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1.
BioTech (Basel) ; 13(2)2024 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38921048

RESUMO

Candida species are frequently implicated in the development of both superficial and invasive fungal infections, which can impact vital organs. In the quest for novel strategies to combat fungal infections, there has been growing interest in exploring synthetic and semi-synthetic products, particularly chromone derivatives, renowned for their antimicrobial properties. In the analysis of the antifungal activity of the compound (E)-benzylidene-chroman-4-one against Candida, in silico and laboratory tests were performed to predict possible mechanisms of action pathways, and in vitro tests were performed to determine antifungal activity (MIC and MFC), to verify potential modes of action on the fungal cell membrane and wall, and to assess cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes. The tested compound exhibited predicted affinity for all fungal targets, with the highest predicted affinity observed for thymidylate synthase (-102.589 kJ/mol). MIC and CFM values ranged from 264.52 µM (62.5 µg/mL) to 4232.44 µM (1000 µg/mL). The antifungal effect likely occurs due to the action of the compound on the plasma membrane. Therefore, (E)-benzylidene-chroman-4-one showed fungicidal-like activity against Candida spp., possibly targeting the plasma membrane.

2.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 17(5)2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38794211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: (-)-Fenchone is a naturally occurring monoterpene found in the essential oils of Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Thuja occidentalis L., and Peumus boldus Molina. Pharmacological studies have reported its antinociceptive, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal, and antioxidant activities. METHODS: The preventive antiulcer effects of (-)-Fenchone were assessed through oral pretreatment in cysteamine-induced duodenal lesion models. Gastric healing, the underlying mechanisms, and toxicity after repeated doses were evaluated using the acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer rat model with oral treatment administered for 14 days. RESULTS: In the cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer model, fenchone (37.5-300 mg/kg) significantly decreased the ulcer area and prevented lesion formation. In the acetic acid-induced ulcer model, fenchone (150 mg/kg) reduced (p < 0.001) ulcerative injury. These effects were associated with increased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), interleukin (IL)-10, and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß). Furthermore, treatment with (-)-Fenchone (150 mg/kg) significantly reduced (p < 0.001) malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB). A 14-day oral toxicity investigation revealed no alterations in heart, liver, spleen, or kidney weight, nor in the biochemical and hematological parameters assessed. (-)-Fenchone protected animals from body weight loss while maintaining feed and water intake. CONCLUSION: (-)-Fenchone exhibits low toxicity, prevents duodenal ulcers, and enhances gastric healing activities. Antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties appear to be involved in its therapeutic effects.

3.
Chem Biodivers ; 21(6): e202301982, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608157

RESUMO

Geopropolis resins are produced by stingless bees (Meliponinae), developed from the collection of resinous materials, waxes and exudates, from the flora of the region where stingless bees are present, in addition to the addition of clay or earth in its composition. Several biological activities are attributed to Ethanol Extracts of Geopropolis (EEGP). The bioactive properties are associated with the complex chemical composition that the samples have. This work aims to evaluate the biological activities of the EEGP, in order to contribute with a natural therapeutic alternative, to face infections, mainly those caused by resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. The EEGP MIC tests showed antibacterial activity against two strains of S. aureus, both at concentrations of 550 µg/mL. The MBC performed with the inhibition values showed that the EEGP has bacteriostatic activity in both strains. Biofilm inhibition rates exhibited an average value greater than 65 % at the highest concentration. The EEGP antioxidant potential test showed good antioxidant activity (IC50) of 11.05±1.55 µg/mL. In the cytotoxicity test against HaCat cells, after 24 hours, EEGP induced cell viability at the three tested concentrations (550 µg/mL: 81.68±3.79 %; 1100 µg/mL: 67.10±3.76 %; 2200 µg/mL: 67.40±1.86 %). In view of the above, the safe use of EEGP from the brazilian northeast could be proven by the cytotoxicity test, and its use as an antioxidant and antibacterial agent has proven to be effective, as an alternative in combating oxidative stress and microorganisms such as S. aureus, which, through the spread and ongoing evolution of drug resistance, generates an active search for effective solutions.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Biofilmes , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Abelhas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Própole/química , Própole/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
4.
Braz Oral Res ; 38: e016, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38477802

