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1.
J Neurol Sci ; 421: 117305, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540321

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although polyneuropathy in patients with immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis has been considered to be attributable to axonal degeneration resulting from amyloid deposition, patients with nerve conduction parameters indicating demyelination that mimics chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) have also been reported anecdotally. METHODS: We evaluated the electrophysiological and pathological features of 8 consecutive patients with AL amyloidosis who were referred for sural nerve biopsy. RESULTS: Although findings of axonal neuropathy predominantly in the lower limbs were the cardinal feature, all patients showed one or more abnormalities of nerve conduction velocities or distal motor latencies. In particular, 2 of these patients fulfilled the definite electrophysiological for CIDP defined by the European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society (EFNS/PNS). On electron microscopic examination of sural nerve biopsy specimens, Schwann cells apposed to amyloid fibrils became atrophic in all patients, suggesting that amyloid deposits directly affect neighboring tissues. Additionally, detachment of the neurilemma from the outermost compacted myelin lamella was seen where amyloid fibrils were absent in 4 patients. Electrophysiological findings suggestive of demyelination were more conspicuous in these patients compared with the other patients. The detachment of the neurilemma from the outermost compacted myelin lamella was particularly conspicuous in patients who fulfilled the definite EFNS/PNS electrophysiological criteria for CIDP. CONCLUSION: Abnormalities of myelinated fibers unrelated to amyloid deposition may frequently occur in AL amyloidosis. Disjunction between myelin and the neurilemma may induce nerve conduction abnormalities suggestive of demyelination.

2.
Neurobiol Aging ; 100: 120.e1-120.e6, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339634

RESUMO

Mutations in the valosin-containing protein (VCP) gene are known to cause various neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we report 8 Japanese patients [6 men, 2 women; median age at onset: 49.5 (range, 35-58) years] from 5 unrelated families with VCP missense mutations. Although 7 of 8 patients were diagnosed with either inclusion body myopathy or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 1 patient showed demyelinating polyneuropathy, which was confirmed by longitudinal nerve conduction studies. Sural nerve biopsy of the patient revealed intranuclear ubiquitin staining in Schwann cells. Three known pathogenic VCP mutations (p.Arg191Gln, p.Arg155Cys, and p.Ile126Phe) were detected. A novel mutation, c.293 A>T (p.Asp98Val), was also identified in a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. This mutation was predicted to be "deleterious" or "disease causing" using in silico mutation analyses. In conclusion, demyelinating polyneuropathy may be a novel phenotype caused by VCP mutations. The p.Asp98Val mutation was found to be a novel pathogenic mutation of VCP proteinopathy. We believe our cases represent a wide clinical spectrum of VCP mutations.

3.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 12: 592469, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33192489

RESUMO

Recent studies have demonstrated that connector hubs, regions considered critical for the flow of information across neural systems, are mostly involved in neurodegenerative dementia. Considering that aging can significantly affect the brain's intrinsic connectivity, identifying aging's impact on these regions' overall connection strength is important to differentiate changes associated with healthy aging from neurodegenerative disorders. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from a carefully selected cohort of 175 healthy volunteers aging from 21 to 86 years old, we computed an intrinsic connectivity contrast (ICC) metric, which quantifies a region's overall connectivity strength, for whole brain, short-range, and long-range connections and examined age-related changes of this metric over the adult lifespan. We have identified a limited number of hub regions with ICC values that showed significant negative relationship with age. These include the medial precentral/midcingulate gyri and insula with both their short-range and long-range (and thus whole-brain) ICC values negatively associated with age, and the angular, middle frontal, and posterior cingulate gyri with their long-range ICC values mainly involved. Seed-based connectivity analyses further confirmed that these regions are connector hubs with connectivity profile that strongly overlapped with multiple large-scale brain networks. General cognitive performance was not associated with these hubs' ICC values. These findings suggest that even healthy aging could negatively impact the efficiency of regions critical for facilitating information transfer among different functional brain networks. The extent of the regions involved, however, was limited.

