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1.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159224

RESUMO

Comparable performance indicators for breast cancer screening in the European Union (EU) have not been previously reported. We estimated adjusted breast cancer screening positivity rate (PR) and detection rates (DR) to investigate variation across EU countries. For the age 50-69 years, the adjusted EU-pooled PR for initial screening was 8.9% (cross-programme variation range 3.2-19.5%) while DR of invasive cancers was 5.3/1,000 (range 3.8-7.4/1,000) and DR of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was 1.3/1,000 (range 0.7-2.7/1,000). For subsequent screening, the adjusted EU-pooled PR was 3.6% (range 1.4-8.4%), the DR was 4.0/1,000 (range 2.2-5.8/1,000) and 0.8/1,000 (range 0.5-1.3/1,000) for invasive and DCIS, respectively. Adjusted performance indicators showed remarkable heterogeneity, likely due to different background breast cancer risk and awareness between target populations, and also different screening protocols and organisation. Periodic reporting of the screening indicators permits comparison and evaluation of the screening activities between and within countries aiming to improve the quality and the outcomes of screening programmes. Cancer Screening Registries would be a milestone in this direction and EU Screening Reports provide a fundamental contribution to building them.

2.
Gut ; 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001553

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The incidence of gastric cancer continues to decrease globally, approaching levels that in some populations could define it as a rare disease. To explore this on a wider scale, we predict its future burden in 34 countries with long-standing population-based data. METHODS: Data on gastric cancer incidence by year of diagnosis, sex and age were extracted for 92 cancer registries in 34 countries included in Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Plus. Numbers of new cases and age-standardised incidence rates (ASR per 100 000) were predicted up to 2035 by fitting and extrapolating age-period-cohort models. RESULTS: Overall gastric cancer incidence rates are predicted to continue falling in the future in the majority of countries, including high-incidence countries such as Japan (ASR 36 in 2010 vs ASR 30 in 2035) but also low-incidence countries such as Australia (ASR 5.1 in 2010 vs ASR 4.6 in 2035). A total of 16 countries are predicted to fall below the rare disease threshold (defined as 6 per 100 000 person-years) by 2035, while the number of newly diagnosed cases remains high and is predicted to continue growing. In contrast, incidence increases were seen in younger age groups (below age 50 years) in both low-incidence and high-incidence populations. CONCLUSIONS: While gastric cancer is predicted to become a rare disease in a growing number of countries, incidence levels remain high in some regions, and increasing risks have been observed in younger generations. The predicted growing number of new cases highlights that gastric cancer remains a major challenge to public health on a global scale.

3.
Gynecol Oncol ; 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005583

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study aims to evaluate the differences in ovarian cancer survival by age and stage at diagnosis within and across seven high-income countries. METHODS: We analyzed data from 58,161 women diagnosed with ovarian cancer during 2010-2014, followed until 31 December 2015, from 21 population-based cancer registries in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Ireland, New Zealand, Norway, and United Kingdom. Comparisons of 1-year and 3-year age- and stage-specific net survival (NS) between countries were performed using the period analysis approach. RESULTS: Minor variation in the stage distribution was observed between countries, with most women being diagnosed with 'distant' stage (ranging between 64% in Canada and 71% in Norway). The 3-year all-ages NS ranged from 45 to 57% with Australia (56%) and Norway (57%) demonstrating the highest survival. The proportion of women with 'distant' stage was highest for those aged 65-74 and 75-99 years and varied markedly between countries (range:72-80% and 77-87%, respectively). The oldest age group had the lowest 3-year age-specific survival (20-34%), and women aged 65-74 exhibited the widest variation across countries (3-year NS range: 40-60%). Differences in survival between countries were particularly stark for the oldest age group with 'distant' stage (3-year NS range: 12% in Ireland to 24% in Norway). CONCLUSIONS: International variations in ovarian cancer survival by stage exist with the largest differences observed in the oldest age group with advanced disease. This finding endorses further research investigating international differences in access to and quality of treatment, and prevalence of comorbid conditions particularly in older women with advanced disease.

