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1.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(27): 15437-15447, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602508

RESUMO

Photophysics of hexaazatrinaphthylene (HATN) in solution and in the solid state is determined by the nπ* character of its lowest excited singlet state and by the ππ* character of the first triplet state. The relaxation of an electronically excited state is dominated by nonradiative relaxation channels and only very weak fluorescence is observed for HATN monomers in solution. In liquid solution, the fluorescence quantum yield is 3-7 × 10-4 and the triplet formation yield ranges from 0.21 to 0.41. In methanol, the photodegradation of the molecule is observed. This molecule with a large delocalised π-electron system easily aggregates forming dimers in solution and in some crystalline forms. The band shifts observed in crystals as well as excitonic splitting in dimers provide evidence for a strong interaction in π-π stacked aggregates. The mixing of electronic states in aggregates changes their character and affects photophysical properties. The obtained experimental data are in good agreement with theoretical calculations performed using the ADC(2) method.

2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(22): 12502-12514, 2020 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452507

RESUMO

The photocatalytic oxidation of water with molecular or polymeric N-heterocyclic chromophores is a topic of high current interest in the context of artificial photosynthesis, that is, the conversion of solar energy to clean fuels. Hydrogen-bonded clusters of N-heterocycles with water molecules in a molecular beam are simple model systems for which the basic mechanisms of photochemical water oxidation can be studied under well-defined conditions. In this work, we explored the photoinduced H-atom transfer reaction in pyrimidine-water clusters yielding pyrimidinyl and hydroxyl radicals with laser spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and trajectory-based ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The oxidation of water by photoexcited pyrimidine is unequivocally confirmed by the detection of the pyrimidinyl radical. The dynamics simulations provide information on the time scales and branching ratios of the reaction. While relaxation to local minima of the S1 potential-energy surface is the dominant reaction channel, the H-atom transfer reaction occurs on ultrafast time scales (faster than about 100 fs) with a branching ratio of a few percent.

3.
Science ; 368(6493): 820-821, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439776
4.
J Phys Chem A ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315528

RESUMO

Recently, a derivative of the heptazine (tris-triazine) molecule, trianisole-heptazine (TAHz), was synthesized and was shown to catalyze the oxidation of water to hydroxyl radicals under 365 nm LED light in a homogeneous reaction (E. J. Rabe et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2018, 9, 6257-6261). The possibility of water photo-oxidation with a precisely defined molecular catalyst in neat solvents opens new perspectives for clarifying the fundamental reaction mechanisms involved in water oxidation photocatalysis. In the present work, the effects of chemical substituents on the three CH positions of Hz on the photocatalytic reactivity were explored with wave function-based ab initio electronic-structure calculations for hydrogen-bonded complexes of Hz and three selected Hz derivatives (TAHz, trichloro-Hz, and tricyano-Hz) with a water molecule. While anisole is an electron-donating substituent, Cl is a weakly electron-withdrawing substituent and CN is a strongly electron-withdrawing substituent. It is shown that the barrier for the photoinduced abstraction of an H atom from the water molecule is raised (lowered) by electron-donating (electron-withdrawing) substituents. The highly mobile and reactive hydroxyl radicals generated by water oxidation can recombine with the reduced chromophore radicals to yield photohydrates. The effect of substituents on the thermodynamics of the photohydration reaction was computed. Among the four chromophores studied, TAHz stands out on account of the metastability of its photohydrate, which suggests self-healing of the photocatalyst after oxidation of TAHzH radicals by OH radicals. In addition, the effect of substituents on the H atom photodetachment reaction from the reduced chromophores, which closes the catalytic cycle, has been investigated. The energy of the repulsive 2πσ* state, which drives the photodetachment reaction is lowered (raised) by electron-donating (electron withdrawing) substituents. All four chromophores exhibit inverted S1/T1 gaps. This feature eliminates long-lived triplet states and thus avoids the activation of molecular oxygen to highly reactive singlet oxygen.