RESUMO

The pathogenic nature of infections caused by Candida spp. underscores the necessity for novel therapeutic agents. Extracts of Schinopsis brasilienses Engl are \ a promising source of agents with antifungal effects. This study aimed to assess the antifungal potential of the leaf extract of S. brasilienses. The antifungal activity was evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations and fungicide concentrations (MIC and MFC). The antibiofilm potential was assessed by counting colony-forming units/mL. The study examined the inhibition kinetics of fungal growth and potential synergism between gallic acid or the extract and nystatin using the Checkerboard method. Cytotoxicity was evaluated through the MTT assay. The extract exhibited antifungal effect against all tested strains, with MIC and MFC ranging from 31.25-250 µg/mL. Gallic acid, the main isolated compound, displayed a MIC of 2000 µg/mL. The extract of S. brasilienses at 31.25 µg/mL inhibited the formation of biofilm by C. albicans and significantly reduced the mass of mature biofilm after 24 and 48 h (p < 0. 05). At a concentration of 125 µg/mL, the extract demonstrated significant inhibition of fungal growth after 6 hours. The combination of gallic acid or extract with nystatin did not exhibit synergistic or antagonistic effect. Furthermore, the extract did not induce cytotoxicity to a human cell line. The extract of S. brasiliensis demonstrates antifungal activity against Candida, generally exhibiting fungicidal action and capacity to inhibit biofilm formation as well as reduce mature biofilms. Additionally, the extract showed low cytotoxicity to human cells.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Candida , Humanos , Antifúngicos , Nistatina , Candida albicans , Biofilmes , Ácido Gálico , Extratos Vegetais
6.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 38: e016, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1550155

RESUMO

Abstract The pathogenic nature of infections caused by Candida spp. underscores the necessity for novel therapeutic agents. Extracts of Schinopsis brasilienses Engl are / a promising source of agents with antifungal effects. This study aimed to assess the antifungal potential of the leaf extract of S. brasilienses. The antifungal activity was evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations and fungicide concentrations (MIC and MFC). The antibiofilm potential was assessed by counting colony-forming units/mL. The study examined the inhibition kinetics of fungal growth and potential synergism between gallic acid or the extract and nystatin using the Checkerboard method. Cytotoxicity was evaluated through the MTT assay. The extract exhibited antifungal effect against all tested strains, with MIC and MFC ranging from 31.25-250 μg/mL. Gallic acid, the main isolated compound, displayed a MIC of 2000 μg/mL. The extract of S. brasilienses at 31.25 μg/mL inhibited the formation of biofilm by C. albicans and significantly reduced the mass of mature biofilm after 24 and 48 h (p < 0. 05). At a concentration of 125 μg/mL, the extract demonstrated significant inhibition of fungal growth after 6 hours. The combination of gallic acid or extract with nystatin did not exhibit synergistic or antagonistic effect. Furthermore, the extract did not induce cytotoxicity to a human cell line. The extract of S. brasiliensis demonstrates antifungal activity against Candida, generally exhibiting fungicidal action and capacity to inhibit biofilm formation as well as reduce mature biofilms. Additionally, the extract showed low cytotoxicity to human cells.

7.
Fungal Biol ; 127(12): 1451-1465, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38097319

RESUMO

This study investigates the antifungal and cytotoxic properties of 7-(pentyloxy)-2H-chromen-2-one. Through molecular docking and dynamics simulations, we explored the compound's interactions with fungal cell protein targets. Notably, it exhibited strong affinities for 1,3ß-glucan synthase, squalene epoxidase, δ-14-sterol reductase, 14-α-demethylase, and thymidylate synthase, with binding energies ranging from -100.39 to -73.15 kcal/mol. Molecular dynamics simulations confirmed its stable binding at active targets. The MIC and MFC values ranged from 67.16 µM (15.6 µg/mL) to 537.28 µM (125.0 µg/mL). The compound displayed promising antifungal effects, inhibiting fungal growth for at least 24 hours. Fungal plasma membrane function alteration likely contributed to these antifungal mechanisms. Additionally, the combination of the compound with nystatin, fluconazole, and caspofungin showed indifferent effects on antifungal activity. Cytotoxicity assessment in human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) revealed an IC50 of 100 µM, which was approximately 1.5 times higher than the MIC for C. krusei. Thus, the compound exhibited strongly in silico and in vitro antifungal activity with low cytotoxicity in HaCaT cells. These findings support its potential as a candidate for further development as an antifungal compound.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Candida , Humanos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Umbeliferonas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
8.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 16(11)2023 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38004419