4.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 6: 133-142, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031453

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Worldwide, Indigenous people often have disproportionally worse health and lower life expectancy than their non-Indigenous counterparts. Despite the impact of cancer on life expectancy, little is known about the burden of cancer for Indigenous people primarily because of the paucity of data. We investigated the collection and reporting of Indigenous status information among a global sample of population-based cancer registries (PBCRs). PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: An online survey was e-mailed to eligible registries using set inclusion criteria. Respondents were asked questions on the collection, reporting, and quality assessment of Indigenous status in their registers. RESULTS: Eighty-three PBCRs from 25 countries were included. Of these, 66% reported that their registry collected Indigenous status data, although the quality of this variable had been assessed in less than half in terms of completeness (38%) and accuracy (47%). Two thirds of PBCRs who collected Indigenous status data (67%), from nine of 25 countries responded that cancer statistics for Indigenous people were reported using registry data. Key barriers to the collection of Indigenous status information included the lack of data collection at the point of care (79%), lack of transfer of Indigenous status to the cancer registry (46%), inadequate information systems (43%), and legislative limitations (32%). Important variations existed among world regions, although the lack of Indigenous status data collection at the point of care was commonly reported across all regions. CONCLUSION: High-quality data collection is lacking for Indigenous peoples in many countries. To ensure the design and implementation of cancer control activities required to reduce disparities for Indigenous populations, health information systems, including cancer registries, need to be strengthened, and this must be done in dialogue with Indigenous leaders.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922259

RESUMO

Trends in gallbladder cancer incidence and mortality in populations across the Americas can provide insight into shifting epidemiologic patterns and the current and potential impact of preventative and curative programs. Estimates of gallbladder and extrahepatic bile duct cancer incidence and mortality for the year 2018 were extracted from International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) GLOBOCAN database for 185 countries. Recorded registry-based incidence from 13 countries was extracted from IARCs Cancer Incidence in Five Continents series and corresponding national deaths from the WHO mortality database. Among females, the highest estimated incidence for gallbladder and extrahepatic bile duct cancer in the Americas were found in Bolivia (21.0 per 100,000), Chile (11.7) and Peru (6.0). In the US, the highest incidence rates were observed among Hispanics (1.8). In the Chilean population, gallbladder cancer rates declined in both females and males between 1998 and 2012. Rates dropped slightly in Canada, Costa Rica, US Whites and Hispanics in Los Angeles. Gallbladder cancer mortality rates also decreased across the studied countries, although rising trends were observed in Colombia and Canada after 2010. Countries within Southern and Central America tended to have a higher proportion of unspecified biliary tract cancers. In public health terms, the decline in gallbladder cancer incidence and mortality rates is encouraging. However, the slight increase in mortality rates during recent years in Colombia and Canada warrant further attention. Higher proportions of unspecified biliary tract cancers (with correspondingly higher mortality rates) suggest more rigorous pathology procedures may be needed after surgery.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970768

RESUMO

The 2003 European Council recommendation urging the Member States to introduce or scale up breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening through an organized population-based approach has had a remarkable impact. We argue that the recommendation needs to be updated for at least two sets of reasons. First, some of the current clinical guidelines include new tests or protocols that were not available at the time of the Council document. Some have already been adopted by organized screening programs, such as newly defined age ranges for mammography screening, Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-based cervical cancer screening, fecal immunochemical test (FIT) and sigmoidoscopy for colorectal cancer screening. Second, the outcomes of randomized trials evaluating screening for lung and prostate cancer have been published recently and the balance between harms and benefits needs to be pragmatically assessed. In the European Union, research collaboration and networking to exchange and develop best practices should be regularly supported by the European Commission. Integration between primary and secondary preventive strategies through comprehensive approaches is necessary not only to maximize the reduction in cancer burden but also to control the rising trend of other noncommunicable diseases sharing the same risk factors.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 146(5): 1208-1218, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087650

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the leading cancer diagnosis and second most common cause of cancer deaths in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Yet, there are few population-level survival data from Africa and none on the survival differences by stage at diagnosis. Here, we estimate breast cancer survival within SSA by area, stage and country-level human development index (HDI). We obtained data on a random sample of 2,588 breast cancer incident cases, diagnosed in 2008-2015 from 14 population-based cancer registries in 12 countries (Benin, Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe) through the African Cancer Registry Network. Of these, 2,311 were included for survival analyses. The 1-, 3- and 5-year observed and relative survival (RS) were estimated by registry, stage and country-level HDI. We equally estimated the excess hazards adjusting for potential confounders. Among patients with known stage, 64.9% were diagnosed in late stages, with 18.4% being metastatic at diagnosis. The RS varied by registry, ranging from 21.6%(8.2-39.8) at Year 3 in Bulawayo to 84.5% (70.6-93.5) in Namibia. Patients diagnosed at early stages had a 3-year RS of 78% (71.6-83.3) in contrast to 40.3% (34.9-45.7) at advanced stages (III and IV). The overall RS at Year 1 was 86.1% (84.4-87.6), 65.8% (63.5-68.1) at Year 3 and 59.0% (56.3-61.6) at Year 5. Age at diagnosis was not independently associated with increased mortality risk after adjusting for the effect of stage and country-level HDI. In conclusion, downstaging breast cancer at diagnosis and improving access to quality care could be pivotal in improving breast cancer survival outcomes in Africa.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Melhoria de Qualidade , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
8.
Eur Urol ; 77(1): 38-52, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493960

