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1.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(1): 95-102, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of meat and fish consumption on cancer risk has been well studied in humans. However, studies related to biliary tract cancer (BTC) are scarce. METHODS: We examined the association between meat and fish consumption and the risk of BTC in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using the Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: During 1995 and 1999, 43,177 men and 49,323 women ages 45 to 74 years were enrolled and followed up for 607,757.0 person-years (men) and 728,820.3 person-years (women) until 2012, during which time 217 male and 162 female BTC cases were identified. Higher total meat consumption was significantly associated with a decreased BTC risk in men (HR for the highest vs. lowest quartiles = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.44-0.98; P trend = 0.011) but not in women. Similar association was observed with red meat, but no association was observed with poultry. Fish was not associated with BTC risk. We further analyzed each BTC subtype to confirm the observed association with BTC. However, significant association with each BTC subtype was not observed, although a trend of decreased extrahepatic bile duct cancer risk was observed. CONCLUSIONS: BTC risk was lower among men who consumed more meat, particularly red meat, in Japan. IMPACT: This is the first prospective study that evaluated the relationship between meat and BTC. This may provide important suggestions to elucidate the etiology of BTC.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(51): e18315, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860982

RESUMO

The incidence of breast cancer among Japanese women is substantially increasing. This study evaluated the effects of reproductive and lifestyle factors with respect to breast cancer overall and separately among pre- and postmenopausal women using data from the Three-Prefecture Cohort Study of Japan.A total of 33,410 women aged 40 to 79 years completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included items about menstrual and reproductive history and other lifestyle factors. The follow-up period was from 1984 to 1992 in Miyagi and 1985 to 2000 in Aichi Prefectures. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate hazards ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjusting for confounding factors.After 9.8 mean years of follow-up, 287 cases of breast cancer were recorded. In the overall analysis, later menarche (≥16 years) and parity were significantly associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer, with HRs of 0.69 (95% CI 0.48-0.99) and 0.72 (95% CI 0.52-0.99), respectively. Further, there was a significant decline in the risk of breast cancer with increasing number of birth among parous women (P for trend = .010). On the contrary, a family history of breast cancer in the mother was significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (HR 3.22, 95% CI 1.52-6.84). Analyses based on menopausal status at baseline indicated that height (≥160 cm) and weight (≥65 kg) were significantly associated with an increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, with HRs of 1.34 (95% CI 0.72-2.50) and 3.13 (95% CI 1.75-5.60), respectively. Risk associated with BMI significantly differs by menopausal status.Our findings suggest the important role of reproductive factors in the development of breast cancer in Japanese women; however, body mass index (BMI) may have different effects on breast cancer in Japanese women compared with western women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Anamnese , Menarca , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paridade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1870-1871, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438384

RESUMO

The International Cancer Research Partnership (ICRP) has developed a cancer research funding database since its establishment, with data gathered from the participating funnding organizations. We estimated and compared the total amount of cancer research funding from governmental organizations in the USA, the UK and Japan using ICRP and publicly available databases. We also discussed use of the ICRP database as a tool to consider the cancer research funding allocation at a national level.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Neoplasias , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
4.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 14(1): 1632110, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213147

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to clarify the experiences of caregivers desiring to refuse life-prolonging treatment for their elderly parents at the end of life. Methods: A semi-structured interview was performed for four family caregivers who wanted to refuse life-prolonging treatment suggested by the physicians. Results: In this study, four caregivers who refused life-prolonging treatment suggested by the physicians for their elderly parents completed semi-structured interviews. The obtained data were analyzed in relation to the theme "Experiences of caregivers who desire to refuse life-prolonging treatment for their elderly parents at the end of life." As a result, 38 subcategories and 12 categories were extracted. Conclusions: Participants in this study initially had a negative view of life-prolonging treatment. However, they agonized over the decision when they received conflicting advice from the physicians. The participants indicated that physicians' advice and attitudes complicated their decisions to reject life-prolonging treatment for their elderly parents.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida , Assistência Terminal , Idoso , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Japão , Pesquisa Qualitativa
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(5): e195111, 2019 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150086