RESUMO

The characterization and cytotoxicity of the essential oil from Conyza bonariensis (L.) aerial parts (CBEO) were previously conducted. The major compound was (Z)-2-lachnophyllum ester (EZ), and CBEO exhibited significant ROS-dependent cytotoxicity in the melanoma cell line SK-MEL-28. Herein, we employed the Molegro Virtual Docker v.6.0.1 software to investigate the interactions between the EZ and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs), the Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB), and the Protein Kinase B (PKB/AKT). Additionally, in vitro assays were performed in SK-MEL-28 cells to assess the effect of CBEO on the cell cycle, apoptosis, and these signaling pathways by flow cytometry and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay using MAPKs inhibitors. CBEO induced a significant increase in the sub-G1 peak, as well as biochemical and morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis. The in-silico results indicated that EZ interacts with Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1 (ERK1), c-Jun N-terminal Kinase 1 (JNK1), p38α MAPK, NF-κB, and PKB/AKT. Moreover, CBEO modulated the ERK1/2, JNK, p38 MAPK, NF-κB, and PKB/AKT activities in SK-MEL-28 cells. Furthermore, CBEO's cytotoxicity against SK-MEL-28 cells was significantly altered in the presence of MAPKs inhibitors. These findings support the in vitro antimelanoma effect of CBEO through apoptosis induction, and the modulation of ERK, JNK, p38 MAPK, NF-κB, and PKB/AKT activities.

9.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-7, 2023 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37991440

RESUMO

Pink pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) is a native species native from Central and South America that produces an essential oil (EOpp) with promising applications. This work aimed to investigate the chemical composition and cytotoxic activity of EOpp extracted from unripe (U-EOpp) and ripe (R-EOpp) pink pepper fruits. U-EOpp and R-EOpp were extracted using the hydrodistillation technique and analysed using NMR and GC-MS. U-EOpp and R-EOpp cytotoxic activity was assessed using HL-60 (acute promyelocytic leukemia) and SK-MEL-28 (malignant melanoma) cell lines by MTT assay. Results showed that α-pinene (29.16%), dl-Limonene (20.65%), and ρ-cymene (15.86%) were U-EOpp major components. In addition, l-phellandrene (38.91%), Sylvestrene (23.02%), and α-pinene (21.62%) were R-EOpp major components. U-EOpp showed cytotoxic activity at 37.5 and 18.7 µg/mL for SK-MEL-28 and HL-60, respectively. R-EOpp showed cytotoxic activity for HL-60 at 100 µg/mL. Therefore, EOpp may represent a remarkable source of active natural compounds used in traditional Brazilian medicine.

10.
Chem Biodivers ; 20(11): e202300717, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37867470

RESUMO

Essential oils stand out among natural products for their complex composition, frequently described in the literature with a range of biological effects. This study evaluated the cytotoxic activity against several human cancer cell lines of essential oils extracted from the leaves of Lippia microphylla (EO-LM) Cham. (Verbenaceae). The melanoma cell line SK-MEL-28 was the most sensitive to the EO-LM, presenting an IC50 of 33.38±1.16 µg/mL. Afterward, the effects of EO-LM on the cell cycle, induction of apoptosis, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated. We stated a significant increase in the sub-G1 population, indicating apoptosis, later confirmed by an increase of SK-MEL-28 cells labeled with Annexin V-FITC and by the formation of apoptotic bodies and membrane blebs, observed by confocal microscopy. Additionally, EO-LM reduced the production of ROS, indicating antioxidant activity. Therefore, EO-LM exhibits anti-melanoma activity in vitro, suggesting its potential as an anticancer agent.