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Previous studies have reported significant variation in prostate cancer rates and trends mainly due to differences in detection practices, availability of treatment, and underlying genetic susceptibility. OBJECTIVE: To assess recent worldwide prostate cancer incidence, mortality rates, and trends using up-to-date incidence and mortality data. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We present estimated age-standardized prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates by country and world regions for 2018 based on the GLOBOCAN database. We also examined rates and temporal trends for incidence (44 countries) and mortality (76 countries) based on data series from population-based registries. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The highest estimated incidence rates were found in Australia/New Zealand, Northern America, Western and Northern Europe, and the Caribbean, and the lowest rates were found in South-Central Asia, Northern Africa, and South-Eastern and Eastern Asia. The highest estimated mortality rates were found in the Caribbean (Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, and Cuba), sub-Saharan Africa (South Africa), parts of former Soviet Union (Lithuania, Estonia, and Latvia), whereas the lowest rates were found in Asia (Thailand and Turkmenistan). Prostate cancer incidence rates during the most recent 5 yr declined (five countries) or stabilized (35 countries), after increasing for many years; in contrast, rates continued to increase for four countries in Eastern Europe and Asia. During the most recent 5 data years, mortality rates among the 76 countries examined increased (three countries), remained stable (59 countries), or decreased (14 countries). CONCLUSIONS: As evident from available data, prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates have been on the decline or have stabilized recently in many countries, with decreases more pronounced in high-income countries. These trends may reflect a decline in prostate-specific antigen testing (incidence) and improvements in treatment (mortality). PATIENT SUMMARY: We examined recent trends in prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates in 44 and 76 countries, respectively, and found that rates in most countries stabilized or decreased.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 646-656, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882889

RESUMO

Cancer is a major contributing cause of morbidity and mortality in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The aim of the current study was to estimate the cancer burden attributable to major lifestyle and environmental risk factors. We used age-, sex- and site-specific incidence estimates for 2012 from IARC's GLOBOCAN, and assessed the following risk factors: smoking, alcohol, high body mass index, insufficient physical activity, diet, suboptimal breastfeeding, infections and air pollution. The prevalence of exposure to these risk factors came from different sources including peer-reviewed international literature, the World Health Organization, noncommunicable disease Risk Factor Collaboration, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Sex-specific population-attributable fraction was estimated in the 22 countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region based on the prevalence of the selected risk factors and the relative risks obtained from meta-analyses. We estimated that approximately 33% (or 165,000 cases) of all new cancer cases in adults aged 30 years and older in 2012 were attributable to all selected risk factors combined. Infections and smoking accounted for more than half of the total attributable cases among men, while insufficient physical activity and exposure to infections accounted for more than two-thirds of the total attributable cases among women. A reduction in exposure to major lifestyle and environmental risk factors could prevent a substantial number of cancer cases in the Eastern Mediterranean. Population-based programs preventing infections and smoking (particularly among men) and promoting physical activity (particularly among women) in the population are needed to effectively decrease the regional cancer burden.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Região do Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos
10.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 749-758, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968402