4.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 91(12): 1339-1342, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041261

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Approximately 15%-20% of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) are unable to walk independently at 6 months from the onset of neurological symptom. The modified Erasmus GBS outcome score (mEGOS) has been reported as a prognostic tool.Herein we investigated the association between a poor outcome, inability to walk independently at 6 months and presence of antiganglioside antibodies. METHODS: The clinical and serological data of 177 patients with GBS were retrospectively collected in Japan to assess the associations between a poor outcome and serum IgG antibodies against each ganglioside (GM1, GD1a, GalNAc-GD1a, GQ1b and GT1a). In addition, we investigated whether the combination of mEGOS and serum IgG antibodies against gangliosides is useful in predicting a poor outcome. RESULTS: The patients with IgG anti-GD1a antibodies more frequently showed poor outcomes than those without these antibodies (9 (36%) of 25 vs 8 (6%) of 127 patients, p<0.001). Particularly, 80% showed a poor outcome when they had both serum IgG anti-GD1a antibody and a high mEGOS of ≥10 on day 7 of admission. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of serum IgG anti-GD1a antibodies and a high mEGOS could help in making a more accurate prognosis of patients than mEGOS alone, especially for predicting poor outcomes.

5.
Magn Reson Med Sci ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115986

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The estimation of functional connectivity (FC) measures using resting state functional MRI (fMRI) is often affected by head motion during functional imaging scans. Head motion is more common in the elderly than in young participants and could therefore affect the evaluation of age-related changes in brain networks. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the influence of head motion in FC estimation when evaluating age-related changes in brain networks. METHODS: This study involved 132 healthy volunteers divided into 3 groups: elderly participants with high motion (OldHM, mean age (±SD) = 69.6 (±5.31), N = 44), elderly participants with low motion (OldLM, mean age (±SD) = 68.7 (±4.59), N = 43), and young adult participants with low motion (YugLM, mean age (±SD) = 27.6 (±5.26), N = 45). Head motion was quantified using the mean of the framewise displacement of resting state fMRI data. After preprocessing all resting state fMRI datasets, several resting state networks (RSNs) were extracted using independent component analysis (ICA). In addition, several network metrics were also calculated using network analysis. These FC measures were then compared among the 3 groups. RESULTS: In ICA, the number of voxels with significant differences in RSNs was higher in YugLM vs. OldLM comparison than in YugLM vs. OldHM. In network analysis, all network metrics showed significant (P < 0.05) differences in comparisons involving low vs. high motion groups (OldHM vs. OldLM and OldHM vs. YugLM). However, there was no significant (P > 0.05) difference in the comparison involving the low motion groups (OldLM vs. YugLM). CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that head motion during functional imaging could significantly affect the evaluation of age-related brain network changes using resting state fMRI data.

6.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 7(11): 2115-2126, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a multisystem disorder associated with motor impairment and behavioral/cognitive involvement. We examined decision-making features and changes in the neural hub network in patients with ALS using a probabilistic reversal learning task and resting-state network analysis, respectively. METHODS: Ninety ALS patients and 127 cognitively normal participants performed this task. Data from 62 ALS patients and 63 control participants were fitted to a Q-learning model. RESULTS: ALS patients had anomalous decision-making features with little shift in choice until they thought the value of the two alternatives had become equal. The quantified parameters (Pαß) calculated by logistic regression analysis with learning rate and inverse temperature well represented the unique choice pattern of ALS patients. Resting-state network analysis demonstrated a strong correlation between Pαß and decreased degree centrality in the anterior cingulate gyrus and frontal pole. INTERPRETATION: Altered decision-making in ALS patients may be related to the decreased hub function of medial prefrontal areas.

8.
Neurobiol Aging ; 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888732

RESUMO

Two recent genetic studies reported that loss-of-function mutation of the C-terminal cargo-binding tail domain of the KIF5A gene cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of KIF5A variants in Japanese patients with sporadic ALS. In total, 807 sporadic ALS patients and 191 normal controls from a multicenter ALS cohort in Japan were included. Whole exome sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2000/2500 sequencer was used to identify and select variants within the KIF5A gene. Thirteen patients harbored a nonsynonymous variant in the KIF5A gene; These were considered variants of uncertain significance. One patient harbored a novel splice-site variant (c.2993-3C>A) in the C-terminal cargo-binding tail domain of the KIF5A gene. Functional analysis of this variant revealed that it caused skipping of exon 27. The frequency of KIF5A mutations in Japanese patients with sporadic ALS was 0.12% (1/807). This study reports a novel loss-of-function variant in KIF5A, and indicates that loss-of-function variant in KIF5A is a rare cause of sporadic ALS in Japanese patients.

