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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33235351

RESUMO

The presence of IKZF1 gene mutations is associated with poor prognosis of B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). The goal of this retrospective study was to evaluate outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) in this population. Ninety-five patients transplanted in first (n = 75) or second (n = 20) complete remission (CR) from either HLA-matched sibling (n = 32), unrelated (n = 47) or haploidentical (n = 16) donor were included in the analysis. The probabilities of the overall survival (OS) and leukemia-free survival (LFS) at 2 years were 55% and 47%, respectively. Relapse incidence (RI) was 32% while non-relapse mortality (NRM), 21%. The incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and chronic GVHD was 34% and 30%, respectively. The probability of GVHD and relapse-free survival (GRFS) was 35%. In a multivariate analysis positive minimal residual disease (MRD) status was associated with decreased chance of LFS (HR = 3.15, p = 0.004) and OS (HR = 2.37, p = 0.049) as well as increased risk of relapse (HR = 5.87, p = 0.003). Disease stage (CR2 vs. CR1) affected all, LFS, OS, GRFS, RI, and NRM. Results of allo-HCT for patients with BCP-ALL and IKZF1 mutations are generally improving, however, individuals with detectable MRD have poor prognosis and require additional intervention prior to transplantation.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249424

RESUMO

The association of Cyclosporine A (CsA) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has increased in the setting of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC). Nevertheless, the use of CsA or CsA+MMF has not been reported in a large and uniform cohort. We analyzed 497 patients with acute myeloid leukemia in complete remission (CR) who underwent matched unrelated donor (MUD) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). All patients received a fludarabine busulfan RIC regimen and anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) with either CsA alone or in combination with MMF. The cumulative incidence (CI) of grade II-IV acute GvHD was 27% (95% CI 21-33%) for CsA and 33% (95% CI 27-38%) for CsA+MMF (p = 0.25). The 2-year CI of chronic GvHD was 38% (95% CI 31-45%) and 33% (95% CI 28-39%) for the CsA and the CsA+MMF group, respectively (p = 0.26). On multivariate analysis, no statistically significant differences with respect to relapse incidence (RI), non-relapse mortality (NRM), leukemia-free survival (LFS), overall survival (OS), acute and chronic GvHD were found between the two groups, also when conducting a subgroup analysis in peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) recipients. Our results support the importance of randomized trial to identify patients who could benefit from the addition of MMF in MUD HSCT.

3.
Cancer Med ; 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33242374

RESUMO

Limited data are currently available on the outcome of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) with a reduced performance status. We herein present the results of a registry study on 2,936 AML patients undergoing allo-SCT in first remission (CR1) with a Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score less than or equal to 80%. Two-year leukemia-free survival (LFS), overall survival (OS) and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-free, and relapse-free survival (GRFS) rates were 54%, 59%, and 41%, respectively. In multivariable analysis, patients with a KPS score = 80% had lower non-relapse mortality (NRM) and superior OS in comparison to patients with a KPS score <80% (p < 0.001). In the subgroup of patients with a KPS score =80%, a reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen was associated with an increased risk of relapse (p = 0.002) and lower GRFS (p < 0.001) compared to myeloablative conditioning (MAC). Differently, in patients with a KPS score <80%, a RIC regimen resulted in lower NRM (p < 0.001), whereas relapse incidence did not differ, thus leading to an improved GRFS (p = 0.008) as compared to MAC. A transplant from a matched sibling donor (MSD) was associated with a reduced incidence of grade III-IV acute GVHD (p < 0.01) and NRM (p < 0.01) in comparison to other donor types. In conclusion, allo-SCT appears feasible in AML patients with a jeopardized KPS score. Survival is significantly affected by the conditioning intensity, which should be adjusted according to the severity of KPS impairment.

