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1.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 32(1): 26-32, feb. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET2-3433

RESUMO

Objetivo: Investigar si existen diferencias clínicas y toxicológicas en pacientes intoxicados por anfetamina (ANF) y metanfetamina (MANF) atendidos en servicios de urgencias. Método: Estudio observacional retrospectivo de intoxicaciones por ANF y MANF con confirmación analítica en Baleares (2013-2018). Se compararon variables clínicas, toxicológicas y de manejo clínico entre grupos. Resultados: 1) Se incluyeron 120 pacientes, 86 (71,7%) grupo ANF y 34 (28,3%) grupo MANF. 2) La confirmación de derivados anfetamínicos se realizó por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas en 787 muestras de orina previamente positivas mediante un método de cribado cualitativo. Se confirmaron 154 (19,6%) muestras. De ellas, 34 fueron excluidas. 3) Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre ANF y MANF en: edad (32,3 vs 28,4 años); sexo (72,1 vs 94,1% hombres); nacionalidad española (64,0 vs 29,4%); en motivos de admisión: alteración de conducta (15,1 vs 0%) y palpitaciones (1,2 vs 20,6%); y en características clínicas: agitación (27,9 vs 8,8%). No hubo diferencias de manejo clínico. El 76,6% de casos fueron polintoxicaciones, más comunes en ANF (82,6 vs 61,8%). En estos casos se detectó principalmente cocaína (63,0%), cannabis (48,9%), MDMA (38,0%) y alcohol (35,9%). La mayor asociación del cannabis con el grupo de ANF fue estadísticamente significativa (45,3 vs 17,6%). La causa de los falsos positivos se identificó en el 78,7% de muestras, siendo el MDMA (71,2%) la principal. Conclusiones: Se observaron diferencias entre ANF y MANF en cuanto a variables demográficas y motivo de asistencia; no obstante en esta serie hubo un alto porcentaje de polintoxicaciones


Objective: To determine whether clinical and toxicologic findings differed between cases of amphetamine (AMP) and methamphetamine (mAMP) poisoning attended in 2 Balearic Island hospital emergency departments. Methods: Retrospective observational study of AMP and mAMP cases with laboratory confirmation between 2013 and 2018. We compared clinical and toxicologic variables as well as clinical management between groups. Results: 1) A total of 120 cases were found: 86 (71.7%) with AMP poisoning and 34 (28.3%) with mAMP poisoning. 2) Drug poisoning was confirmed by gas chromatography associated with mass spectrometry (GC–MS) in 787 urine samples found to be positive during screening. One hundred fifty-four (19.6%) were confirmed by GC–MS. Thirtyfour of them did not meet the inclusion criteria. 3) Significant differences between AMP and mAMP cases were found for age (32.3 vs 28.4 y, respectively); sex (72.1% vs 94.1% men); and Spanish nationality (64.0% vs 29.4%). Reasons for admission and clinical features also differed: the reasons were aberrant behavior (15.1% in the AMP group vs 0% in the mAMP group) and palpitations (1.2% vs 20.6%); agitation was observed in 27.9% and 8.8%, respectively. Clinical management was similar in the 2 groups. Multiple drug poisoning was detected in 76.6% patients and was more common in patients in the AMP group (82.6% vs 61.8%). The additional drugs in these cases were mainly cocaine (63.0%), cannabis (48.9%), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine (MDMA) (38.0%), and alcohol (35.9%). Cannabis was detected in a significantly higher proportion in the AMP group (45.3%) than in the mAMP group (17.6%). False positives were found in 78.7% of the samples. The culprit drug was most often MDMA (71.2%). Conclusions: AMP poisonings were associated with age over 30 years, Spanish nationality, aberrant behavior, agitation, multiple drug findings, and the use of cannabis. Poisonings caused by mAMP abuse were associated with age under 30 years, non-Spanish nationality, palpitations, and single-drug use