9.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 526, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968195

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating progressive motor neuron disease that affects people of all ethnicities. Approximately 90% of ALS cases are sporadic and thought to have multifactorial pathogenesis. To understand the genetics of sporadic ALS, we conducted a genome-wide association study using 1,173 sporadic ALS cases and 8,925 controls in a Japanese population. A combined meta-analysis of our Japanese cohort with individuals of European ancestry revealed a significant association at the ACSL5 locus (top SNP p = 2.97 × 10-8). We validated the association with ACSL5 in a replication study with a Chinese population and an independent Japanese population (1941 ALS cases, 3821 controls; top SNP p = 1.82 × 10-4). In the combined meta-analysis, the intronic ACSL5 SNP rs3736947 showed the strongest association (p = 7.81 × 10-11). Using a gene-based analysis of the full multi-ethnic dataset, we uncovered additional genes significantly associated with ALS: ERGIC1, RAPGEF5, FNBP1, and ATXN3. These results advance our understanding of the genetic basis of sporadic ALS.

10.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 80: 21-27, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932024

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The role of the cerebellum in Parkinson's disease (PD) has attracted increasing attention; however, the role of functional connectivity (FC) between the basal ganglia and particular cerebellar subregions remains to be elucidated. We aimed to clarify the FC and its contribution to motor and cognitive performances in patients with PD. METHODS: We included 99 patients with PD and 99 age- and sex-matched healthy controls in this study. We created a cerebellar functional parcellation by performing cerebellum-only independent component analysis. Using the functional parcellation map, we performed seed-based connectivity analysis using each region as a seed and extracted the mean correlation coefficients within the thalamus and basal ganglia, including the caudate, pallidum, putamen and subthalamic nucleus. We examined the group differences and correlations with the motor and general cognitive scores. In addition, we conducted a mediation analysis to clarify the relationship among FC, motor severity, and cognition. RESULTS: The PD group showed decreased FC between a wide range of cerebellar subregions and the basal ganglia. Motor severity was correlated with FC between the subthalamic nucleus and posterior Crus I/II, and general cognitive performance scores correlated with FC between the caudate nucleus and medial-posterior part of the Crus I/II (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). The cerebello-caudate network had a direct effect on cognitive performance (p = 9.0 × 10-3), although partially mediated by motor performance (p = 8.2 × 10-3). CONCLUSION: FC between cerebellar Crus I/II and divergent basal ganglia related to motor and cognitive performance in PD.

11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21576, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cellular energetics play an important role in Parkinsons disease etiology, but no treatments directly address this deficiency. Our past research showed that treatment with febuxostat and inosine increased blood hypoxanthine and ATP in healthy adults, and a preliminary trial in 3 Parkinson's disease patients suggested some symptomatic improvements with no adverse effects. METHODS: To examine the efficacy on symptoms and safety in a larger group of Parkinsons disease patients, we conducted a single-arm, open-label trial at 5 Japanese neurology clinics and enrolled thirty patients (nmales = 11; nfemales = 19); 26 patients completed the study (nmales = 10; nfemales = 16). Each patient was administered febuxostat 20 mg and inosine 500 mg twice-per-day (after breakfast and dinner) for 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was the difference of MDS-UPDRS Part III score immediately before and after 57 days of treatment. RESULTS: Serum hypoxanthine concentrations were raised significantly after treatment (Pre = 11.4 µM; Post = 38.1 µM; P < .0001). MDS-UPDRS Part III score was significantly lower after treatment (Pre = 28.1 ±â€Š9.3; Post = 24.7 ±â€Š10.8; mean ±â€ŠSD; P = .0146). Sixteen adverse events occurred in 13/29 (44.8%) patients, including 1 serious adverse event (fracture of the second lumbar vertebra) that was considered not related to the treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that co-administration of febuxostat and inosine is relatively safe and effective for improving symptoms of Parkinsons disease patients. Further controlled trials need to be performed to confirm the symptomatic improvement and to examine the disease-modifying effect in long-term trials.


