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1.
Animal ; 15(9): 100336, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371468

RESUMO

Many of the studies in Campos grasslands focus on management aspects such as the control of herbage allowance, and application of nutrients and/or overseeding with legumes. However, there is little literature on how the Campos grassland resource is utilised, especially regarding the grazing pattern and the relationship between pasture quantity and quality on daily grazing activities. The study of the ingestive behaviour in species-rich and heterogeneous native grasslands during daylight hours, and understanding how animals prioritise quality or quantity of intake in relation to pasture attributes, are important to comprehend the ingestive-digestive processes modulating the energy intake of animals and to achieve a better grazing management. Therefore, the objective was to describe and quantify the daily grazing behaviour of growing cattle grazing native pasture with different structures as a result of different management practices, and study the relationship of pasture attributes and intake through multivariate analysis. The study was carried out at the Faculty of Agronomy, Paysandú, Uruguay. Treatments were native grassland, overseeding with Trifolium pratense and Lotus tenuis + phosphorus, and native pasture + nitrogen-phosphorus. Grazing activities were discriminated into grazing, searching (defined when animals take 1-2 bites in one feeding station and then change to another feeding station and so on), ruminating and idling. The probability of time allocated to each activity was continuously measured during daylight hours (0700-1930) and was related to pasture structure and forage quality using regression tree models, while the bite rate was determined every 2 h. The diurnal pattern of growing cattle showed grazing and searching sessions, followed by ruminating and idling sessions. The length of sessions (as the probability of time allocated to each activity) varied throughout the day. The grazing probability was greater during afternoon than morning and midday (0.74 vs 0.45 vs 0.46, respectively), and it was associated with higher bite rate (34.2 bites/min). Regression tree models showed different grazing, searching and ruminating strategies according to pasture attributes. During the morning, animals modified grazing, searching, ruminating and idling strategies according to bite rate, crude protein in diet and herbage allowance. At midday, they only adjusted ruminating and idling, while during afternoon sessions, grazing activities were modified by pasture quantity attributes such as herbage mass and herbage allowance. By controlling the herbage allowance, herbage mass and pasture height, animals prioritise quality in the morning and quantity in the afternoon, integrating and modifying the grazing-searching and ruminating-idling pattern.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Pradaria , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Lactação
2.
Animal ; 14(7): 1520-1528, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875803

RESUMO

Herbage allowance (HA) management during gestation-lactation cycle of cows grazing native grasslands improves pregnancy rates and calves' weaning weight records. Those improvements were associated with greater herbage mass, and better body condition score (BCS) and metabolic status of the cows, which could affect grazing and maternal behaviour, particularly when temporary suckling restriction (TSR) and flushing (FL) is applied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of HA during the gestation-lactation period on cows' and calves' liveweight (LW), BCS, milk yield, insulin, IGF-1 and leptin concentrations, as well as the proportion of diurnal grazing activities (grazing, ruminating, walking and idling), and maternal behaviour from -10 to 70 days relative to TSR (day 0 = initiation of TSR at 86 ± 10 days relative to calving). Thirty-three primiparous Hereford cows were allocated to HA treatments during gestation and lactation, which annually averaged 2.5 (low = LHA) and 4 kg DM/kg LW (high = HHA). The LW and BCS of cows did not differ during -10 to 50 days but were greater in HHA than LHA at the end of the study (P < 0.05). Concentrations of IGF-1 were greater in HHA compared to LHA, while insulin and leptin did not differ. Grazing was lower in HHA than LHA, and the opposite occurred with ruminating and idling (P < 0.05). Cow-calf physical distance was greater in LHA cows compared to HHA (P < 0.05) and increased greatly in the former group after FL, while this increase was lower and later in HHA cows. Milk yield was greater in HHA (P < 0.05), and calves' weight did not differ between treatments from day -10 to 35, but was greater in HHA compared to LHA from 45 days until the end of the study. Thus, the HHA in a low herbage height and mass condition resulted in greater IGF-1 concentrations and milk yield, and induced changes in grazing and maternal behaviour that were associated with increased cows' LW, BCS and calves' weight at the end of the study.