4.
Cancer ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Addition of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) or post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCY) to standard immunosuppressive agents reduces GVHD in different donor settings. METHODS: We compared the outcomes of adults with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing allo-HSCT from HLA-identical sibling donors after the use of PTCY (n = 197) or ATG (n = 1913). RESULTS: Patients in the PTCY group were younger than those in the ATG group (median age, 47 vs 54 years; P < .01). Peripheral blood was the most frequently used stem cell source, being significantly more frequent in the ATG group than in the PTCY group (95% vs 70% P < .01). The conditioning regimen was more frequently myeloablative in the PTCY group than in the ATG group (59% vs 48%; P < .01). Time to neutrophil engraftment was shorter in the ATG group than in the PTCY group (17 vs 20 days; P < .01). No differences were observed according to the other transplantation outcomes, except for chronic GVHD of all grades and extensive chronic GVHD at 2 years, which were significantly lower in the ATG group compared with the PTCY group (P < .02). CONCLUSION: PTCY is feasible in an HLA-identical sibling setting, and despite similar outcomes, ATG may be associated with lower incidence of chronic GVHD.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020591

RESUMO

We compared transplant outcomes of 708 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients receiving haploidentical allogeneic hematopoietic-cell transplantation using thiotepa/busulfan/fludarabine (TBF) conditioning with posttransplant cyclophosphamide (ptCy), to 2083 patients receiving matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplantation using fludarabine/busulfan (FB) conditioning and in vivo T-cell depletion. For intermediate cytogenetic risk AML transplanted in first complete remission (CR1), multivariate analysis revealed that haplo-TBF significantly increased nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (HR 2.1; p = 0.0006) but did not affect relapse incidence (RI), leukemia-free survival (LFS), overall survival (OS), or graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS). For high cytogenetic risk AML transplanted in CR1, haplo-TBF significantly increased NRM (HR = 2.7; p = 0.02), decreased RI (HR = 0.45; p = 0.03) but had no influence on LFS, OS, or GRFS. For AML transplanted in CR2, haplo-TBF significantly increased NRM (HR = 2.36; p = 0.008), decreased RI (HR = 0.38; p = 0.005), but had no influence on LFS, OS, or GRFS. Finally, for AML patients transplanted with active disease, haplo-TBF had no influence on transplant outcomes. In conclusion, compared to MUD-FB, haplo-TBF increased NRM, reduced RI in high-risk AML in CR, resulting in similar LFS, OS, and GRFS. These results comparing two different approaches support the use of a haploidentical family donor for high-risk AML patients lacking a matched sibling donor.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004942

RESUMO

No studies have been reported so far on bridging treatment with idelalisib for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) prior to allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT). To study potential carry-over effects of idelalisib and to assess the impact of pathway-inhibitor (PI) failure we performed a retrospective EBMT registry-based study. Patients with CLL who had a history of idelalisib treatment and received a first alloHCT between 2015 and 2017 were eligible. Data on 72 patients (median age 58 years) were analyzed. Forty percent of patients had TP53mut/del CLL and 64% had failed on at least one PI. No primary graft failure occurred. Cumulative incidences of acute GVHD °II-IV and chronic GVHD were 51% and 39%, respectively. Estimates for 2-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and cumulative incidences of relapse/progression (CIR) and non-relapse mortality NRM were 59%, 44%, 25%, and 31%. In univariate analysis, drug sensitivity was a strong risk factor. For patients who had failed neither PI treatment nor chemoimmunotherapy (CIT) the corresponding 2-year estimates were 73%, 65%, 15%, and 20%, respectively. In conclusion, idelalisib may be considered as an option for bridging therapy prior to alloHCT. Owing to the high risk for acute GVHD intensified clinical monitoring is warranted.

8.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988970

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) post allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) has a dismal prognosis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To assess prognosis of patients with recurrent AML post allo-HCT over time, we analyzed European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry data of 8,162 adult patients with AML who relapsed between 2000 and 2018 after allo-HCT performed in first complete remission from matched sibling, unrelated, or haploidentical donors. RESULTS: The 2-year overall survival (OS) rate from relapse was 17%. For 3,630 patients, <50 years of age, the 2-year OS continuously increased from 16% between 2000 and 2004 to 18% for 2005-2009, to 21% for 2010-2014, and to 26% for 2015-2018 (P = 0.001). Improvement over time was noted both after relapse within and beyond 6 months from allo-HCT. On multivariate analysis among patients <50 years of age, OS was positively affected by a later year of relapse (baseline: 2000-2004; HR, 0.82; P < 0.02 for 2010-2014 and HR, 0.72; P = 0.0002 for 2015-2018), good performance status, favorable cytogenetics, and longer time from transplant to relapse, but negatively affected by increasing age. In contrast, among 4,532 patients, >50 years of age, the year of relapse had no influence on OS (16% for 2000-2004 and 14% for 2015-2018; P = 0.56). Regarding treatment, encouraging results were observed after second allo-HCT, which was performed within 2 years after relapse in 17% of the entire cohort, resulting in a 2-year OS of 30.7%. CONCLUSIONS: Outcome after posttransplant relapse among younger patients has improved significantly in recent years, likely reflecting, among other factors, the efficacy of posttransplant salvage including second allo-HCT.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887941