5.
Chemistry ; 26(32): 7281-7291, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212353

RESUMO

Linking a polarized coumarin unit with an aromatic substituent via an amide bridge results in weak electronic coupling that affects the intramolecular electron-transfer (ET) process. As a result of this, interesting solvent-dependent photophysical properties can be observed. In polar solvents, electron transfer in coumarin derivatives of this type induces a mutual twist of the electron-donating and -accepting molecular units (TICT process) that facilitates radiationless decay processes (internal conversion). In the dyad with the strongest intramolecular hydrogen bond, the planar form is stabilized, such that twisting can only occur in highly polar solvents, whereas a fast proton-coupled electron-transfer (PCET process) occurs in nonpolar n-alkanes. The kPCET rate constant decreases linearly with the energy of the fluorescence maximum in different solvents. This observation can be explained in terms of competition between electron- and proton-transfer from a highly polarized (ca. 15 D) and fluorescent locally excited (1 LE) state to a much less polarized (ca. 4 D) charge-transfer (1 CT) state, a unique occurrence. Photophysical measurements performed for a family of related coumarin dyads, together with results of quantum-chemical computations, give insight into the mechanism of the ET process, which is followed by either a TICT or a PCET process. Our results reveal that dielectric solvation of the excited state slows down the PCET process, even in nonpolar solvents.

6.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162638

RESUMO

A series of different electron-deficient aromatic substituents were used to investigate the role of the electron-acceptor strength on the photophysical properties of salicylaldimine derivatives. These molecules were synthesised and characterised through X-ray diffraction, absorption and emission spectroscopies. Their photochemical reaction mechanisms and properties were explored with the aid of ab initio methods of quantum chemistry. Our results allow us to clarify the dependence of the multiple emission bands on the polarity of the solvent and on the substitution of electron donating and accepting groups to the salicylaldimine core.

7.
Chemistry ; 25(67): 15305-15314, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523856

RESUMO

Coumarins are classic, strongly polarized fluorophores with multiple applications, and significant efforts have been put into modifying their emission characteristics and elucidating their photophysics. Expecting that π-expansion of these donor-acceptor chromophores could modify their ground- and excited-state characteristics, the authors performed combined, detailed photophysical and computational studies of linearly π-expanded coumarins, that is, 8-dialkylamino-3-carboxyalkyl-benzo[g]coumarins. The investigation led to the conclusion that emission is only possible thanks to the stabilizing effect of the solvent and that breaking of the lactone ring leads to the conical intersection with the ground state and induces the radiationless decay of the electronic excitation. Aiming at the fine-tuning the excited state properties through the construction of covalently linked dye assemblies, the authors designed and synthesized a new bis(benzo[g]coumarin), built from two similar moieties that exhibit different degrees of polarization due to the electron donor at position 8: one possesses a dialkylamino, and the other a weaker amide donor. Comprehensive studies have shown that the observed weak fluorescence of the system is the result of the interplay between the solvation-induced separation of the benzo[g]coumarin moieties, which stabilizes the emitting locally excited singlet state and the π-stacking interactions, favoring their sandwiched orientation and leading to the non-emissive charge-transfer state.