Assuntos
Febuxostat/uso terapêutico , Supressores da Gota/uso terapêutico , Inosina/uso terapêutico , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Trifosfato de Adenosina/sangue , Administração Oral , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimioterapia Combinada , Febuxostat/administração & dosagem , Febuxostat/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Supressores da Gota/administração & dosagem , Supressores da Gota/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipoxantina/sangue , Inosina/administração & dosagem , Inosina/efeitos adversos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Segurança , Resultado do Tratamento , Xantina Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores
12.
Neuroimage ; 222: 117241, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798679

RESUMO

Neuroimaging studies have shown that the brain is functionally organized into several large-scale brain networks. Within these networks are regions that are widely connected to several other regions within and/or outside the network. Regions that connect to several other networks, known as connector hubs, are believed to be crucial for information transfer and between-network communication within the brain. To identify regions with high between-network connectivity at the voxel level, we introduced a novel metric called functional connectivity overlap ratio (FCOR), which quantifies the spatial extent of a region's connection to a given network. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data, FCOR maps were generated for several well-known large-scale resting state networks (RSNs) and used to examine the relevant associations among different RSNs, identify connector hub regions in the cerebral cortex, and elucidate the hierarchical functional organization of the brain. Constructed FCOR maps revealed a strong association among the core neurocognitive networks (default mode, salience, and executive control) as well as among primary processing networks (sensorimotor, auditory, and visual). Prominent connector hubs were identified in the bilateral middle frontal gyrus, posterior cingulate, lateral parietal, middle temporal, dorsal anterior cingulate, and anterior insula, among others, regions mostly associated with the core neurocognitive networks. Finally, clustering the whole brain using FCOR features yielded a topological organization that arranges brain regions into a hierarchy of information processing systems with the primary processing systems at one end and the heteromodal systems comprising connector hubs at the other end.

13.
Brain ; 143(8): 2398-2405, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770214

RESUMO

Fused in sarcoma (FUS) is genetically and clinicopathologically linked to frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We have previously reported that intranuclear interactions of FUS and splicing factor, proline- and glutamine-rich (SFPQ) contribute to neuronal homeostasis. Disruption of the FUS-SFPQ interaction leads to an increase in the ratio of 4-repeat tau (4R-tau)/3-repeat tau (3R-tau), which manifests in FTLD-like phenotypes in mice. Here, we examined FUS-SFPQ interactions in 142 autopsied individuals with FUS-related ALS/FTLD (ALS/FTLD-FUS), TDP-43-related ALS/FTLD (ALS/FTLD-TDP), progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Alzheimer's disease, or Pick's disease as well as controls. Immunofluorescent imaging showed impaired intranuclear co-localization of FUS and SFPQ in neurons of ALS/FTLD-FUS, ALS/FTLD-TDP, progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration cases, but not in Alzheimer's disease or Pick's disease cases. Immunoprecipitation analyses of FUS and SFPQ revealed reduced interactions between the two proteins in ALS/FTLD-TDP and progressive supranuclear palsy cases, but not in those with Alzheimer disease. Furthermore, the ratio of 4R/3R-tau was elevated in cases with ALS/FTLD-TDP and progressive supranuclear palsy, but was largely unaffected in cases with Alzheimer disease. We concluded that impaired interactions between intranuclear FUS and SFPQ and the subsequent increase in the ratio of 4R/3R-tau constitute a common pathogenesis pathway in FTLD spectrum diseases.

14.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 79(12): 1303-1312, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856086

RESUMO

To clarify the pathogenesis of anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) antibody neuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy (anti-MAG neuropathy), sural nerve biopsy specimens from 15 patients were investigated. Sodium channels, potassium channels, contactin-associated protein 1 (Caspr1), contactin 1, and neurofascin were evaluated by immunofluorescence in teased-fiber preparations. Immunoreactivity to the pan-sodium channel in both anti-MAG neuropathy patients and in normal controls was concentrated at the node of Ranvier unless there was demyelination, which was defined as the widening of the node of Ranvier. However, this immunoreactivity became weak or disappeared as demyelination progressed. In contrast, KCNQ2 immunostaining was nearly absent even in the absence of demyelination. The lengths of Caspr1, contactin 1, and pan-neurofascin immunostaining sites at the paranode were significantly increased compared with those of normal controls despite the absence of demyelination. The length of paranodal neurofascin staining correlated with the anti-MAG antibody titer, nerve conduction indices, the frequency of de/remyelination in teased-fiber preparations, and the frequency of widely spaced myelin (p < 0.05, p < 0.05, p < 0.01, and <0.05, respectively). These findings suggest that nodal and paranodal molecular alterations occur in early stages preceding the morphological changes associated with demyelination in anti-MAG neuropathy.

