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Nat Commun ; 14(1): 1116, 2023 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36849499


The excitonic insulator (EI) is a Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of excitons bound by electron-hole interaction in a solid, which could support high-temperature BEC transition. The material realization of EI has been challenged by the difficulty of distinguishing it from a conventional charge density wave (CDW) state. In the BEC limit, the preformed exciton gas phase is a hallmark to distinguish EI from conventional CDW, yet direct experimental evidence has been lacking. Here we report a distinct correlated phase beyond the 2×2 CDW ground state emerging in monolayer 1T-ZrTe2 and its investigation by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The results show novel band- and energy-dependent folding behavior in a two-step process, which is the signatures of an exciton gas phase prior to its condensation into the final CDW state. Our findings provide a versatile two-dimensional platform that allows tuning of the excitonic effect.

Nano Lett ; 21(21): 8970-8978, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676752


We report the observation of an anomalous nonlinear optical response of the prototypical three-dimensional topological insulator bismuth selenide through the process of high-order harmonic generation. We find that the generation efficiency increases as the laser polarization is changed from linear to elliptical, and it becomes maximum for circular polarization. With the aid of a microscopic theory and a detailed analysis of the measured spectra, we reveal that such anomalous enhancement encodes the characteristic topology of the band structure that originates from the interplay of strong spin-orbit coupling and time-reversal symmetry protection. The implications are in ultrafast probing of topological phase transitions, light-field driven dissipationless electronics, and quantum computation.

Rev Sci Instrum ; 92(12): 123907, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972440


In photoelectron spectroscopy, the measured electron momentum range is intrinsically related to the excitation photon energy. Low photon energies <10 eV are commonly encountered in laser-based photoemission and lead to a momentum range that is smaller than the Brillouin zones of most materials. This can become a limiting factor when studying condensed matter with laser-based photoemission. An additional restriction is introduced by widely used hemispherical analyzers that record only electrons photoemitted in a solid angle set by the aperture size at the analyzer entrance. Here, we present an upgrade to increase the effective solid angle that is measured with a hemispherical analyzer. We achieve this by accelerating the photoelectrons toward the analyzer with an electric field that is generated by a bias voltage on the sample. Our experimental geometry is comparable to a parallel plate capacitor, and therefore, we approximate the electric field to be uniform along the photoelectron trajectory. With this assumption, we developed an analytic, parameter-free model that relates the measured angles to the electron momenta in the solid and verify its validity by comparing with experimental results on the charge density wave material TbTe3. By providing a larger field of view in momentum space, our approach using a bias potential considerably expands the flexibility of laser-based photoemission setups.

Nat Commun ; 7: 13143, 2016 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27739428


Topological insulators host spin-polarized surface states born out of the energetic inversion of bulk bands driven by the spin-orbit interaction. Here we discover previously unidentified consequences of band-inversion on the surface electronic structure of the topological insulator Bi2Se3. By performing simultaneous spin, time, and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we map the spin-polarized unoccupied electronic structure and identify a surface resonance which is distinct from the topological surface state, yet shares a similar spin-orbital texture with opposite orientation. Its momentum dependence and spin texture imply an intimate connection with the topological surface state. Calculations show these two distinct states can emerge from trivial Rashba-like states that change topology through the spin-orbit-induced band inversion. This work thus provides a compelling view of the coevolution of surface states through a topological phase transition, enabled by the unique capability of directly measuring the spin-polarized unoccupied band structure.

Nano Lett ; 15(6): 4150-4, 2015 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26027951


Ultrathin FeSe films grown on SrTiO3 substrates are a recent milestone in atomic material engineering due to their important role in understanding unconventional superconductivity in Fe-based materials. By using femtosecond time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, we study phonon frequencies in ultrathin FeSe/SrTiO3 films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. After optical excitation, we observe periodic modulations of the photoelectron spectrum as a function of pump-probe delay for 1-unit-cell, 3-unit-cell, and 60-unit-cell thick FeSe films. The frequencies of the coherent intensity oscillations increase from 5.00 ± 0.02 to 5.25 ± 0.02 THz with increasing film thickness. By comparing with previous works, we attribute this mode to the Se A1g phonon. The dominant mechanism for the phonon softening in 1-unit-cell thick FeSe films is a substrate-induced lattice strain. Our results demonstrate an abrupt phonon renormalization due to a lattice mismatch between the ultrathin film and the substrate.