RESUMO

Importance: Bystander interventions are a factor for improving survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), but it is hypothesized that girls and women experiencing OHCA may be less likely to receive bystander interventions than boys and men. Objective: To investigate sex disparities in receiving public-access automated external defibrillator (AED) pad application and bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) among students who experienced OHCA in school settings. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide cohort study used the Stop and Prevent Cardiac Arrest, Injury, and Trauma in Schools (SPIRITS) database to link databases from 2 nationally representative registries-the Injury and Accident Mutual Aid Benefit System of the Japan Sport Council and the All-Japan Utstein Registry of the Fire and Disaster Management Agency. Students from elementary schools (ages 6-12 years), junior high schools (ages 12-15 years), high schools (ages 15-21 years), and technical colleges (ages 15-21 years) who experienced nontraumatic OHCA involving attempted resuscitation by emergency medical service personnel or bystanders in school settings from April 1, 2008, to December 31, 2015, were included. Data analysis was performed from January 5, 2019, to April 11, 2019. Exposures: Sex and school level. Main Outcomes and Measures: Application of public-access AED pads or initiation of CPR by a bystander. Results: A total of 232 students who experienced OHCA with nontraumatic causes in school settings (mean [SD] age, 14.5 [2.9] years; 175 [75.4%] male) were included. In multivariable analysis of the full cohort of students who experienced OHCA, female sex was associated with significantly lower odds of receiving public-access AED pad application compared with male sex (36 of 57 female students [63.2%] received AED pad application vs 141 of 175 male students [80.6%]; adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.44; 95% CI, 0.20-0.97; P = .04). In the subgroup analysis of students who experienced OHCA in high schools or technical schools, female sex was associated with significantly lower odds of receiving public-access AED pad application compared with male sex (10 of 18 female students [55.6%] vs 84 of 101 male students [83.2%]; adjusted OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.08-0.87; P = .03). Among the full cohort, 48 of 57 female students (84.2%) and 151 of 175 male students (86.3%) received CPR from bystanders (adjusted OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.30-2.22), and there were no significant differences in receiving bystander-initiated CPR between sexes, irrespective of school level. Conclusions and Relevance: Among students who experienced OHCA in schools in Japan, female sex was associated with lower odds of receiving public-access AED pad application compared with male sex.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(9): 1461-1468, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acrylamide has been classified as a probable human carcinogen based chiefly on laboratory evidence. However, the influence of dietary acrylamide intake on risk of esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancer has not been extensively studied. We aimed to evaluate the association between dietary acrylamide intake and esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancer using data from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. METHODS: Our study included 87,628 participants who completed a food-frequency questionnaire at enrollment in 1990 and 1993. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate hazards ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) after adjusting for confounding factors. RESULTS: After 15.5, 15.3, and 15.3 mean years of follow-up for esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancer, we identified and analyzed 391 esophageal, 2,218 gastric, and 2,470 colorectal cancer cases, respectively. Compared with the lowest quintile of acrylamide intake, the multivariate HR for the highest quintile was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.53-1.39; P trend = 0.814), 0.84 (95% CI, 0.69-1.01; P trend = 0.301), and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.79-1.08; P trend = 0.165) for esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancer, respectively, in the multivariable-adjusted model. Furthermore, no significant associations were observed when the participants were stratified by cancer subsites. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, this study demonstrated that dietary acrylamide intake was not associated with increased risk of esophageal, gastric, or colorectal cancer among the Japanese population. IMPACT: It is the first time to assess the effect of dietary acrylamide intake on risk of digestive system cancer in Asian populations.

7.
Resuscitation ; 140: 150-158, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our objective was to assess the characteristics such as public-access defibrillation (PAD) by laypersons and the outcomes after pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest by location in the PAD era. METHODS: From a nationwide, prospective, population-based registry of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients in Japan, we enrolled consecutive pediatric patients aged ≤17 years before emergency medical service (EMS) arrival between 2013 and 2015. The primary outcome measure was 1-month survival, with favorable neurologic outcome defined as cerebral performance category 1 or 2. Factors associated with favorable neurologic outcome were assessed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Among 3991 eligible pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, the proportion of PAD was 0.2% (5/2888) at residence, 1.6% (2/125) in public areas, 0.9% (3/321) on streets/highways, 21.6% (11/51) at recreation/sports event areas, 46.1% (82/178) at education institutions, and 1.2% (5/428) in others. In the multivariable analysis, arrest witnessed by family members (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 5.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.22-8.58) and nonfamily members (AOR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.26-4.77), first documented ventricular fibrillation (AOR, 12.29; 95% CI, 7.08-21.35), PAD (AOR, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.23-5.62), and earlier EMS response time (AOR for 1-min increment, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.94) were associated with improving outcome. As for locations, recreation/sports event areas (AOR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.17-10.07) and education institutions (AOR, 3.03; 95% CI, 1.39-6.63) were also associated with favorable neurologic outcome. CONCLUSIONS: In Japan, where public-access automated external defibrillators are well disseminated, characteristics such as PAD and outcomes for pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest before EMS arrival differed substantially by location.