RESUMO

The indication for performing an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) in patients with isolated trisomy 8 AML in first complete remission (CR) is still debated. Here, we compared outcomes of such patients given either allo-HCT or autologous (auto)-HCT. Inclusion criteria consisted of adult patients with de novo AML, isolated trisomy 8, first HCT between 2000 and 2018, CR1 at transplantation, and either auto-HCT or allo-HCT with a HLA-identical sibling donor (MSD) or a 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated donor (UD 10/10). A total of 401 patients met the inclusion criteria. They underwent an auto-HCT (n = 81), allo-HCT with a MSD (n = 186) or allo-HCT with a 10/10 UD (n = 134). At 3 years, relapse incidence, nonrelapse mortality and leukemia-free survival (LFS) were 59%, 5%, and 37%, respectively, in auto-HCT recipients; 31% (P < 0.001), 14% (P = 0.04), and 55% (P = 0.033), respectively, in MSD recipients and 29% (P < 0.001), 13% (P = 0.15), and 59% (P = 0.03), respectively, in UD 10/10 recipients. In multivariate analysis, in comparison to auto-HCT, MSD and UD 10/10 were associated with a lower risk of relapse (HR = 0.47, P < 0.001 and HR = 0.40, P < 0.001, respectively) translating to better LFS (HR = 0.69, P = 0.04 and HR = 0.60, P = 0.03, respectively). There was also a similar trend for overall survival (HR = 0.73, P = 0.12 and HR = 0.65, P = 0.08).

10.
Blood ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871585

RESUMO

A multistage model instructed by a large dataset (knowledge bank [KB] algorithm) has recently been developed to improve outcome prediction and tailor therapeutic decision, including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in AML. We assessed the performance of the KB in guiding HSCT decision in first complete remission (CR1) in 656 AML patients younger than 60 years from the ALFA-0702 trial (NCT00932412). KB predictions of Overall Survival (OS) were superior to those of European LeukemiaNet (ELN) 2017 risk stratification (C-index 68.9 versus 63.0). Among patients reaching CR1, HSCT in CR1, as a time-dependent covariate was detrimental in those with favorable ELN 2017 risk and those with negative NPM1 MRD (interaction tests P=0.01 and P=0.02, respectively). Using KB simulations of survival at 5 years in a scenario without HSCT in CR1 (KB score), we identified in a similar time-dependent analysis a significant interaction between the KB score and HSCT, with HSCT in CR1 being detrimental only in patients with a good prognosis based on KB simulations (KB score ≥40, interaction test P=0.01). We could finally integrate ELN 2017, NPM1 MRD and KB scores to sort 545 CR1 patients into 278 (51.0%) HSCT candidates and 267 (49.0%) chemo-only candidates. In both time-dependent and 6-month landmark analyses, HSCT significantly improved OS in HSCT candidates while it significantly shortened OS in chemo-only candidates. Integrating KB predictions with ELN 2017 and MRD may thus represent a promising approach to optimize HSCT timing in younger AML patients.

11.
Blood ; 136(17): 1903-1906, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756949

RESUMO

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a major limitation of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Only half of patients with severe acute GVHD respond to first-line treatment with corticosteroids and, for several decades, there was no optimal second-line treatment of patients with corticosteroid-refractory acute GVHD. Ruxolitinib was recently approved for the treatment of corticosteroid-refractory acute GVHD in adult and pediatric patients 12 years and older. Thus, it is important to define the patient population that would now be considered as refractory to ruxolitinib vs ruxolitinib dependent. Here, we propose to define ruxolitinib-refractory acute GVHD as disease that shows: (1) progression of GVHD compared with baseline after at least 5 to 10 days of treatment with ruxolitinib, based either on objective increase in stage/grade, or new organ involvement; (2) lack of improvement in GVHD (partial response or better) compared with baseline after ≥14 days of treatment with ruxolitinib; or (3) loss of response, defined as objective worsening of GVHD determined by increase in stage, grade, or new organ involvement at any time after initial improvement. GVHD manifestations that persist without improvement in patients who had a grade ≥3 treatment-emergent and ruxolitinib-attributed adverse event that did not resolve within 7 days of discontinuing ruxolitinib would serve as a clinical indication for additional treatment. In addition, absence of complete response or very good partial response at day 28 after ruxolitinib could be considered as an eligibility criterion.