8.
J Phys Chem A ; 123(38): 8099-8108, 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466450

RESUMO

According to Hund's rule, the lowest triplet state (T1) is lower in energy than the lowest excited singlet state (S1) in closed-shell molecules. The exchange integral lowers the energy of the triplet state and raises the energy of the singlet state of the same orbital character, leading to a positive singlet-triplet energy gap (ΔST). Exceptions are known for biradicals and charge-transfer excited states of large molecules in which the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) are spatially separated, resulting in a small exchange integral. In the present work, we discovered with ADC(2), CC2, EOM-CCSD, and CASPT2 calculations that heptazine (1,3,4,6,7,9,9b-heptaazaphenalene or tri-s-triazine) exhibits an inverted S1/T1 energy gap (ΔST ≈ -0.25 eV). This appears to be the first example of a stable closed-shell organic molecule exhibiting S1/T1 inversion at its equilibrium geometry. The origins of this phenomenon are the nearly pure HOMO-LUMO excitation character of the S1 and T1 states and the lack of spatial overlap of HOMO and LUMO due to a unique structure of these orbitals of heptazine. The S1/T1 inversion is found to be extremely robust, being affected neither by substitution of heptazine nor by oligomerization of heptazine units. Using time-resolved photoluminescence and transient absorption spectroscopy, we investigated the excited-state dynamics of 2,5,8-tris(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,3,4,6,7,9,9b-heptaazaphenalene (TAHz), a chemically stable heptazine derivative, in the presence of external heavy atom sources as well as triplet-quenching oxygen. These spectroscopic data are consistent with TAHz singlet excited state decay in the absence of a low-energy triplet loss channel. The absence of intersystem crossing and an exceptionally low radiative rate result in unusually long S1 lifetimes (of the order of hundreds of nanoseconds in nonaqueous solvents). These features of the heptazine chromophore have profound implications for organic optoelectronics as well as for water-splitting photocatalysis with heptazine-based polymers (e.g., graphitic carbon nitride) which have yet to be systematically explored and exploited.

9.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(25): 13474-13485, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204732

RESUMO

Isoguanine is an alternative nucleobase that has been proposed as a component of expanded genetic codes. It has also been considered as a molecule with potential relevance to primordial informational polymers. Here, we scrutinize the photodynamics of isoguanine, because photostability has been proposed as a critical criterion for the prebiotic selection of biomolecular building blocks on an early Earth. We discuss resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization, IR-UV double resonance spectroscopy and pump-probe measurements performed for this molecule to track the excited-state behaviour of its different tautomeric forms in the gas phase. These experiments, when confronted with highly accurate quantum chemical calculations and nonadiabatic dynamics simulations provide a complete mechanistic picture of the tautomer-specific photodynamics of isoguanine. Our results indicate that UV-excited enol tautomers of isoguanine are relatively short lived and therefore photostable. In contrast, the biologically more relevant keto forms are trapped in dark nπ* states which are sufficiently long lived to participate in destructive photochemistry. The resulting lower photostability compared to canonical nucleobases may have been one of the reasons why isoguanine was not incorporated into DNA and RNA.


Assuntos
DNA/química , Guanina/química , Modelos Moleculares , Cinética , Oxirredução , Processos Fotoquímicos , Teoria Quântica , Termodinâmica
10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(16): 8314-8325, 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951072

RESUMO

A structurally unique cyclic tris-coumarin possessing three identical coumarin units bridged by amide linkers as well as two linear analogs has been synthesized. There is a remarkable agreement between crystallographic data, 1H NMR and results of calculations for the cyclic tris-coumarin, showing in all cases a non-symmetric arrangement of identical coumarin moieties. Weak polarization of the coumarin subunits, resulting from the presence of only CONH- groups as electron-donors, results in a hypsochromic shift of both absorption and emission in this dye. We have proven that in non-cyclic, head-to-tail linked tris-coumarins, the photophysics is controlled not only by the substituents but also by the conformation of the molecule, which in turn depends on the nature of the linker's interactions. These can be controlled by the presence/absence of an amide-type hydrogen atom responsible for the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The presence of a hydrogen bond favors a stretched trans conformation of the dye, while in its absence, folding of the molecule occurs leading to a more compact conformation. Although, the increased number of covalently linked coumarin units does not drastically change the preferred conformation, the fluorescence quantum yields of tris-coumarins are significantly lower than for analogous bis-coumarins composed of the same units.