15.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 127(10): 1387-1397, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860121

RESUMO

Cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) are heterogeneous entities, and the cognitive status fluctuates over time. However, individual changes in longitudinal cognitive performance in PD are not fully understood. We evaluated three visual indices (visuoperception, visuoconstruction, and visuospatial ability) and four cognitive domains (attention/working memory, executive function, memory, and language) at baseline (Time1) and at 1-year follow-up (Time2) in 36 patients with PD and 32 healthy controls (HCs). To explore the magnitude and frequency of cognitive changes, we analyzed data using the simple difference method and the standardized regression-based method. We also explored the correlations between changes in test scores and several clinical predictors, using logistic regression analysis. At 1 year, patients with PD showed higher rates of change in scores on several cognitive tests, especially the Incomplete Letters test of visuoperception, compared to HCs. After adjusting for demographic variables, the visuoperceptual change was 61.1% overall, with the largest effect size. The changes in scores of visuoperception correlated with those of memory (r = 0.672, p < 0.001), language (r = 0.389, p < 0.05), and visuospatial ability (r = 0.379, p < 0.05). The severity of olfactory disturbance, the MDS-UPDRS Part I score, and younger PD onset predicted the significant changes observed in the Incomplete Letters test scores. Visuoperception changed more in non-demented PD patients than in HCs at 1-year follow-up. The changes in visuoperception could relate to involvement of the ventral occipitotemporal pathway, the more widespread temporal lobe, and brain reserve in PD.

17.
Brain ; 143(6): 1811-1825, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436573

RESUMO

The polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases are a group of inherited neurodegenerative diseases that include Huntington's disease, various spinocerebellar ataxias, spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, and dentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy. They are caused by the abnormal expansion of a CAG repeat coding for the polyQ stretch in the causative gene of each disease. The expanded polyQ stretches trigger abnormal ß-sheet conformational transition and oligomerization followed by aggregation of the polyQ proteins in the affected neurons, leading to neuronal toxicity and neurodegeneration. Disease-modifying therapies that attenuate both symptoms and molecular pathogenesis of polyQ diseases remain an unmet clinical need. Here we identified arginine, a chemical chaperone that facilitates proper protein folding, as a novel compound that targets the upstream processes of polyQ protein aggregation by stabilizing the polyQ protein conformation. We first screened representative chemical chaperones using an in vitro polyQ aggregation assay, and identified arginine as a potent polyQ aggregation inhibitor. Our in vitro and cellular assays revealed that arginine exerts its anti-aggregation property by inhibiting the toxic ß-sheet conformational transition and oligomerization of polyQ proteins before the formation of insoluble aggregates. Arginine exhibited therapeutic effects on neurological symptoms and protein aggregation pathology in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, and two different mouse models of polyQ diseases. Arginine was also effective in a polyQ mouse model when administered after symptom onset. As arginine has been safely used for urea cycle defects and for mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acid and stroke syndrome patients, and efficiently crosses the blood-brain barrier, a drug-repositioning approach for arginine would enable prompt clinical application as a promising disease-modifier drug for the polyQ diseases.