8.
Resuscitation ; 139: 33-40, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac death during exercise or sports is an important problem among young athletes and non-athletes. An understanding of the epidemiological features of sports-related out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) among children is crucial for planning approaches for prevention and better outcomes of paediatric OHCAs. We assessed the characteristics and outcomes of sports-related OHCA among children at schools in Japan to prevent sports-related paediatric OHCA at schools. METHODS: The Stop and Prevent cardIac aRrest, Injury, and Trauma in Schools (SPIRITS) is a nationwide, prospective, observational study linking databases of two nationally representative registries. Data on the characteristics and outcomes of sports-related paediatric OHCA at schools in Japan were obtained from these databases. RESULTS: Between 2008 and 2015, 188 sports-related paediatric OHCAs due to presumed cardiac origin occurred. The greatest proportion of OHCA during or after sports was due to long-distance running (21.8%), followed by soccer/futsal (13.3%), basketball (12.2%), and baseball/rubber-ball baseball (11.2%). We also assessed the association between prehospital factors and one-month survival with favourable neurological outcome after sports-related OHCA. The proportions of ventricular fibrillation as the first documented rhythm, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and public-access defibrillation (PAD) were 87.8%, 87.2%, and 63.3%, respectively. Compared with the non-PAD group, the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of the PAD group was 3.64 (1.78-7.45). CONCLUSIONS: In Japan, 188 schoolchildren experienced OHCAs of cardiac origin occurring during or after sports activity at schools during the 8-year period. Increasing PAD is essential to enhance better neurological outcome after sports-related OHCA among students.

9.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 92(6): 873-881, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Urinary excretion of 2,5-hexanedione is currently used to estimate the exposure levels of hexane occurring to an individual during the previous work shift. However, because hexane exposures and urinary 2,5-hexanedione levels can vary considerably from day to day, and subchronic to chronic exposures to hexane are required to produce neuropathy, this biomarker may not accurately reflect the risk of an individual for developing hexane neuropathy. This investigation examines the potential of hexane-derived pyrrole adducts produced on globin and plasma proteins as markers for integrating cumulative exposures. Because the pyrrole markers incorporate bioactivation of hexane to 2,5-hexandione and the initial step of protein adduction involved in hexane-induced neuropathy, they potentially can serve as biomarkers of effect through reflecting pathogenetic events within the nervous system. Additionally, pyrrole formation is an irreversible reaction suggesting that hexane-derived protein pyrroles can be used to assess cumulative exposures to provide a better characterization of individual susceptibilities. METHODS: To examine the utility of the proposed markers, blood samples were obtained from eleven workers who used hexane for granulating metal powders in a slurry to produce metal machining die tools and four non-exposed volunteers. Globin and plasma were isolated, and the proteins were digested using pepsin, reacted with Ehrlich's reagent and the level of pyrrole adducts were determined by absorbance at 530 nm. To determine the dose-response curve and dynamic range of the assay, erythrocytes were incubated with a range of 2,5-hexanedione concentrations and the net absorbance at 530 nm of isolated globin was measured. RESULTS: Pyrrole was detected in both the globin and plasma samples of the workers exposed to hexane and the levels of pyrroles in plasma were positively correlated with the levels of pyrroles in globin for most of the workers. CONCLUSIONS: This investigation demonstrates that detectable levels of hexane-derived protein pyrrole adducts are produced on peripheral proteins following occupational exposures to hexane and supports the utility of measuring pyrroles for integrating cumulative exposures to hexane.