Assuntos
Lippia , Óleos Voláteis , Verbenaceae , Humanos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Lippia/metabolismo , Óleos de Plantas/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
11.
Biomolecules ; 13(10)2023 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37892120

RESUMO

The essential oil from Conyza bonariensis (Asteraceae) aerial parts (CBEO) was extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and was characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antitumor potential was evaluated against human tumor cell lines (melanoma, cervical, colorectal, and leukemias), as well as non-tumor keratinocyte lines using the MTT assay. The effect of CBEO on the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) was evaluated by DCFH-DA assay, and a protection assay using the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) was also performed. Moreover, the CBEO toxicity in the zebrafish model was assessed. The majority of the CBEO compound was (Z)-2-lachnophyllum ester (57.24%). The CBEO exhibited selectivity towards SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells (half maximal inhibitory concentration, IC50 = 18.65 ± 1.16 µg/mL), and induced a significant increase in ROS production. In addition, the CBEO's cytotoxicity against SK-MEL-28 cells was reduced after pretreatment with NAC. Furthermore, after 96 h of exposure, 1.5 µg/mL CBEO induced death of all zebrafish embryos. Non-lethal effects were observed after exposure to 0.50-1.25 µg/mL CBEO. Additionally, significant alterations in the activity of enzymes associated with oxidative stress in zebrafish larvae were observed. These results provide evidence that CBEO has a significant in vitro antimelanoma effect by increasing ROS production and moderate embryotoxicity in zebrafish.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Conyza , Melanoma , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Humanos , Conyza/química , Peixe-Zebra , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química
12.
Nutrients ; 14(10)2022 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35631239