11.
J Phys Chem A ; 123(17): 3678-3684, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958000

RESUMO

The reduction of carbon dioxide to fuels or chemical feedstocks with solar energy is one of the grand goals of current chemistry. In recent years, electrochemical, photoelectrochemical, and photochemical experiments provided hints of an unexpected catalytic role of the pyridine molecule in the reduction of carbon dioxide to formic acid or methanol. In particular, it has been suggested that the 1-pyridinyl radical (PyH) may be able to reduce carbon dioxide to the hydroxy-formyl radical. However, extensive theoretical studies of the thermodynamics and kinetics of the reaction called this interpretation of the experimental observations into question. Using ab initio computational methods, we investigated the photochemistry of the hydrogen-bonded PyH···CO2 complex. Our results reveal that carbon dioxide can be reduced to the hydroxy-formyl radical by a proton-coupled electron-transfer (PCET) reaction in excited states of the PyH···CO2 complex. In contrast to the ground-state PCET reaction, which exhibits a substantial barrier, the excited-state PCET reaction is barrierless but requires the passage through two conical intersections. Our results provide a tentative explanation of the catalytic role of the PyH radical in the reduction of CO2 with the qualification that the absorption of a photon by PyH is necessary.

12.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(26): 14238-14249, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30543228

RESUMO

The mechanisms of photoinduced reactions of adenine with water molecules in hydrogen-bonded adenine-water complexes were investigated with ab initio wave-function-based electronic-structure calculations. Two excited-state electron/proton transfer reaction mechanisms have been characterized: H-atom abstraction from water by photoexcited adenine as well as H-atom transfer from photoexcited adenine or the (adenine+H) radical to water. In the water-to-adenine H-atom transfer reaction, an electron from one of the p orbitals of the water molecule fills the hole in the n (π) orbital of the nπ* (ππ*) excited state of adenine, resulting in a charge-separated electronic state. The electronic charge separation is neutralized by the transfer of a proton from the water molecule to adenine, resulting in the (adenine+H)OH biradical in the electronic ground state. In the adenine-to-water H-atom transfer reaction, πσ* states localized at the acidic sites of adenine provide the mechanism for the photoejection of an electron from adenine, which is followed by proton transfer to the hydrogen-bonded water molecule, resulting in the (adenine-H)H3O biradical. The energy profiles of the photoreactions have been computed as relaxed scans with the ADC(2) electronic-structure method. These reactions, which involve the reactivity of adenine with hydrogen-bonded water molecules, compete with the well-established intrinsic excited-state deactivation mechanisms of adenine via ring-puckering or ring-opening conical intersections. By providing additional decay channels, the electron/proton exchange reactions with water can account for the observed significantly shortened excited-state lifetime of adenine in aqueous environments. These findings indicate that adenine possibly was not only a photostabilizer at the beginning of life, but also a primordial photocatalyst for water splitting.

13.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(39): 25164-25168, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30272060

RESUMO

Photochemical reactions of tris(salicylideneaniline) were explored by theoretical investigation of relevant potential energy profiles using ab initio methods. A photophysical mechanism was proposed, in which an optical excitation leads to the formation of several tautomeric species in the first excited singlet state, allowing emission over a broad range of wavelengths.

14.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(21): 6257-6261, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30265537

RESUMO

To gain mechanistic understanding of heptazine-based photochemistry, we synthesized and studied 2,5,8-tris(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,3,4,6,7,9,9b-heptaazaphenalene (TAHz), a model molecular photocatalyst chemically related to carbon nitride. On the basis of time-resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) spectroscopy, we kinetically reveal a new feature that emerges in aqueous dispersions of TAHz. Using global target analysis, we spectrally and kinetically resolve the new emission feature to be blue shifted from the steady-state luminescence, and observe a fast decay component exhibiting a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of 2.9 in H2O versus D2O, not observed in the steady-state PL. From ab initio electronic-structure calculations, we attribute this new PL peak to the fluorescence of an upper excited state of mixed nπ*/ππ* character. In water, the KIE suggests the excited state is quenched by proton-coupled electron transfer, liberating hydroxyl radicals that we detect using terephthalic acid. Our findings are consistent with recent theoretical predictions that heptazine-based photocatalysts can participate in proton-coupled electron transfer with H2O.

