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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626842

RESUMO

Blomia tropicalis contains glycoallergens and their carbohydrate moieties are responsible for the IgE cross-reactivity to GOS. Blomia tropicalis is a primary sensitizer of GOS allergy.

2.
Asia Pac Allergy ; 8(2): e14, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29732290

RESUMO

Conventional immunotherapy (IT) for optimal control of respiratory and food allergies has been fraught with concerns of efficacy, safety, and tolerability. The development of adjuvants to conventional IT has potentially increased the effectiveness and safety of allergen IT, which may translate into improved clinical outcomes and sustained unresponsiveness even after cessation of therapy. Novel strategies incorporating the successful use of adjuvants such as allergoids, immunostimulatory DNA sequences, monoclonal antibodies, carriers, recombinant proteins, and probiotics have now been described in clinical and murine studies. Future approaches may include fungal compounds, parasitic molecules, vitamin D, and traditional Chinese herbs. More robust comparative clinical trials are needed to evaluate the safety, clinical efficacy, and cost effectiveness of various adjuvants in order to determine ideal candidates in disease-specific and allergen-specific models. Other suggested approaches to further optimize outcomes of IT include early introduction of IT during an optimal window period. Alternative routes of administration of IT to optimize delivery and yet minimize potential side effects require further evaluation for safety and efficacy before they can be recommended.

3.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 142(1): 86-95, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29452199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dynamic establishment of the nasal microbiota in early life influences local mucosal immune responses and susceptibility to childhood respiratory disorders. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this case-control study was to monitor, evaluate, and compare development of the nasal microbiota of infants with rhinitis and wheeze in the first 18 months of life with those of healthy control subjects. METHODS: Anterior nasal swabs of 122 subjects belonging to the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort were collected longitudinally over 7 time points in the first 18 months of life. Nasal microbiota signatures were analyzed by using 16S rRNA multiplexed pair-end sequencing from 3 clinical groups: (1) patients with rhinitis alone (n = 28), (2) patients with rhinitis with concomitant wheeze (n = 34), and (3) healthy control subjects (n = 60). RESULTS: Maturation of the nasal microbiome followed distinctive patterns in infants from both rhinitis groups compared with control subjects. Bacterial diversity increased over the period of 18 months of life in control infants, whereas infants with rhinitis showed a decreasing trend (P < .05). An increase in abundance of the Oxalobacteraceae family (Proteobacteria phylum) and Aerococcaceae family (Firmicutes phylum) was associated with rhinitis and concomitant wheeze (adjusted P < .01), whereas the Corynebacteriaceae family (Actinobacteria phylum) and early colonization with the Staphylococcaceae family (Firmicutes phylum; 3 weeks until 9 months) were associated with control subjects (adjusted P < .05). The only difference between the rhinitis and control groups was a reduced abundance of the Corynebacteriaceae family (adjusted P < .05). Determinants of nasal microbiota succession included sex, mode of delivery, presence of siblings, and infant care attendance. CONCLUSION: Our results support the hypothesis that the nasal microbiome is involved in development of early-onset rhinitis and wheeze in infants.

4.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 175(1-2): 91-98, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29301119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study objective was to compare age-related differences in the cause and clinical presentation of anaphylaxis. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of patients visiting the emergency department for anaphylaxis. Data were collected from 3 emergency departments from 1 April 2014 to 31 December 2015. Patient electronic records with the diagnoses of allergy, angioedema, urticaria, and anaphylaxis (ICD-9 codes 9953, 9951, 7080, 9950, 7089) were screened and cases fulfilling World Allergy Organisation criteria for anaphylaxis were included. RESULTS: A total of 426 cases of anaphylaxis were identified with a median age of 23 years (range 3 months to 88 years and 9 months). The causes of anaphylaxis were food (n = 236, 55%), drugs (n = 85, 20%), idiopathic (n = 64, 15%), and insect bites or stings (n = 28, 7%). The most common food was shellfish (n = 58, 14%) and the most common drugs were non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (n = 26, 6%). There were more cases of food anaphylaxis in children than in adults (72 vs. 42%, p < 0.001) and more cases of drug anaphylaxis in adults than in children (28 vs. 10%, p < 0.001). Compared to patients of other ages, infants and young children had more gastrointestinal symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-3.9), while schoolchildren and adolescents had more respiratory symptoms (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.4-5.2). Adults had more cardiovascular symptoms (aOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.8-4.6) and hypotension (aOR 3.7, 95% CI 2.1-6.8) compared to children. However, 42% of the infants lacked blood pressure measurements. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of age-related variation in the cause and clinical presentation of anaphylaxis aids in diagnosis and acute management.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Anafilaxia/epidemiologia , Angioedema/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Urticária/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anafilaxia/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Singapura/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Front Immunol ; 8: 798, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28769923