RESUMO

Background: This study assessed the effects of Baru (Dipteryx alata Vog.) almond oil supplementation on vascular function, platelet aggregation, and thrombus formation in aorta arteries of Wistar rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were allocated into three groups. The control group (n = 6), a Baru group receiving Baru almond oil at 7.2 mL/kg/day (BG 7.2 mL/kg, n = 6), and (iii) a Baru group receiving Baru almond oil at 14.4 mL/kg/day (BG 14.4 mL/kg, n = 6). Baru oil was administered for ten days. Platelet aggregation, thrombus formation, vascular function, and reactive oxygen species production were evaluated at the end of treatment. Results: Baru oil supplementation reduced platelet aggregation (p < 0.05) and the production of the superoxide anion radical in platelets (p < 0.05). Additionally, Baru oil supplementation exerted an antithrombotic effect (p < 0.05) and improved the vascular function of aorta arteries (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings showed that Baru oil reduced platelet aggregation, reactive oxygen species production, and improved vascular function, suggesting it to be a functional oil with great potential to act as a novel product for preventing and treating cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Dipteryx , Trombose , Animais , Aorta , Artérias , Masculino , Óleos de Plantas , Agregação Plaquetária , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/farmacologia , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Pharmacol Rep ; 74(3): 545-554, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35297003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acridine compounds have been described as promising anticancer agents. Previous studies showed that (E)-1'-((4-chlorobenzylidene)amino)-5'-oxo-1',5'-dihydro-10H-spiro[acridine-9,2'-pyrrole]-4'-carbonitrile (AMTAC-06), a spiro-acridine compound, has antitumor activity on Ehrlich tumor and low toxicity. Herein, we investigated its antitumor effect against human cells in vitro. METHODS: MTT assay was used to assess cytotoxicity of AMTAC-06 (3.125-200 µM) against tumor and non-tumor cells, and the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) and the selectivity index (SI) were calculated. The effects on the cell cycle (propidium iodide-PI-staining), apoptosis (Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining by flow cytometry), and production of reactive oxygen species, ROS (DCFH assay) were also evaluated. Statistical analysis was achieved using ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-test. RESULTS: AMTAC-06 showed higher cytotoxicity against colorectal carcinoma HCT-116 cells (IC50: 12.62 µM). The SI showed that AMTAC-06 was more selective for HCT-116 cells (HaCaT SI: 1.41; PBMC SI: 0.62) than doxorubicin (HaCaT SI: 0.10; PBMC SI: 0.01). AMTAC-06 (15 and 30 µM) induced an increase in the sub-G1 peak (p < 0.000001) and cell cycle arrest in S phase (p = 0.003547). Moreover, treatment with this compound (15 and 30 µM) resulted in increased early (p < 0.000001) and late apoptotic cells (p < 0.000001). In addition, there was a reduction on ROS production (p < 0.000001). CONCLUSIONS: AMTAC-06 presents anticancer activity against HCT-116 cells by regulating the cell cycle, inducing apoptosis and an antioxidant action.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Colorretais , Compostos de Espiro , Acridinas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Compostos de Espiro/farmacologia
14.
Phytomedicine ; 86: 153497, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: p-Cymene and rosmarinic acid are secondary metabolites found in several medicinal plants and spices. Previous studies have demonstrated their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cytoprotective effects. PURPOSE: To evaluate their gastroduodenal antiulcer activity, gastric healing and toxicity in experimental models. METHODS: Preventive antiulcer effects were assessed using oral pre-treatment on HCl/ethanol-induced gastric lesions and cysteamine-induced duodenal lesions models. Gastric healing, the underlining mechanisms and toxicity after repeated doses were carried out using the acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer rat model and oral treatment for 14 days. RESULTS: In the HCl/ethanol-induced gastric ulcer and cysteamine-induced duodenal injury, p-cymene and rosmarinic acid (50-200 mg/kg) decreased significantly the ulcer area, and so prevented lesions formation. In the acetic acid-induced ulcer model, both compounds (200 mg/kg) markedly reduced the ulcerative injury. These effects were related to an increase in the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and interleukin (IL)-10, and due to a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA), IL-1ß, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, total and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Downregulation of factor nuclear kappa B (NFκB) and enhanced expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)3 were also demonstrated. Furthermore, positive vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and cyclooxygenase (COX-2)-stained cells were increased in treated groups. Treatment also upregulated the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in gastric tissues. In isolated gastric epithelial cells this healing effect seems to be linked to a modulation of apoptosis, proliferation, survival and protein phosphorylation, such as the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Oral toxicity investigation for 14 days revealed no alterations in heart, liver, spleen, and kidneys weight nor the biochemical and hematological assessed parameters. p-Cymene and rosmarinic acid also protected animals from body weight loss maintaining feed and water intake. CONCLUSIONS: Data altogether suggest low toxicity, antiulcer and gastric healing activities of p-cymene and rosmarinic acid. Antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties seem to be involved in the curative effect as well as the induction of different factors linked to tissue repair.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/uso terapêutico , Cinamatos/uso terapêutico , Cimenos/uso terapêutico , Depsídeos/uso terapêutico , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Plantas Medicinais , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Ácido Rosmarínico
15.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5015-5024, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Despite being a rare disease, melanoma is considered the most dangerous skin cancer due to its highly invasive and aggressive nature, and still requires for more effective treatments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-melanoma potential of Ephedranthus pisocarpus R.E.Fr. (Annonaceae), a popular Brazilian plant with medicinal properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Initially, the ethanolic extract (EtOH) was obtained from E. pisocarpus leaves and later partitioned using increasing polarity solvents. The anti-melanoma potential of E. pisocarpus was assessed by spectrophotometry and its cytotoxicity determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and confocal microscopy. RESULTS: We demonstrated that the EtOH extract and fractions from E. pisocarpus had a moderate photoprotective action (FPS 3.0-5.0) against UVA radiation. Interestingly, the dichloromethane fraction presented higher anti-melanoma activity against B16-F10 (IC50=46.8 µg/ml) and SK-MEL-28 cells (IC50=40.1 µg/ml) and lesser toxicity on normal cells. Additionally, our study reported that spathulenol, one of the major constituents from E. pisocarpus, acts through an apoptosis-dependent mechanism in SK-MEL-28 cells. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated, for the first time, the in vitro anti-melanoma potential of E. pisocarpus against melanoma cells.