18.
J Neurol ; 267(9): 2524-2532, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367295

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To clarify the relationship between nerve conduction study (NCS) and prognosis in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: We included 190 patients with sporadic ALS. We used onset age, sex, onset site (bulbar vs. spinal), revised El Escorial criteria category (definite vs. others), and the King's clinical systems, and the Milano-Torino (MiToS) functional staging systems, and decline rates of revised ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS-R) as known prognostic factors. An NCS was performed on the median, ulnar, tibial, and sural nerves. The endpoint was death or the introduction of tracheostomy positive-pressure ventilation. Multivariate analysis for each NCS variable, known prognostic factors was performed using Cox stepwise proportional hazards analysis. Univariate analysis was performed for NCS variables that showed a significant association with prognosis in multivariate analysis. Survival was analyzed with a Kaplan-Meier curve and log-rank test. RESULTS: The Cox model identified the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) amplitudes of the median nerve as prognostic factors. In the log-rank test, patients with higher median nerve CMAP amplitude had a significantly better prognosis than those with lower amplitude, regardless of age. And prognosis was better in the group with lower median nerve SNAP amplitude only in patients younger than the 25th percentile (~ 57 years). CONCLUSIONS: CMAP and SNAP amplitudes of the median nerve are considered to be independent prognostic factors of sporadic ALS.

19.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 91(6): 650-659, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245766

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the pathological features of Guillain-Barré syndrome focusing on macrophage-associated myelin lesions. METHODS: Longitudinal sections of sural nerve biopsy specimens from 11 patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) exhibiting macrophage-associated demyelinating lesions were examined using electron microscopy. A total of 1205 nodes of Ranvier were examined to determine the relationship of the macrophage-associated demyelinating lesions with the nodal regions. Additionally, immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent studies were performed to elucidate the sites of complement deposition. RESULTS: Overall, 252 macrophage-associated myelin lesions were identified in longitudinal sections. Of these, 40 lesions exhibited complete demyelination with no association with the lamellar structures of myelin. In 183 lesions, macrophage cytoplasm was located at internodes without association with the nodes of Ranvier or paranodes. In particular, these internodal lesions were more frequent in one patient (152 lesions). In the remaining 29 lesions, the involvement of nodal regions was obvious. Lesions involving nodal regions were more frequently observed than those involving internodes in four patients. Invasion of the macrophage cytoplasmic processes into the space between the paranodal myelin terminal loops and the axolemma from the nodes of Ranvier was observed in three of these patients. Immunostaining suggested complement deposition corresponding to putative initial macrophage-associated demyelinating lesions. CONCLUSIONS: The initial macrophage-associated demyelinating lesions appeared to be located at internodes and at nodal regions. The sites at which the macrophages initiated phagocytosis of myelin might be associated with the location of complement deposition in certain patients with AIDP.


Assuntos
Doenças Desmielinizantes/patologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/patologia , Macrófagos/ultraestrutura , Bainha de Mielina/ultraestrutura , Neurônios/ultraestrutura , Idoso , Axônios/patologia , Axônios/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Humanos , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bainha de Mielina/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Nós Neurofibrosos/patologia , Nós Neurofibrosos/ultraestrutura
20.
J Physiol ; 598(13): 2719-2739, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306402

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: Muscle-derived neurotrophic factors may offer therapeutic promise for treating neuromuscular diseases. We report that a muscle-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF, rescues synaptic and muscle function in a muscle-type specific manner in mice modelling Kennedy's disease (KD). We also find that BDNF rescues select molecular mechanisms in slow and fast muscle that may underlie the improved cellular function. We also report for the first time that expression of BDNF, but not other members of the neurotrophin family, is perturbed in muscle from patients with KD. Given that muscle BDNF had divergent therapeutic effects that depended on muscle type, a combination of neurotrophic factors may optimally rescue neuromuscular function via effects on both pre- and postsynaptic function, in the face of disease. ABSTRACT: Deficits in muscle brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) correlate with neuromuscular deficits in mouse models of Kennedy's disease (KD), suggesting that restoring muscle BDNF might restore function. To test this possibility, transgenic mice expressing human BDNF in skeletal muscle were crossed with '97Q' KD mice. We found that muscle BDNF slowed disease, doubling the time between symptom onset and endstage. BDNF also improved expression of genes in muscle known to play key roles in neuromuscular function, including counteracting the expression of neonatal isoforms induced by disease. Intriguingly, BDNF's ameliorative effects differed between muscle types: synaptic strength was rescued only in slow-twitch muscle, while contractile strength was improved only in fast-twitch muscle. In sum, muscle BDNF slows disease progression, rescuing select cellular and molecular mechanisms that depend on fibre type. Muscle BDNF expression was also affected in KD patients, reinforcing its translational and therapeutic potential for treating this disorder.

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