2.
Emergencias ; 32(1): 26-32, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether clinical and toxicologic findings differed between cases of amphetamine (AMP) and methamphetamine (mAMP) poisoning attended in 2 Balearic Island hospital emergency departments. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective observational study of AMP and mAMP cases with laboratory confirmation between 2013 and 2018. We compared clinical and toxicologic variables as well as clinical management between groups. RESULTS: 1) A total of 120 cases were found: 86 (71.7%) with AMP poisoning and 34 (28.3%) with mAMP poisoning. 2) Drug poisoning was confirmed by gas chromatography associated with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in 787 urine samples found to be positive during screening. One hundred fifty-four (19.6%) were confirmed by GC-MS. Thirtyfour of them did not meet the inclusion criteria. 3) Significant differences between AMP and mAMP cases were found for age (32.3 vs 28.4 y, respectively); sex (72.1% vs 94.1% men); and Spanish nationality (64.0% vs 29.4%). Reasons for admission and clinical features also differed: the reasons were aberrant behavior (15.1% in the AMP group vs 0% in the mAMP group) and palpitations (1.2% vs 20.6%); agitation was observed in 27.9% and 8.8%, respectively. Clinical management was similar in the 2 groups. Multiple drug poisoning was detected in 76.6% patients and was more common in patients in the AMP group (82.6% vs 61.8%). The additional drugs in these cases were mainly cocaine (63.0%), cannabis (48.9%), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine (MDMA) (38.0%), and alcohol (35.9%). Cannabis was detected in a significantly higher proportion in the AMP group (45.3%) than in the mAMP group (17.6%). False positives were found in 78.7% of the samples. The culprit drug was most often MDMA (71.2%). CONCLUSION: AMP poisonings were associated with age over 30 years, Spanish nationality, aberrant behavior, agitation, multiple drug findings, and the use of cannabis. Poisonings caused by mAMP abuse were associated with age under 30 years, non-Spanish nationality, palpitations, and single-drug use.

3.
Eur Respir J ; 54(1)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109985

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We wished to explore the use, diagnostic capability and outcomes of bronchoscopy added to noninvasive testing in immunocompromised patients. In this setting, an inability to identify the cause of acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure is associated with worse outcome. Every effort should be made to obtain a diagnosis, either with noninvasive testing alone or combined with bronchoscopy. However, our understanding of the risks and benefits of bronchoscopy remains uncertain. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a pre-planned secondary analysis of Efraim, a prospective, multinational, observational study of 1611 immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory failure admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). We compared patients with noninvasive testing only to those who had also received bronchoscopy by bivariate analysis and after propensity score matching. RESULTS: Bronchoscopy was performed in 618 (39%) patients who were more likely to have haematological malignancy and a higher severity of illness score. Bronchoscopy alone achieved a diagnosis in 165 patients (27% adjusted diagnostic yield). Bronchoscopy resulted in a management change in 236 patients (38% therapeutic yield). Bronchoscopy was associated with worsening of respiratory status in 69 (11%) patients. Bronchoscopy was associated with higher ICU (40% versus 28%; p<0.0001) and hospital mortality (49% versus 41%; p=0.003). The overall rate of undiagnosed causes was 13%. After propensity score matching, bronchoscopy remained associated with increased risk of hospital mortality (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.08-1.81). CONCLUSIONS: Bronchoscopy was associated with improved diagnosis and changes in management, but also increased hospital mortality. Balancing risk and benefit in individualised cases should be investigated further.

4.
Rev. esp. quimioter ; 25(4): 274-282, dic. 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-108010

RESUMO

Introducción. Caspofungina es una equinocandina con eficacia probada en candidiasis invasiva (CI) y aspergilosis invasiva (AI). ProCAS es un estudio patrocinado por el Grupo de Trabajo de Enfermedades Infecciosas de la Sociedad Española de Medicina Intensiva Critica Y Unidades Coronarias (Semicyuc), que trata de analizar su efectividad y seguridad en condiciones de práctica clínica habitual en el paciente grave ingresado en UCI. Material y métodos. Estudio observacional, prospectivo y multicéntrico que tiene como objetivo estimar la efectividad clínica y la seguridad del acetato de caspofungina en el tratamiento de CI y de AI en pacientes críticos refractarios o intolerantes al tratamiento antifúngico convencional. La valoración de la efectividad tanto clínica como la microbiológica se realizó al final del tratamiento con caspofungina. Resultados. Se incluyeron 98 pacientes; 62 CI probadas, 25 CI probables y 11 AI probables, procedentes de 24 centros, durante los años 2005 y 2006. El tratamiento con caspofungina se realizó en monoterapia en el 89.8% de los casos y como primera línea en el 54.1%. La respuesta clínica favorable obtenida para CI, CI probable y AI probable fue de 91,9%, 84% y 81.8%, respectivamente. La respuesta microbiológica fue favorable en el 74,6%, 68% y 54.6%, para los casos de CI probada, CI probable y AI probable, respectivamente. No se objetivaron efectos adversos graves. Conclusiones. En condiciones de práctica clínica habitual, caspofungina es eficaz y segura para el tratamiento de infecciones fúngicas invasoras (CI/AI). El perfil de eficacia y seguridad fue similar al observado en los ensayos clínicos publicados(AU)