Assuntos
Annonaceae/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Brasil , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hemólise , Humanos , Melanoma Experimental , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
16.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5049-5057, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Studies with acridine compounds have reported anticancer effects. Herein, we evaluated the toxicity and antitumor effect of the (E)-1'-((4-chlorobenzylidene)amino)-5'-oxo-1',5'-dihydro-10H-spiro[acridine-9,2'-pyrrole]-4'-carbonitrile (AMTAC-06), a promising anticancer spiro-acridine compound. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The toxicity of AMTAC-06 was evaluated on zebrafish and mice. Antitumor activity was assessed in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma model. Effects on angiogenesis, cytokine levels and cell cycle were also investigated. RESULTS: AMTAC-06 did not induce toxicity on zebrafish and mice (LD50 approximately 5000 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). No genotoxicity was observed on micronucleus assay. AMTAC-06 significantly reduced the total viable Ehrlich tumor cells and increased sub-G1 peak, suggesting apoptosis was triggered. Moreover, the compound significantly decreased the density of peritumoral microvessels, indicating an anti-angiogenic action, possibly dependent on the cytokine modulation (TNF-α, IL-1ß and IFN-γ). No significant toxicological effects were recorded for AMTAC-06 on tumor transplanted animals. CONCLUSION: AMTAC-06 has low toxicity and a significant antitumor activity.


Assuntos
Acridinas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Compostos de Espiro/farmacologia , Acridinas/química , Inibidores da Angiogênese/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos de Espiro/química , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Peixe-Zebra
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(16)2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824269

RESUMO

p-Cymene (p-C) and rosmarinic acid (RA) are secondary metabolites that are present in medicinal herbs and Mediterranean spices that have promising anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to evaluate their intestinal anti-inflammatory activity in the trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis model in rats. p-C and RA (25-200 mg/kg) oral administration reduced the macroscopic lesion score, ulcerative area, intestinal weight/length ratio, and diarrheal index in TNBS-treated animals. Both compounds (200 mg/kg) decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO), restored glutathione (GSH) levels, and enhanced fluorescence intensity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). They also decreased interleukin (IL)-1ß and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and maintained IL-10 basal levels. Furthermore, they modulated T cell populations (cluster of differentiation (CD)4+, CD8+, or CD3+CD4+CD25+) analyzed from the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and colon samples, and also decreased cyclooxigenase 2 (COX-2), interferon (IFN)-γ, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nuclear transcription factor kappa B subunit p65 (NFκB-p65) mRNA transcription, but only p-C interfered in the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) expression in inflamed colons. An increase in gene expression and positive cells immunostained for mucin type 2 (MUC-2) and zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) was observed. Altogether, these results indicate intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of p-C and RA involving the cytoprotection of the intestinal barrier, maintaining the mucus layer, and preserving communicating junctions, as well as through modulation of the antioxidant and immunomodulatory systems.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Cinamatos/uso terapêutico , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Cimenos/uso terapêutico , Depsídeos/uso terapêutico , Mucina-2/metabolismo , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Cimenos/farmacologia , Depsídeos/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucina-2/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/genética , Ácido Rosmarínico
18.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 130: 110578, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Estragole is an aromatic organic compound belonging to the class of phenylpropanoids derived from cinnamic aldehydes and present in essential oils of plant species, such asRavensara anisata (madeira), Ocimum basilicum (manjericão/alfavaca) and Croton zehntneri (canelinha). Pharmacological studies report its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and vasorelaxant activity. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the acute non-clinical toxicity, gastroprotective activity and the related mechanisms of action. METHODS: Acute toxicity was assessed according to OECD guide 423 in mice. Ethanol, stress, piroxicam and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer models were used to investigate antiulcer properties. The related mechanisms of action were using the ethanol-gastric lesions protocol. RESULTS: In the acute oral toxicity assay, doses of 300 or 2000 mg/kg of estragole administered orally in Swiss mice did not induce any behavioral changes. However, the dose of 2000 mg/kg showed a decrease in water and feed intake. Lethal dose 50 % (LD50) was set to be equal to or greater than 2500 mg/kg, according to OECD. In all evaluated protocols, estragole (31.25, 62.5, 125 and 250 mg/kg) significantly reduced the area of ​​ulcerative lesion when compared to control groups. To investigate the mechanisms involved in the gastroprotective activity, the antisecretory or neutralizing of gastric secretion, cytoprotectant, antioxidant and immunoregulatory effects were evaluated. Results showed that treatment with estragole (250 mg/kg) reduced (p < 0.05) the volume of the gastric juice. Besides, sulfhydryl groups, nitric oxide, mucus and prostaglandins seems to be involved in the gastroprotective property. Treatment also increased (p < 0.001) levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and positive cells marked for glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). It also reduced (p < 0.001) malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (p < 0.05) levels. CONCLUSION: Thus, it is possible to infer that estragole presents gastroprotective activity related to antisecretory, cytoprotective, antioxidant and immunomodulatory mechanisms.