Assuntos
Globinas/metabolismo , Hexanos/metabolismo , Plasma/química , Pirróis/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Globinas/química , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Pirróis/metabolismo
10.
Circ J ; 83(4): 757-766, 2019 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coffee, which contains various bioactive compounds, is one of the most popular beverages. Further accumulation of evidence is needed, however, to confirm whether coffee consumption would be effective in preventing cardiovascular disease in the general Japanese population. Methods and Results: We evaluated the association between coffee consumption frequency (never, sometimes, 1-2 cups/day, 3-4 cups/day and ≥5 cups/day) and mortality from all causes, heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease, in 39,685 men and 43,124 women aged 40-79 years at baseline, in a 3-prefecture cohort study. The coffee consumption frequency was assessed on questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to assess the association between coffee consumption frequency and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality with adjustment for potential confounders. During 411,341 and 472,433 person-years in men and women, respectively, a total of 7,955 men and 5,725 women died. Coffee consumption frequency was inversely associated with all-cause mortality in both genders (P for trend<0.001). In addition, the risks of mortality from cerebrovascular disease in men (P for trend<0.001), and heart disease in women (P for trend=0.031) were inversely associated with coffee consumption. CONCLUSIONS: In this Japanese population, coffee drinking has a preventive effect on all-cause and on cardiovascular mortality in men and/or women.

11.
Cancer Sci ; 110(3): 1076-1084, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30618090

RESUMO

Occupational asbestos exposure occurs in many workplaces and is a well-known cause of mesothelioma and lung cancer. However, the association between nonoccupational asbestos exposure and those diseases is not clearly described. The aim of this study was to investigate cause-specific mortality among the residents of Amagasaki, a city in Japan with many asbestos factories, and evaluate the potential excess mortality due to established and suspected asbestos-related diseases. The study population consisted of 143 929 residents in Amagasaki City before 1975 until 2002, aged 40 years or older on January 1, 2002. Follow-up was carried out from 2002 to 2015. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated by sex, using the mortality rate of the Japanese population as reference. A total of 38 546 deaths (including 303 from mesothelioma and 2683 from lung cancer) were observed. The SMRs in the long-term residents' cohort were as follows: death due to all causes, 1.12 (95% CI, 1.10-1.13) in men and 1.07 (95% CI, 1.06-1.09) in women; lung cancer, 1.28 (95% CI, 1.23-1.34) in men and 1.23 (95% CI, 1.14-1.32) in women; and mesothelioma, 6.75 (95% CI, 5.83-7.78) in men and 14.99 (95% CI, 12.34-18.06) in women. These SMRs were significantly higher than expected. The increased SMR of mesothelioma suggests the impact of occupational asbestos exposure among men and nonoccupational asbestos exposure among women in the long-term residents' cohort. In addition, the high level of excess mortality from mesothelioma has persisted, despite the mixture of crocidolite and chrysotile no longer being used for three or four decades.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asbesto Crocidolita/efeitos adversos , Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pleurais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/etiologia
12.
J Epidemiol ; 29(5): 180-186, 2019 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29760302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking and alcohol are established risk factors for several types of cancer, but the effects on biliary cancers, comprising biliary tract cancer (BTC) and intrahepatic bile duct cancer (IHBDC), have been inconclusive. METHODS: In this population-based prospective cohort study in Japan, we investigated the association of smoking and alcohol consumption with the risks of BTC and its subtypes and IHBDC incidence in men and women. Furthermore, the association of smoking stratified by drinking status was investigated. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: A total of 48,367 men and 54,776 women aged 40-69 years were enrolled from 1990 through 1994 and followed up for 846,417 person-years in men and 1,021,330 person-years in women until 2012, during which 246 BTC and 80 IHBDC male cases and 227 BTC and 60 IHBDC female cases were identified. In men, smoking was significantly associated with an increased risk of IHBDC (HR 2.25; 95% CI, 1.19-4.25 for current smokers with ≥30 pack-years compared with non-smokers), and the risk was enhanced among regular drinkers compared with non/occasional-drinkers (HR 3.48; 95% CI, 1.41-8.61). A non-significant increase of IHBDC risk associated with alcohol was observed. Neither smoking nor alcohol consumption was associated with BTC risk. In women, the association of smoking and alcohol consumption with IHBDC and BTC was unclear because current smokers and regular drinkers were very few. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that smoking increases IHBDC risk in men, especially among regular drinkers.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/epidemiologia , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Europace ; 21(3): 451-458, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500911