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer is the eighth most common cancer in women worldwide and incidence rates vary markedly by world region. Our study provides a comprehensive overview of ovarian cancer incidence trends globally, examining the influence of birth cohort and period of diagnosis on changing risk. We presented current patterns and trends of ovarian cancer incidence until 2012 using data from successive volumes of Cancer Incidence in Five Contents. The incidence of ovarian cancer is highest in northern and eastern European countries and in northern America. Declining trends were observed in most countries with the exception of a few central and eastern Asian countries. Marked declines were seen in Europe and North America for women aged 50-74 where rates have declined up to 2.4% (95% CI: -3.9, -0.9) annually in Denmark (DNK) over the last decade. Additionally, declines in the incidence rate ratio (IRR) were observed for generations born after the 1930s, with an additional strong period effect seen around 2000 in United States and DNK. In contrast, IRRs increased among younger generations born after the 1950s in Japan and Belarus. Overall, the favorable trends in ovarian cancer incidence is likely due to the increase use of oral contraceptive pills, and changes in the prevalence of other reproductive risk and protective factors for ovarian cancer over the years studied. Changes in disease classifications and cancer registry practices may also partially contribute to the variation in ovarian cancer incidence rates. Thus, continuous cancer surveillance is essential to detect the shifting patterns of ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença/tendências , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Anticoncepcionais Orais/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755107

RESUMO

Obesity, often assessed at one point in time, is an established risk factor of several types of cancer, however, associations with cumulative exposure to obesity across the life course are not well understood. We investigated the relationship between combined measures of duration and intensity of premenopausal overweight and obesity and the incidence of postmenopausal breast, endometrial, and colorectal cancers in Icelandic women. Body mass index (BMI) trajectories between ages 20 and 50 of 88,809 women from the Cancer Detection Clinic Cohort were predicted using growth curve models. Indicators of overweight and obesity duration and intensity were computed and their association with risk of postmenopausal breast, endometrial, and colorectal cancers was examined using multivariate Cox models for subjects followed-up beyond the age of 50 (n = 67,488). During a mean follow-up of 17 years, incident events of 3,016 postmenopausal breast, 410 endometrial and 987 colorectal cancers were ascertained. Each 0.1 kg/m2 per year increase in BMI between ages 20 and 50 was positively associated with risks of postmenopausal breast, endometrium and colorectal cancers with hazard ratios equal to 1.09 (95% Confidence Interval (CI):1.04-1.13), 1.31 (95% CI: 1.18-1.44) and 1.10 (95% CI: 1.00-1.21), respectively. Compared to women who were never obese, cumulative BMI × years of obesity were linearly positively associated with risk of endometrial cancer, whereas the association with breast cancer was initially positive, but leveled off with increasing cumulative BMI × years. Cumulative exposure to obesity may provide additional insights into the etiology of cancer and should be considered in future studies that assess obesity-cancer relationships.

13.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(11): 1493-1505, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based cancer survival estimates provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of cancer services and can reflect the prospects of cure. As part of the second phase of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership (ICBP), the Cancer Survival in High-Income Countries (SURVMARK-2) project aims to provide a comprehensive overview of cancer survival across seven high-income countries and a comparative assessment of corresponding incidence and mortality trends. METHODS: In this longitudinal, population-based study, we collected patient-level data on 3·9 million patients with cancer from population-based cancer registries in 21 jurisdictions in seven countries (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Ireland, New Zealand, Norway, and the UK) for seven sites of cancer (oesophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, pancreas, lung, and ovary) diagnosed between 1995 and 2014, and followed up until Dec 31, 2015. We calculated age-standardised net survival at 1 year and 5 years after diagnosis by site, age group, and period of diagnosis. We mapped changes in incidence and mortality to changes in survival to assess progress in cancer control. FINDINGS: In 19 eligible jurisdictions, 3 764 543 cases of cancer were eligible for inclusion in the study. In the 19 included jurisdictions, over 1995-2014, 1-year and 5-year net survival increased in each country across almost all cancer types, with, for example, 5-year rectal cancer survival increasing more than 13 percentage points in Denmark, Ireland, and the UK. For 2010-14, survival was generally higher in Australia, Canada, and Norway than in New Zealand, Denmark, Ireland, and the UK. Over the study period, larger survival improvements were observed for patients younger than 75 years at diagnosis than those aged 75 years and older, and notably for cancers with a poor prognosis (ie, oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, and lung). Progress in cancer control (ie, increased survival, decreased mortality and incidence) over the study period was evident for stomach, colon, lung (in males), and ovarian cancer. INTERPRETATION: The joint evaluation of trends in incidence, mortality, and survival indicated progress in four of the seven studied cancers. Cancer survival continues to increase across high-income countries; however, international disparities persist. While truly valid comparisons require differences in registration practice, classification, and coding to be minimal, stage of disease at diagnosis, timely access to effective treatment, and the extent of comorbidity are likely the main determinants of patient outcomes. Future studies are needed to assess the impact of these factors to further our understanding of international disparities in cancer survival. FUNDING: Canadian Partnership Against Cancer; Cancer Council Victoria; Cancer Institute New South Wales; Cancer Research UK; Danish Cancer Society; National Cancer Registry Ireland; The Cancer Society of New Zealand; National Health Service England; Norwegian Cancer Society; Public Health Agency Northern Ireland, on behalf of the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry; The Scottish Government; Western Australia Department of Health; and Wales Cancer Network.