12.
Blood Adv ; 4(15): 3789-3794, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780849

RESUMO

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a life-threatening complication after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Despite the use of prophylactic immunosuppression including calcineurin inhibitors, antimetabolites, antithymocyte globulin, or posttransplant cyclophosphamide, patients still develop severe aGVHD. In particular, patients with glucocorticoid-refractory GVHD (SR-GVHD) have a dismal prognosis with a low 1-year post-allo-HCT survival rate. Most classical drugs used to prevent or treat aGVHD target 1 specific pathway such as calcineurin inhibitors or mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, or they interfere with fast-dividing activated cells (eg, methotrexate, mycophenolate, and cyclophosphamide). In contrast to these drugs, inhibition-of-signaling molecules, used by multiple immune cells and critical for signal transduction of multiple proinflammatory cytokines, could be more efficacious at blocking GVHD. Ruxolitinib blocks Janus kinases 1 and 2, which are required to mediate the downstream signaling of multiple cytokine receptors. Recently, a multicenter phase 3 clinical trial showed that ruxolitinib led to significant improvements in efficacy outcomes compared to best available therapy, which will lead to a paradigm shift in the treatment of SR-GVHD.

13.
Haematologica ; 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732366

RESUMO

Significant morbidity and mortality have been associated with liver complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Causes and consequences of these hepato-biliary complications are various and might be life-threatening. A high misdiagnosis rate has been reported because of a weak correlation between clinical, laboratory and imaging data. Liver elastography, a liver stiffness measure, is able to assess liver fibrosis and portal hypertension in most liver diseases, but data after allo-HSCT are scarce. Our aim was to determine the interest of sequential liver stiffness measurements for the diagnosis of early hepatic complications after allo-HSCT. Over a two years period of time, 161 consecutive adult patients were included and 146 were analyzed. Ultrasonography and elastography measurements were performed before transplantation, at day+7 and day+14 by three different experienced radiologists unaware of patients'clinical status. Eighty-one (55%) patients had liver involvements within the first 100 days after allo-HSCT. Baseline elastography was not predictive for the occurrence of overall liver abnormalities. A significant increase in 2D real-time shearwave elastography (2D-SWE) was found in patients with sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). Fifteen patients (10%) fulfilled EBMT score criteria and twelve (8%) reached Baltimore criteria for SOS diagnosis, but only six (4%) had a confirmed SOS. 2D-SWE at day+14 allowed early detection of SOS (AUROC=0.84, p=0.004) and improved sensibility (75%), specificity (99%) and positive predictive value (60%) over the Seattle, Baltimore or EBMT scores. A 2D-SWE measurement above 8.1kPa at day+14 after allo-HSCT seems a promising, non-invasive, and reproducible tool for early and accurate diagnosis of SOS.

14.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(11): 2115-2120, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738501

RESUMO

Ruxolitinib, a selective Janus kinase (JAK)1/2 inhibitor, has recently been proposed for steroid-refractory chronic graft-versus host disease (cGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), particularly in severe skin cGVHD. Lung function impairment is common in severe skin cGVHD through concomitant bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) or restrictive lung disease (RLD) from skin sclerosis. To date, no treatment has shown a benefit on lung function in this context. We retrospectively assessed the effect of ruxolitinib on lung function in a cohort of 70 patients diagnosed with sclerotic-type skin cGVHD between March 2015 and April 2018. Among these patients, 36 received ruxolitinib. To handle confounding by indication bias, exposure groups were matched on the propensity score to receive ruxolitinib, incorporating age, myeloablative conditioning, total body irradiation, BOS, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and tobacco use at the time of cohort entry, as well as the time from transplantation. The 1:1 matching used a greedy-matching algorithm with replacement, with a caliper of 0.10. FVC and FEV1 trajectories during follow-up were compared in the matched samples, using linear mixed-effects models. The median duration of follow-up of the 46 matched patients was 58 months (interquartile range, 32 to 84 months). Ten patients had an RLD (6 exposed, 4 unexposed), and 13 patients were diagnosed with BOS (8 exposed, 5 unexposed). FEV1 decreased significantly over time independent of exposure to ruxolitinib (P < .0001). The FEV1 trajectory was similar in the exposed patients and the unexposed patients (P = .11). In conclusion, ruxolitinib administration did not demonstrate any improvement in the course of respiratory function in allogeneic HSCT recipients with sclerotic-type skin cGVHD.