Assuntos
Anisóis/uso terapêutico , Antiulcerosos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Derivados de Alilbenzenos , Animais , Anisóis/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides , Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Citoproteção , Etanol , Mucosa Gástrica/citologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Piroxicam , Ratos Wistar , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Estômago/patologia , Úlcera Gástrica/etiologia , Úlcera Gástrica/imunologia , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Estresse Psicológico
19.
ACS Omega ; 5(23): 13656-13663, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32566830

RESUMO

Six sesquiterpenoids with unprecedented macrocyclic humulene-type structures, namely, dolichocarpols A-E (1-5) with ether-bridged bicyclic rings between C-10 and C-2, C-10 and C-7, C-10 and C-6 (×2), and C-6 and C-3 and dolichocarpol F (6) cyclized between C-7 and C-2 and with an ether bridge between C-10 and C-3, were isolated from Anaxagorea dolichocarpa roots. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by NMR, MS, and IR data. Absolute configurations of compounds 1-3 and 6 were established on the basis of data from electronic circular dichroism, whereas relative configurations of compounds 4 and 5 were suggested by the NOESY spectrum. In addition, a putative biosynthetic pathway of the compounds is proposed. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of 3, 4, and 6 against HCT-116 (human colorectal carcinoma) and L929 (murine fibroblast) was evaluated.

20.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 393(9): 1701-1714, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388599

RESUMO

Cancer is one of the most urgent problems in medicine. In recent years, cancer is the second leading cause of death globally. In search for more effective and less toxic treatment against cancer, natural products are used as prototypes in the synthesis of new anticancer drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo toxicity and the mechanism of antitumor action of 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin (UMB-07), a coumarin derivative with antitumor activity. The toxicity was evaluated in vitro (hemolysis assay), and in vivo (micronucleus and acute toxicity assays). Ehrlich ascites carcinoma model was used to evaluate in vivo antitumor activity of UMB-07 (12.5, 25, or 50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, i.p.), after 9 days of treatment, as well as toxicity. UMB-07 (2000 µg/mL) induced only 0.8% of hemolysis in peripheral blood erythrocytes of mice. On acute toxicity assay, LD50 (50% lethal dose) was estimated at around 1000 mg/kg (i.p.), and no micronucleated erythrocytes were recorded after UMB-07 (300 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment. UMB-07 (25 and 50 mg/kg) reduced tumor volume and total viable cancer cells. In the mechanism action investigation, no changes were observed on the cell cycle analysis; however, UMB-07 reduced peritumoral microvessels density and CCL2 chemokine levels. In addition, UMB-07 showed weak toxicity on biochemical, hematological, and histological parameters after 9 days of antitumor treatment. The current findings suggest that UMB-07 has low toxicity and exerts antitumor effect by inhibit angiogenesis via CCL2 chemokine decrease.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Ehrlich/tratamento farmacológico , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Neovascularização Patológica , Animais , Carcinoma de Ehrlich/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Ehrlich/patologia , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Camundongos , Densidade Microvascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais , Microambiente Tumoral
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