14.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 63: 101594, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539716

RESUMO

Universal Health Coverage (UHC) was implemented in Thailand in 2002. This study aims to compare cervical cancer incidence and survival before and after the implementation of UHC, including the national screening program, in the Chiang Mai population in Northern Thailand. Data of women diagnosed with in situ or malignant cervical cancer in Chiang Mai during 1998-2012 were used in our analysis. Annual age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) and age-adjusted relative survival (RS) were estimated for the following three diagnosis periods: period I: 1998-2002 (before UHC), period II: 2003-2007 (UHC implementation) and period III: 2008-2012 (after UHC). The ASR peaked in 2001 at 38 per 100,000, and then subsequently declined to 23 per 100,000 in 2012. The proportion of in situ and localized tumors increased in all age groups, while regional tumors declined. In all women (aged 15-89) with malignant cervical cancer or in situ, the 5-year RS in Period I, Period II and Period III was 73%, 74% and 77%, respectively; when only malignant cases were considered, the RS was 63%, 61% and 62%, respectively. In the screening target women (aged 30-59) with malignant or in situ tumors, the 5-year RS was 84%, 88% and 90%, respectively, in the three periods, while the RS was 71%, 74% and 75%, respectively, in only those with malignant cancers. The introduction of UHC including national cervical cancer screening program has likely reduced the magnitude and severity of cervical cancer and improved the survival of cervical cancer in the screening target age group.

15.
Gut ; 68(12): 2179-2185, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488504

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing in the USA despite rapid declines in older ages. Similar patterns are reported in Australia and Canada, but a comprehensive global analysis of contemporary data is lacking. DESIGN: We extracted long-term data from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents and supplemental sources to report on worldwide CRC incidence rates and trends by age (20-49 years and ≥50 years) through diagnosis year 2012 or beyond (Australia, Finland, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, USA). RESULTS: During 2008-2012, age-standardised CRC incidence rates in adults <50 ranged from 3.5 per 100 000 (95% CI 3.2 to 3.9) in India (Chennai) to 12.9 (95% CI 12.6 to 13.3) in Korea. During the most recent decade of available data, incidence in adults <50 was stable in 14 of 36 countries; declined in Austria, Italy and Lithuania; and increased in 19 countries, nine of which had stable or declining trends in older adults (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Germany, New Zealand, Slovenia, Sweden, UK and USA). In Cyprus, Netherlands and Norway, inclines in incidence in young adults were twice as rapid as those in older adults (eg, Norway average annual per cent change (AAPC), 1.9 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.5) vs 0.5 (95% CI 0.3 to 0.7)). Among most high-income countries with long-term data, the uptick in early-onset disease began in the mid-1990s. The steepest increases in young adults were in Korea (AAPC, 4.2 (95% CI 3.4 to 5.0)) and New Zealand (AAPC, 4.0 (95% CI 2.1 to 6.0)). CONCLUSION: CRC incidence increased exclusively in young adults in nine high-income countries spanning three continents, potentially signalling changes in early-life exposures that influence large bowel carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Previsões , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idade de Início , Feminino , Seguimentos , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Scand J Public Health ; 47(5): 482-491, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313982