15.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1537, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32793210

RESUMO

Acute graft-vs.-host disease (aGvHD) is one of the most frequent causes of transplant-related mortality (TRM) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT). Its treatment is complex and costly. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the impact of country-specific socioeconomic factors on outcome of patients who experience severe aGvHD. Adults with hematological malignancies receiving alloHCT from either HLA-matched siblings (n = 1,328) or unrelated donors (n = 2,824) developing grade 3 or 4 aGvHD were included. In univariate analysis, the probability of TRM at 2 years was increased for countries with lower current Health Care Expenditure (HCE, p = 0.04), lower HCE as % of Gross Domestic Product per capita (p = 0.003) and lower values of the Human Development Index (p = 0.02). In a multivariate model, the risk of TRM was most strongly predicted by current HCE (HR = 0.76, p = 0.006). HCE >median was also associated with reduced risk of the overall mortality (HR 0.73, p = 0.0006) and reduced risk of treatment failure (either relapse or TRM; HR 0.77, p = 0.004). We conclude that country-specific socioeconomic factors, in particular current HCE, are strongly associated with survival of patients who experience severe aGvHD.

16.
Blood Adv ; 4(16): 3927-3942, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818226

RESUMO

The cellular and molecular processes involved in acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) development early after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in humans remain largely unknown. We have performed multiparameter immunophenotyping and molecular profiling of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in 2 independent cohorts of patients undergoing HCT, as well as in their HLA-identical sibling donors. Cellular profiling using spectral flow cytometry showed an incomplete reconstitution of the T-cell compartment in recipients without aGVHD early after transplantation, as well as a shift toward an effector memory phenotype, paralleled by depletion of the naive T-cell pool. Molecular profiling of T-cell populations in donors vs recipients without aGVHD revealed increased pathway activity of >40 gene modules in recipients. These pathways were associated in particular with T-cell activation, adhesion, migration, and effector functions. Cellular profiles from recipients developing aGVHD displayed an enrichment of cells with a T memory stem cell-like phenotype compared with recipients without aGVHD. Comparison of gene profiles from these recipients revealed that transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) signaling was most significantly downregulated, whereas the pathway activity of NF-κB-associated transcription factors and signaling pathways were increased, at aGVHD onset. This study suggests that the integration of cellular and molecular profiles provides new insights into the development of aGVHD in humans.

18.
Semin Hematol ; 57(1): 19-25, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690140

RESUMO

The virome has been recently studied in hematology and mostly in the setting of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, in hematology (as in the setting of nonhematological disorders) the study of the microbiome (that indeed includes the virome) is a growing field. The overall field is moving beyond species catalogue to the understanding of the complex ecological relationship that microbes have with each other and with their host. Here we review the existing literature on the virome in transplant recipients and in other settings, and discuss potential applications of the virome study in hematology.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561816

RESUMO

A mismatched unrelated (MMUD) donor represents an alternative therapeutic option for patients who need allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) and do not have a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched donor. We studied outcomes of patients with acute leukemia transplanted from ≥2 HLA allele MMUD. The study population consisted of 465 patients. The median follow-up period was 63 and 75 months in the AML and ALL groups, respectively. The incidence of grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute (a) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) during the first 100 days was 37% and 16%, respectively. Total and extensive chronic (c) GVHD rates at 2 years were 38% and 17%, respectively. In the entire population, the 5-year relapse incidence (RI), non-relapse mortality (NRM), leukemia-free survival (LFS), overall survival and refined GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) was 33%, 31%, 37%, 41%, and 27%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, HLA-DR mismatch was a poor prognostic factor, giving a significantly higher NRM [hazard ratio (HR), 1.67, p = 0.02]; poorer LFS (HR, 1.42, p = 0.03); OS (HR, 1.46, p = 0.03) and higher aGVHD grade II-IV (HR, 1.46, p = 0.05). In this study, allo-HCT from ≤6/8 HLA allele MMUD in acute leukemia patients resulted in acceptable LFS and refined GRFS. HLA-DR mismatch was a poor prognostic factor.

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