Assuntos
Lactação , Distanciamento Físico , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Hormônios , Leite , Gravidez
3.
Animal ; 8(7): 1119-29, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24815925

RESUMO

Our objective was to evaluate the metabolic, endocrine and hepatic mRNA profiles through the gestation-lactation cycle in purebred (PU: Angus and Hereford) and crossbred (CR: reciprocal F1 crosses) mutliparous beef cows (n=32), grazing on two herbage allowances of native pastures (2.5 v. 4 kg dry matter/kg BW; LO v. HI) and their associations with cow's productive performance (calf birth weight, milk production and commencement of luteal activity). Cow BW, body condition score (BCS) and blood samples were collected monthly, starting at -165 days relative to calving (days), and every 2 weeks after calving until +60 days of lactation. Liver biopsies were collected at -165, -75, -45, -15±10, and +15 and +60±3 days. Metabolic, endocrine and hepatic gene expression profiles, and calf birth weight, milk yield and postpartum commencement of luteal activity were evaluated. Overall, the most pronounced changes in metabolic, endocrine and hepatic gene expression occurred during winter gestation (-165 to -45 days), when all cows experienced the onset of a negative energy balance (decreased BCS, glucose and insulin, and increased non-esterified fatty acid concentrations, P<0.008). Concentrations of insulin and IGF-I were greater (P<0.037) in HI than in LO cows. However, serum IGF-I concentrations and hepatic growth hormone receptor (GHR) and IGF1 mRNA decreased (P<0.05) during the winter gestation period only in HI cows. Although IGF-I concentrations decreased (P<0.05) during the early postpartum (-15 v.+15 days) for all cows, the typical molecular mechanism that control the uncoupling of the growth hormone-IGF1 axis during the transition period of the dairy cattle (reduced hepatic GHR1A and IGF-I mRNA) was not observed in this study. The hepatic mRNA expression of key transcripts involved in gluconeogenesis and fatty-acid oxidation were upregulated (P<0.05) during winter gestation (from -165 to -45, -15 or +15 days, depending on the cow groups). Particularly, acyl-CoA oxidase-1 mRNA was greater for CR than for PU cows during winter gestation (-75 and -45 days), and fibroblast growth factor-21 mRNA was downregulated (P<0.01) only for HI cows during the transition (-15 v. 15 days) and lactation period (+15 to +60 days, P<0.01). These results, together with the greater BCS, estimated energy intake, increased milk yield and shorter commencement of luteal activity in HI than in LO, and in CR than in PU cows (P<0.018), would indicate that HI and CR cows were able to adapt more efficiently to changes in nutrient and energy supply through the gestation-lactation cycle.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Transcriptoma , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Gluconeogênese , Pradaria , Hormônio do Crescimento/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Lactação/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Receptores da Somatotropina/genética
10.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 96(3): 535-44, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21658134

RESUMO

Sixty-four spring-calved primiparous crossbred cows paired by calving date and body condition score (BCS) at calving were used to study the effect of a short-term increase in the nutritional plane before the mating period on cow and calf performance, changes in metabolic and endocrine parameters and hepatic gene expression. At 48 ± 10 days post-partum (onset of nutritional treatment = day 0), cows were assigned to two treatments during 23 days: control (grazing of native pastures; NP; n = 31) and increased nutritional plane (NP improved with Lotus subbiflorous cv Rincon; IP; n = 33). Cow body weight (BW), BCS and total protein and albumin concentrations increased while urea and non-esterified fatty acids levels decreased from the beginning of the nutritional treatment in both groups, indicating the animal positive energy balance as forage growth and availability of pastures increased during spring. In addition, cow BW and BCS, as well as calf average daily gain and BW, were greater in IP than in NP cows groups. Insulin concentrations were less in IP than in NP (1.37 vs. 2.25 ± 0.26 µU/ml) because insulin increased owing to nutritional treatment only in NP cows. Hepatic insulin receptor mRNA at day 23 tended to be 1.5-fold greater, while insulin growth factor binding protein-3 mRNA expression was 1.7-fold greater in NP than in IP cows. Reproductive responses were not affected by nutritional treatment, but days to initiation of ovarian ciclicity (108 ± 10 days) were positively correlated with insulin concentrations. Grazing of improved NP for 23 days before the mating period did not improve cow reproductive performance but modified metabolic, endocrine and gene expression parameters, in agreement with greater nutrient and energy partitioning towards milk production, reflected in better calf performance.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Reprodução/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Paridade , Gravidez , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
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