15.
Chem Sci ; 9(12): 3131-3140, 2018 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29732095

RESUMO

Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CpDs) are among the most common DNA lesions occurring due to the interaction with ultraviolet light. While photolyases have been well known as external factors repairing CpDs, the intrinsic self-repairing capabilities of the GAT 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 T DNA sequence were discovered only recently and are still largely obscure. Here, we elucidate the mechanistic details of this self-repair process by means of MD simulations and QM/MM computations involving the algebraic diagrammatic construction to the second order [ADC(2)] method. We show that local UV-excitation of guanine may be followed by up to three subsequent electron transfers, which may eventually enable efficient CpD ring opening when the negative charge resides on the T 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 T dimer. Consequently, the molecular mechanism of GAT 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 T self-repair can be envisaged as sequential electron transfer (SET) occurring downhill along the slope of the S1 potential energy surface. Even though the general features of the SET mechanism are retained in both of the studied stacked conformers, our optimizations of different S1/S0 state crossings revealed minor differences which could influence their self-repair efficiencies. We expect that such assessment of the availability and efficiency of the SET process in other DNA oligomers could hint towards other sequences exhibiting similar photochemical properties. Such explorations will be particularly fascinating in the context of the origins of biomolecules on Earth, owing to the lack of external repairing factors in the Archean age.

16.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(21): 14420-14430, 2018 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29781032

RESUMO

Polymeric carbon-nitride materials consisting of triazine or heptazine units have recently attracted vast interest as photocatalysts for water splitting with visible light. Adopting the hydrogen-bonded triazine-water complex as a model system, we explored the photochemical reaction mechanisms involved in the water splitting reaction in this system, using wavefunction-based ab initio electronic-structure methods. It is shown that photoexcited triazine can abstract a hydrogen atom from the water molecule by the sequential transfer of an electron and a proton from water to triazine, resulting in the triazinyl-hydroxyl biradical in the electronic ground state. It is furthermore shown that the excess hydrogen atom of the triazinyl radical can be photodetached by a second photon, which regenerates the triazine molecule. The hydrogen-bonded water molecule is thus decomposed into hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals in a biphotonic photochemical reaction. These results shed light on the molecular mechanisms of the water-oxidation reaction catalyzed by triazine-based organic polymers.

17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(21): 14491-14503, 2018 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29766172

RESUMO

The fluorescence intensity of bis-coumarins linked via CONH and COO functionalities are shown to exhibit a strong dependance on solvent polarity. The presence of the intramolecular hydrogen bond between the C[double bond, length as m-dash]O oxygen atom of coumarin and amide-NH moieties reduces the number of thermodynamically populated conformations in both ground and electronically excited states and an anti-arrangement of coumarin units is favored. Additionally, the rigidity of the linker raises the barrier to the conical intersection with the ground state, and in non-polar solvents strong fluorescence is observed. Although changing the CONH linking position from 3-7' to 3-6', does not remarkably affect the photophysics, replacement with a flexible ester linker allows the molecule a greater degree of conformational freedom due to the absence of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding interaction. The photophysical effect of this is the appearance of two fluorescence bands, the relative intensity and spectral positions of which are sensitive to the environment. Theoretical explorations of the excited-state potential energy surfaces performed with the aid of the ADC(2) ab initio electronic structure theory method revealed an exceptional wealth of concomitant photophysical processes. In particular, two channels for radiationless deactivation of the excited state were found; the first is related to the inter-ring twist of the coumarin units, and the second is associated with the excited-state intramolecular proton-transfer (ESIPT) from the CONH linker to the coumarin core.

18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(4): 2646-2655, 2018 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29319075

