Moreover, extensive MT1-MMP labeling was observed in the entire villus epithelium from birth until the complete maturation of the small intestinal mucosa in both vertebrates. From these results, we suggest that MT1-MMP contributes to intestinal development, particularly to villi morphogenesis, in both vertebrates. However, further studies are necessary to confirm the role of MT1-MMP in this cellular process. In addition, we performed validation of the primary antibody against human MT1-MMP for adult chickens.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Intestinos/embriologia , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metaloproteinase 14 da Matriz/metabolismo , Vertebrados/metabolismo , Animais , Galinhas , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Intestinos/citologia , Masculino , Ratos Wistar , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
18.
Microb Ecol ; 72(2): 407-17, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27260154

RESUMO

We hypothesize that bacterial endophytes may enhance the competitiveness and invasiveness of Phragmites australis. To evaluate this hypothesis, endophytic bacteria were isolated from P. australis. The majority of the shoot meristem isolates represent species from phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. We chose one species from each phylum to characterize further and to conduct growth promotion experiments in Phragmites. Bacteria tested include Bacillus amyloliquefaciens A9a, Achromobacter spanius B1, and Microbacterium oxydans B2. Isolates were characterized for known growth promotional traits, including indole acetic acid (IAA) production, secretion of hydrolytic enzymes, phosphate solubilization, and antibiosis activity. Potentially defensive antimicrobial lipopeptides were assayed for through application of co-culturing experiments and mass spectrometer analysis. B. amyloliquefaciens A9a and M. oxydans B2 produced IAA. B. amyloliquefaciens A9a secreted antifungal lipopeptides. Capability to promote growth of P. australis under low nitrogen conditions was evaluated in greenhouse experiments. All three isolates were found to increase the growth of P. australis under low soil nitrogen conditions and showed increased absorption of isotopic nitrogen into plants. This suggests that the Phragmites microbes we evaluated most likely promote growth of Phragmites by enhanced scavenging of nitrogenous compounds from the rhizosphere and transfer to host roots. Collectively, our results support the hypothesis that endophytic bacteria play a role in enhancing growth of P. australis in natural populations. Gaining a better understanding of the precise contributions and mechanisms of endophytes in enabling P. australis to develop high densities rapidly could lead to new symbiosis-based strategies for management and control of the host.


Assuntos
Antibiose , Bactérias/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Poaceae/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biomassa , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Lipopeptídeos/biossíntese , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Simbiose
19.
J Viral Hepat ; 23(11): 840-849, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26775769

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease inhibitors have been primarily designed against genotype 1, the one with the lowest response to dual therapy. However, less evidence of their efficacy on non-1 genotypes is available, and any such information is mostly concentrated on genotypes 2-4. This study evaluated HCV protease resistance profiles in the major six HCV genotypes and identified genetic barrier (GB) profiles to each available protease inhibitor across HCV strains from different locations worldwide. We obtained 15 099 HCV sequences from treatment-naïve subjects retrieved at the Los Alamos HCV Sequence Database. The wild-type codons of different HCV genotypes were used to analyse the smallest number of nucleotide substitution steps required for changing that codon to the closest one associated with drug resistance. The 36L and 175L RAVs were found as genetic signatures of genotypes 2-5, while the 80K RAV was found in all genotype 5 sequences. Genotypes 4 and 6 showed a higher GB to RAV mutations conferring resistance to telaprevir, while genotypes 2-5 presented baseline resistance to that drug, carrying the 36L mutation. Genotype 4 had a higher GB to simeprevir resistance, requiring three substitutions to acquire the 155K mutation. Subtype 1b showed a higher GB than subtype 1a to resistance for most PIs, with RAVs at codons 36 and 155. Geographic disparities were also found in frequencies of certain RAVs in genotypes 2 and 3. Under a scenario of unprecedented evolution of anti-HCV direct-acting agents, the genetic composition of the circulating HCV sequences should be evaluated worldwide to choose the most appropriate/feasible therapeutic schemes with the highest genetic barriers to resistance.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Viral , Hepacivirus/enzimologia , Polimorfismo Genético , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/classificação , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto
20.
Genetica ; 143(5): 597-612, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26253053

RESUMO

Ecdysteroid titers, developmental landmarks and the presence of prominent amplifying regions (DNA puffs) have been compared during late larval to pupal development in four groups of Rhynchosciara americana larvae and in R. americana and Rhynchosciara milleri. Three prominent DNA puffs (B2, C3 and C8) expand and regress sequentially on the rising phase of the 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) titer in R. americana as a firm, cellular cocoon is being constructed. A sharp rise in 20E coincides with the regression of these puffs. The shape of the 20E curve is similar in R. milleri, a species that does not construct a massive cocoon, but the behavior of certain DNA puffs and their temporal relationship to the curve differs. Regions corresponding to B2 and C3 can be identified in R. milleri by banding pattern similarity with R. americana chromosomes and, in the case of B2, by hybridization to an R. americana probe. A B2 puff appears in R. milleri as the 20E titer rises but remains small in all gland regions. A puff similar to the R. americana C3 puff occurs in posterior gland cells of R. milleri (C3(Rm)) after the B2 puff, but this site did not hybridize to R. americana C3 probes. C3(Rm) incorporated (3)H-thymidine above background, but showed less post-puff DNA accumulation than C3 of R. americana. R. americana C8 probes hybridized to a more distal region of the R. milleri C chromosome that did not appear to amplify or form a large puff. These differences can be related to developmental differences, in particular differences in cocoon construction between the two species.


Assuntos
Dípteros/genética , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/genética , Animais , Cromossomos , Dípteros/metabolismo , Ecdisteroides/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Masculino , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
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