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to reveal the effects of application of public-access automated external defibrillators (AEDs) and bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on survival of paediatric patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) occurring on school campuses in Japan. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data were obtained from a nationwide prospective observational study of paediatric OHCAs in school settings in Japan, termed Stop and Prevent cardIac aRrest, Injury, and Trauma in Schools (SPIRITS). Non-traumatic OHCA patients from elementary school, junior high school, and high school/technical college between April 2008 and December 2015 were enrolled. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the effect of bystander interventions (i.e. public-access AED application and bystander-CPR) on 30-day survival with favourable neurological outcome. In total, 232 OHCA cases were analysed. The proportion of 30-day survival with favourable neurological outcome was significantly higher among the patients receiving both public-access AED application and bystander-CPR than those without any bystander intervention (50.9% vs. 20.0%, adjusted odds ratio 4.08, 95% confidence interval 1.25-13.31; P = 0.020). During the study period, the proportion of patients to whom public-access AEDs were applied increased significantly (from 61.9% in 2008 to 87.0% in 2015, P-for trend = 0.014). Accordingly, the proportion of 30-day survival with favourable neurological outcome improved significantly (from 38.1% in 2005 to 56.5% in 2015, P-for trend = 0.026). CONCLUSION: The combination of public-access AED application and bystander-CPR increased the chance of survival approximately four-fold in schools. The nationwide efforts towards disseminating public-access defibrillation systems in school settings may reduce the risk of sudden cardiac death among school children.

14.
J Epidemiol ; 29(1): 11-17, 2019 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30033955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To update the findings of relative risk associated with smoking for all-cause mortality and that for lung cancer by considering longitudinal changes in smoking status during follow-up. METHODS: Data from the JPHC study of 98,747 middle-aged Japanese adults, which started in 1990-1993, were analyzed. The information on smoking status was obtained from three questionnaire surveys (baseline, the 5th year, and the 10th year after the start of follow-up). A Poisson regression model was used to investigate the impact of smoking on mortality from all causes and lung cancer using two approaches. Model 1 used information only from baseline, while model 2 used the updated smoking status from all three surveys. RESULTS: During the 15-year follow-up, 10,702 all-cause deaths (including 870 lung cancer cases) were identified. We compared the results obtained from two models. The relative risks associated with former smokers versus never smokers were 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-1.54) among men and 1.46 (95% CI, 1.23-1.73) among women for all-cause mortality and 2.98 (95% CI, 2.09-4.24) among men and 1.83 (95% CI, 0.92-3.64) among women for lung cancer mortality, as determined using model 2. All of these were higher than the relative risks obtained from model 1. In addition, former smokers who had quit smoking due to disease during follow-up had a higher mortality risk than continuous smokers did in this study. CONCLUSIONS: The relative risks of all-cause mortality and mortality due to lung cancer among former smokers be higher than previously documented based on updated smoking status data from repeated surveys.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco
15.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 64(5): 340-346, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30381624

RESUMO

Acrylamide, classified as a probable carcinogen to humans, forms during high- temperature cooking. Dietary exposure among the Japanese is unknown. To evaluate the validity of estimated acrylamide intake using a dietary record (DR) and the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in comparison with the duplicate diet method (DM) in a Japanese population. Design: A validation study was performed with 14 participants (age, 32-50 y; 11 women) from 11 households. Food samples were simultaneously collected for the DM and DR on the same day over 2 consecutive days. The FFQ was administered after collecting samples for the DM and DR. For the DM, dietary acrylamide was calculated from chemical analyses of each food. For the DR and FFQ, acrylamide intake for each food was calculated using the database of acrylamide contents of foods. Correlation coefficients were calculated using the Spearman rank method. Average acrylamide intake values calculated using the DM, DR, and FFQ were 0.106, 0.233, and 0.128 µg/kg body weight/d, respectively; these values showed a marginally positive correlation between the DM and DR (r=0.52), but a low correlation between the DM and FFQ (r=-0.011). For the DR, non-alcoholic drinks had the highest contribution, followed by confectionery and vegetables. For the DM, the contribution of confectionery was the highest, followed by vegetables and non-alcoholic drinks. In conclusion, the validity of acrylamide intake estimation using the DR was reasonably high when compared to the analytical value of the simultaneous DM. However, further improvement is required for estimating acrylamide intake using the FFQ.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/administração & dosagem , Registros de Dieta , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Comportamento Alimentar , Adulto , Bebidas , Doces , Feminino , Análise de Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Verduras
16.
Cancer Sci ; 109(10): 3316-3325, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30063274