RESUMO

Molecular switches based on proton transfer that are photochromic and can be interconverted by light at different wavelengths back and forth between two thermodynamically stable tautomeric states in solution at room temperature are rare to date. We report on a study of the ultrafast conversion of the bistable proton transfer switch N-(3-pyridinyl)-2-pyridinecarboxamide (NPPCA) to a corresponding iminol after photoexcitation at λpump ≈ 265 nm by means of femtosecond time-resolved broad-band and single-colour transient electronic absorption spectroscopy (TEAS), transient fluorescence spectroscopy (TFLS), and transient vibrational absorption spectroscopy (TVAS) in acetonitrile solution. The interpretation of the data was accompanied by ab initio quantum chemical calculations of the excited electronic states and the vibrational frequencies of the reactant and product in their ground electronic state. The TEAS experiments provided four time constants, τ1 = 0.09 ± 0.01 ps, τ2 = 0.61 ± 0.01 ps, τ3 = 5.10 ± 0.80 ps, and τ4 = 20.0 ± 1.0 ps. The first two agree well with the measured TFLS lifetimes, τ1,TFL < 0.18 ps and τ2,TFL = 0.50 ± 0.01 ps. τ1 is related to the relaxation of the initially excited Franck-Condon (FC) state of the pyridinecarboxamide, followed by the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) step to the neighbouring pyridine. The subsequent return of the molecules to the electronic ground state takes place within τ2, mediated by a conical intersection (CI) at a twisted configuration of the pyridinecarboxamide moiety. The main components in all TEAS time profiles feature a rise with τ2 and a decay with τ4 and describe subsequent molecular transformations in the electronic ground state. τ3 is ascribed to vibrational cooling of the molecules. The final iminol exhibits a permanent UV absorption at λ = 247 nm, where its absorbance is stronger than that of the carboxamide reactant. The iminol structure is unambiguously identified by the TVA spectra, which show the build-up of corresponding vibrational bands with τ4,TVA = 23 ± 2 ps after the initial bleach of the reactant vibrational bands, in excellent agreement with the TEAS data. Its lifetime is >10 ns.

19.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(29): 19168-19177, 2017 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28702524

RESUMO

The nonadiabatic dynamics of keto isocytosine in the gas phase has been investigated using the on-the-fly trajectory surface hopping method based on two electronic-structure methods: SA-CASSCF and ADC(2). The results estimate an excited-state lifetime of around 1000 fs at the SA-CASSCF level, while a much shorter lifetime of 250-350 fs is obtained at the ADC(2) level. Although three conical intersections (CIs) (Ethyl. I, Ethyl. II and C[double bond, length as m-dash]O stretching) are relevant to the nonadiabatic decay of keto isocytosine, their contributions to the nonadiabatic decay are highly dependent on the electronic-structure methods employed in the dynamics simulation. The Ethyl. II CI is the main channel in the dynamics simulations at the SA-CASSCF level, while the C[double bond, length as m-dash]O stretching CI becomes dominant at the ADC(2) levels. Other high-level electronic-structure methods (MR-CISD and MS-CASPT2) are involved to benchmark our dynamics results. Through the analysis of the reaction pathways from the ground state minimum to the relevant CIs, we expect that the excited-state dynamical features obtained at the MR-CISD and MS-CASPT2 levels should be very similar to those at the SA-CASSCF level. The comparison of results obtained using different excited-state electronic-structure methods could provide guidance for further studies of similar systems.

20.
J Phys Chem A ; 121(25): 4754-4764, 2017 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28592110

RESUMO

Impressive progress has recently been achieved in photocatalytic hydrogen evolution with polymeric carbon nitride materials consisting of heptazine building blocks. However, the fundamental mechanistic principles of the catalytic cycle are as yet poorly understood. Here, we provide first-principles computational evidence that water splitting with heptazine-based materials can be understood as a molecular excited-state reaction taking place in hydrogen-bonded heptazine-water complexes. The oxidation of water occurs homolytically via an electron/proton transfer from water to heptazine, resulting in ground-state heptazinyl and OH radicals. It is shown that the excess hydrogen atom of the heptazinyl radical can be photodetached by a second photon, which regenerates the heptazine molecule. Alternatively to the photodetachment reaction, two heptazinyl radicals can recombine in a dark reaction to form H2, thereby regenerating two heptazine molecules. The proposed molecular photochemical reaction scheme within hydrogen-bonded chromophore-water complexes is complementary to the traditional paradigm of photocatalytic water splitting, which assumes the separation of electrons and holes over substantial time scales and distances.

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