Introduction. Caspofungin is an echinocandin with proven efficacy in invasive candidiasis (IC) and invasive aspergillosis (IA). ProCAS is a study sponsored by the Working Group of the Infectious Diseases of the Spanish Society of Intensive Care Medicine, which analyzes the effectiveness and safety of caspofungin in routine clinical practice conditions in the critically ill. Methods. A prospective, multicenter, observational study designed to estimate the clinical effectiveness and safety of caspofungin acetate in the treatment of IC and IA in patients refractory to or intolerant of conventional antifungal therapy. The assessment of effectiveness both clinic and the microbiological was carried out at the end of the treatment with caspofungin. Results. We included 98 patients, 62 IC proven, 25 probable and 11 IA probable, from 24 centers during 2005 and 2006. Treatment with caspofungin monotherapy was performed in 89.8% of cases and as first line therapy in 54.1%. The favorable clinical response obtained for IC, probable IC, and probable IA was 91.9, 84, and 81.8%, respectively. The microbiological response was favorable in 74.6, 68, and 54.6% for proven cases of IC, probable IC, and probable IA, respectively. No serious adverse effects were observed. Conclusions. In routine clinical practice conditions, caspofungin is effective and safe for the treatment of invasive fungal infections (IC/IA). The efficacy and safety profile was similar to that observed in published clinical trials(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Equinocandinas/uso terapêutico , Doenças Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Aspergilose/diagnóstico , Aspergilose/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Equinocandinas/metabolismo , Equinocandinas/farmacocinética , Avaliação de Eficácia-Efetividade de Intervenções , Estudos Prospectivos , Comorbidade , Fatores de Risco
5.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 25(4): 274-82, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23303260

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Caspofungin is an echinocandin with proven efficacy in invasive candidiasis (IC) and invasive aspergillosis (IA). ProCAS is a study sponsored by the Working Group of the Infectious Diseases of the Spanish Society of Intensive Care Medicine, which analyzes the effectiveness and safety of caspofungin in routine clinical practice conditions in the critically ill. METHODS: A prospective, multicenter, observational study designed to estimate the clinical effectiveness and safety of caspofungin acetate in the treatment of IC and IA in patients refractory to or intolerant of conventional antifungal therapy. The assessment of effectiveness both clinic and the microbiological was carried out at the end of the treatment with caspofungin. RESULTS: We included 98 patients, 62 IC proven, 25 probable and 11 IA probable, from 24 centers during 2005 and 2006. Treatment with caspofungin monotherapy was performed in 89.8% of cases and as first line therapy in 54.1%. The favorable clinical response obtained for IC, probable IC, and probable IA was 91.9, 84, and 81.8%, respectively. The microbiological response was favorable in 74.6, 68, and 54.6% for proven cases of IC, probable IC, and probable IA, respectively. No serious adverse effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS: In routine clinical practice conditions, caspofungin is effective and safe for the treatment of invasive fungal infections (IC/IA). The efficacy and safety profile was similar to that observed in published clinical trials.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Aspergilose/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase Invasiva/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Terminal , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Equinocandinas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/efeitos adversos , Caspofungina , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/tratamento farmacológico , Comorbidade , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Quimioterapia Combinada , Equinocandinas/administração & dosagem , Equinocandinas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Lipopeptídeos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Resultado do Tratamento
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