RESUMO

Aims: Productivity losses related to premature cancer mortality have been assessed for most developed countries but results for Russia are limited to cross-sectional reports. The aim of this study was to quantify productivity costs due to cancer mortality in Russia between 2001 and 2015 and project this to 2030. Methods: Cancer mortality data (2001-2015) were acquired from the State Cancer Registry, whereas population data, labour force participation rates and annual earnings were retrieved from the Federal State Statistics Service. Cancer mortality was projected to 2030 and the human capital approach was applied to estimate productivity losses. Results: The total annual losses increased from US6.5b in 2001-2005 to US$8.1b in 2011-2015, corresponding to 0.24% of the annual gross domestic product. The value is expected to remain high in 2030 (US$7.5b, 0.14% of gross domestic product). Productivity losses per cancer death are predicted to grow faster in women (from US$18,622 to US$22,386) than in men (from US$25,064 to US$28,459). Total losses were found to be highest for breast cancer in women (US$0.6b, 20% of overall losses in women) and lung cancer in men (US$1.2b, 24%). The absolute predicted change of annual losses between 2011-2015 and 2026-2030 was greatest for cervix uteri (+US$214m) in women and for lip, oral and pharyngeal cancers in men (+US$182m). Conclusions: In Russia, productivity losses due to premature cancer mortality are substantial. Given the expected importance especially for potentially preventable cancers, steps to implement effective evidence-based national cancer control policies are urgently required.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Eficiência , Mortalidade Prematura , Neoplasias/economia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Federação Russa/epidemiologia
17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(9): 1518-1524, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of overweight duration and intensity during adulthood on the prognosis after a cancer diagnosis remains largely unknown. We investigated this association in Swedish women with breast and colorectal cancer. METHODS: A cohort of 47,051 women from the Swedish Lifestyle and Health Study was included, of whom 1,241 developed postmenopausal breast (mean age at diagnosis, 57.5 years) and 259 colorectal (mean age at diagnosis, 59.1 years) cancer. Trajectories of body mass index (BMI) between ages 20 and 50 years were estimated for the full cohort using a quadratic growth model and studied in relation to risk of death from any cause using multivariate Cox regression models among cancer survivors. RESULTS: Compared with patients with cancer who were never overweight (BMI < 25) during early adulthood (ages 20-50 years), the risk of early death from breast cancer increased by 3% [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.05] and from colorectal cancer by 4% (HR = 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.06) for every year lived with overweight. A higher intensity of overweight (i.e., a combination of duration and degree of overweight-a concept comparable to pack-years of cigarette smoking) further increased the risk of dying in this population. Although risks were slightly more pronounced for women diagnosed with late-stage breast cancer, no clear association was found for colorectal cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that adulthood overweight duration and intensity have a long-lasting influence on breast and colorectal cancer survival. IMPACT: Our study highlights the need for effective prevention of overweight and obesity starting at an early age.

18.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 4(7): 511-518, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The overall incidence of colorectal cancer is decreasing in many high-income countries, yet analyses in the USA and other high-income countries such as Australia, Canada, and Norway have suggested increasing incidences among adults younger than 50 years. We aimed to examine longitudinal and generational changes in the incidence of colon and rectal cancer in seven high-income countries. METHODS: We obtained data for the incidence of colon and rectal cancer from 21 population-based cancer registries in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Norway, New Zealand, Ireland, and the UK for the earliest available year until 2014. We used age-period-cohort modelling to assess trends in incidence by age group, period, and birth cohort. We stratified cases by tumour subsite according to the 10th edition of the International Classification of Diseases. Age-standardised incidences were calculated on the basis of the world standard population. FINDINGS: An overall decline or stabilisation in the incidence of colon and rectal cancer was noted in all studied countries. In the most recent 10-year period for which data were available, however, significant increases were noted in the incidence of colon cancer in people younger than 50 years in Denmark (by 3·1%), New Zealand (2·9%), Australia (2·9%), and the UK (1·8%). Significant increases in the incidence of rectal cancer were also noted in this age group in Canada (by 3·4%), Australia (2·6%), and the UK (1·4%). Contemporaneously, in people aged 50-74 years, the incidence of colon cancer decreased significantly in Australia (by 1·6%), Canada (1·9%), and New Zealand (3·4%) and of rectal cancer in Australia (2·4%), Canada (1·2%), and the UK (1·2%). Increases in the incidence of colorectal cancer in people younger than 50 years were mainly driven by increases in distal (left) tumours of the colon. In all countries, we noted non-linear cohort effects, which were more pronounced for rectal than for colon cancer. INTERPRETATION: We noted a substantial increase in the incidence of colorectal cancer in people younger than 50 years in some of the countries in this study. Future studies are needed to establish the root causes of this rising incidence to enable the development of potential preventive and early-detection strategies. FUNDING: Canadian Partnership Against Cancer, Cancer Council Victoria, Cancer Institute New South Wales, Cancer Research UK, Danish Cancer Society, National Cancer Registry Ireland, the Cancer Society of New Zealand, NHS England, Norwegian Cancer Society, Public Health Agency Northern Ireland, Scottish Government, Western Australia Department of Health, and Wales Cancer Network.

20.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(6): 742-743, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078460
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