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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(20)2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618819

RESUMO

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is frequently constrained by environmental conditions such as drought. Within this context, it is crucial to identify the physiological and metabolic traits conferring a better performance under stressful conditions. In the current study, two alfalfa cultivars (San Isidro and Zhong Mu) with different physiological strategies were selected and subjected to water limitation conditions. Together with the physiological analyses, we proceeded to characterize the isotopic, hormone, and metabolic profiles of the different plants. According to physiological and isotopic data, Zhong Mu has a water-saver strategy, reducing water lost by closing its stomata but fixing less carbon by photosynthesis, and therefore limiting its growth under water-stressed conditions. In contrast, San Isidro has enhanced root growth to replace the water lost through transpiration due to its more open stomata, thus maintaining its biomass. Zhong Mu nodules were less able to maintain nodule N2 fixing activity (matching plant nitrogen (N) demand). Our data suggest that this cultivar-specific performance is linked to Asn accumulation and its consequent N-feedback nitrogenase inhibition. Additionally, we observed a hormonal reorchestration in both cultivars under drought. Therefore, our results showed an intra-specific response to drought at physiological and metabolic levels in the two alfalfa cultivars studied.

2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8441-8451, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339045

RESUMO

The increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration is predicted to influence wheat production and grain quality and nutritional properties. In the present study, durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Sula) was grown under two different CO2 (400 versus 700 µmol mol-1) concentrations to examine effects on the crop yield and grain quality at different phenological stages (from grain filling to maturity). Exposure to elevated CO2 significantly increased aboveground biomass and grain yield components. Growth at elevated CO2 diminished the elemental N content as well as protein and free amino acids, with a typical decrease in glutamine, which is the most represented amino acid in grain proteins. Such a general decrease in nitrogenous compounds was associated with altered kinetics of protein accumulation, N remobilization, and N partitioning. Our results highlight important modifications of grain metabolism that have implications for its nutritional quality.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/química , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Cinética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Physiol Plant ; 2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30381841

RESUMO

Soybean is a crop of agronomic importance that requires adequate watering during its growth to achieve high production. In this study, we determined physiological, photochemical and metabolic differences in five soybean varieties selected from the parental lines of a nested association mapping population during mild drought. These varieties have been described as high yielding (NE3001, HY1; LD01-5907, HY2) or drought tolerant (PI518751; HYD1; PI398881, HYD2). Nevertheless, there has been little research on the physiological traits that sustain their high productivity under water-limited conditions. The results indicate that high-yielding varieties under drought cope with the shortage of water by enhancing their photoprotective defences and invest in growth and productivity, linked to a higher intrinsic water use efficiency. This is the case of the variety N-3001 (HY1), with a tolerance strategy involving a faster transition into the reproductive stage to avoid the drought period. The present study highlights the role of the physiological and biochemical adjustments of various soybean varieties to cope with water-limited conditions. Moreover, the obtained results underscore the fact that the high phenotypic plasticity among soybean phenotypes should be exploited to compensate for the low genetic variability of this species when selecting plant productivity in constrained environments.

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