RESUMO

A meta-analysis published in 2015 noted a marginally increased risk of endometrial and ovarian cancers in non-smoking women with dietary acrylamide intake, but only a few studies were included, and they were limited to Western countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial or ovarian cancer risk in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC Study). In this prospective cohort study, 47 185 participants aged 45-74 years at the follow-up starting point in the JPHC Study were enrolled. Dietary acrylamide intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). In participants with endometrial and ovarian cancer, the average follow-up periods were 15.5 and 15.6 years, respectively, and 161 and 122 cases of endometrial and ovarian cancer were diagnosed, respectively. Energy-adjusted dietary acrylamide intake was negatively associated with endometrial cancer, but the association disappeared after adjusting for coffee consumption with an adjusted HR for the highest vs lowest tertile of 0.85 (95%CI: 0.54-1.33). No association was observed, however, for ovarian cancer (adjusted HR, 0.77; 95%CI: 0.49-1.23). Furthermore, after stratifying by smoking status, coffee consumption, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and menopause status, no association was observed. Dietary acrylamide intake was not associated with the risk of endometrial or ovarian cancer in Japanese women with a relatively lower dietary intake of acrylamide compared with Western populations.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/toxicidade , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Café , Neoplasias do Endométrio/induzido quimicamente , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/induzido quimicamente , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
J Occup Health ; 60(4): 333-335, 2018 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29984740
19.
J Epidemiol ; 28(12): 482-487, 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29806636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acrylamide, a probable carcinogen to humans, forms during high temperature cooking. Dietary exposure to acrylamide among the Japanese population is unknown. We aimed to establish and validate a method to assess acrylamide exposure among the Japanese population using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) from the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study. METHODS: Validation studies for the FFQ were conducted in 1994 (Cohort I, n = 215) and 1996 (Cohort II, n = 350). The 28-day dietary records (DRs) were collected over 1 year. The FFQ was distributed before and after DR collection. Data for acrylamide exposure were based on reported measurements in Japan, and calculations considered the cooking process for specific vegetables in a home setting. Spearman's rank correlation and weighted kappa coefficients were calculated from energy-adjusted data. RESULTS: Mean acrylamide intake levels estimated from DRs for Cohorts I and II were 6.78 (standard deviation [SD], 3.89) µg/day and 7.25 (SD, 3.33) µg/day, and corresponding levels estimated from the FFQ were 7.03 (SD, 4.30) µg/day and 7.14 (SD, 3.38) µg/day, respectively. Deattenuated correlation coefficients for men and women were 0.54 and 0.48 in Cohort I and 0.40 and 0.37 in Cohort II, respectively. Weighted kappa coefficients were over 0.80 in all cases. The main contributing food groups from DRs were beverages, confectioneries, vegetables, potatoes and starches, and cereals. CONCLUSIONS: High kappa values validate the use of FFQ in epidemiological studies. The marked contribution of cooked vegetables indicates the importance of considering household cooking methods in assessing acrylamide intake levels in the Japanese population.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/administração & dosagem , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Am J Cardiol ; 121(11): 1387-1392, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29605079

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the incidence, patient characteristics, and outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) occurring while in a motor vehicle in Osaka City, Japan (with a population of 2.6 million), from 2009 to 2015. The OHCA data used in this study were obtained from the population-based Utstein-style registry in Osaka City. Patients who had OHCA occurring while in a motor vehicle were included. The primary end point was 1-month survival with favorable neurologic outcome after OHCA. During the study period, 18,458 OHCAs were observed, and 264 of them (1.4%) occurred while on or in a motor vehicle (drivers, n = 179; nondrivers, n = 85). The overall incidence rate of OHCAs occurring while in a motor vehicle was 14.0 per million population per year (drivers, 9.5; nondrivers, 4.5). In the drivers with OHCAs, 78 (43.6%) and 101 (56.4%) cases were of medical origin and traffic injuries, respectively. Approximately half of OHCAs with a medical origin in drivers presumably occurred while driving (46.2%, 36 of 78). The overall proportion of 1-month survival with favorable neurologic outcome after OHCA was 6.4% (17 of 264). In the drivers, the proportion of OHCAs with a medical origin and because of traffic injuries were 11.5% (9 of 78) and 2.0% (2 of 101) (p = 0.008), respectively. In conclusion, although OHCAs occurring while in a motor vehicle represented a small subset of the overall OHCA burden, a relatively large number of cardiac arrests with a medical origin occurred in drivers.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Condução de Veículo , Veículos Automotores , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Sistema de Registros , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Adulto Jovem
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