RESUMO

Mutations of the recombinase-activating genes 1 and 2 (RAG1 and RAG2) in humans are associated with a broad range of phenotypes. For patients with severe clinical presentation, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) represents the only curative treatment; however, high rates of graft failure and incomplete immune reconstitution have been observed, especially after unconditioned haploidentical transplantation. Studies in mice have shown that Rag-/- natural killer (NK) cells have a mature phenotype, reduced fitness, and increased cytotoxicity. We aimed to analyze NK cell phenotype and function in patients with mutations in RAG and in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) genes. Here, we provide evidence that NK cells from these patients have an immature phenotype, with significant expansion of CD56bright CD16-/int CD57- cells, yet increased degranulation and high perforin content. Correlation was observed between in vitro recombinase activity of the mutant proteins, NK cell abnormalities, and in vivo clinical phenotype. Addition of serotherapy in the conditioning regimen, with the aim of depleting the autologous NK cell compartment, may be important to facilitate engraftment and immune reconstitution in patients with RAG and NHEJ defects treated by HSCT.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27551328

RESUMO

Despite the availability of several formulations of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and delivery devices for treatment of childhood asthma and despite the development of evidence-based guidelines, childhood asthma control remains suboptimal. Improving uptake of asthma management plans, both by families and practitioners, is needed. Adherence to daily ICS therapy is a key determinant of asthma control and this mandates that asthma education follow a repetitive pattern and involve literal explanation and physical demonstration of the optimal use of inhaler devices. The potential adverse effects of ICS need to be weighed against the benefit of these drugs to control persistent asthma especially that its safety profile is markedly better than oral glucocorticoids. This article reviews the key mechanisms of inhaled corticosteroid action; recommendations on dosage and therapeutic regimens; potential optimization of effectiveness by addressing inhaler technique and adherence to therapy; and updated knowledge on the real magnitude of adverse events.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27386040

RESUMO

Allergic diseases are distributed worldwide and their risk factors and triggers vary according to geographical and socioeconomic conditions. Allergies are frequent in the Tropics but aspects of their prevalence, natural history, risk factors, sensitizers and triggers are not well defined and some are expected to be different from those in temperate zone countries. The aim of this review is to investigate if allergic diseases in the Tropics have particularities that deserve special attention for research and clinical practice. Such information will help to form a better understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of allergic diseases in the Tropics. As expected, we found particularities in the Tropics that merit further study because they strongly affect the natural history of common allergic diseases; most of them related to climate conditions that favor permanent exposure to mite allergens, helminth infections and stinging insects. In addition, we detected several unmet needs in important areas which should be investigated and solved by collaborative efforts led by the emergent research groups on allergy from tropical countries.

11.
Asia Pac Allergy ; 5(1): 17-24, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25653916

RESUMO

The literature supports the notion that carbohydrate epitopes, on their own, do not contribute significantly to the induction of allergic reactions. They bind weakly to IgE antibodies and have been termed as cross reactive carbohydrate determinants. These epitopes cause confusion in in vitro IgE testing through nonspecific cross-reactivity. Coincident with the rising trends in food allergy prevalence, there has recently been reports of anaphylaxis induced by carbohydrate epitopes. There are two distinct groups, each with unique characteristics and geographical distribution. Anaphylaxis and acute allergic reactions related to the carbohydrate galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) epitope that are present in the monoclonal antibody, cetuximab and red meat have been described in the United States and Europe populations where tick bites have been found to be the primary sensitizer. Another carbohydrate inducing anaphylaxis is galacto-oligosaccharides in commercial milk formula which has been described in the several Asian populations including Singapore. The latter is unique in that the allergen is a pure carbohydrate. We summarize the current literature on carbohydrate-induced food allergy, and evaluate the two new groups of carbohydrate allergy that have defied previous findings on carbohydrates and their role.

12.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 26(1): 25-33, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25557088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rhinitis is common in early childhood, but allergic rhinitis is considered a later manifestation of the atopic march. This study aimed to evaluate rhinitis (allergic and non-allergic) in the first 18 months of life, its link with other atopic manifestations and the role of respiratory viruses. METHODS: Subjects (n = 1237) of the Singapore GUSTO birth cohort were followed up quarterly until 18 months of age with questionnaires to screen for rhinitis symptoms lasting at least 2 wk and with monthly calls to positive subjects to detect prolonged/recurrent rhinitis symptoms (total duration ≥ 4 wk). Anterior nasal swabbing for molecular-based virus detection was conducted during these visits and near (within a month) rhinitis episodes. Skin prick testing to common environmental and food allergens was conducted at the 18 month visit. RESULTS: Prolonged/recurrent rhinitis was significantly associated with history of parental atopy (mother: aOR = 2.17; father: aOR = 1.82) and atopic comorbidities of eczema (aOR = 2.53) and wheeze (aOR = 4.63) (p < 0.05), though not with allergen sensitization. Although the frequency of nasal respiratory virus detection during scheduled quarterly visits did not differ between prolonged/recurrent rhinitis and matched controls (p > 0.05), virus detection was higher in swabs obtained within a month following rhinitis episodes in prolonged/recurrent rhinitis subjects compared with scheduled visits (adjusted p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Based on the duration of rhinitis symptoms, this study defined a subset of early childhood rhinitis which was associated with atopic predisposition and comorbidities. Persistent respiratory viral shedding may contribute to the symptomatology. Whether this entity is a precursor of subsequent childhood allergic rhinitis will require longer follow-up.


Assuntos
Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Vírus/imunologia , Alérgenos/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Prevalência , Recidiva , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Rinite Alérgica/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica/virologia , Singapura , Testes Cutâneos , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
13.
Postgrad Med J ; 90(1067): 488-92, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24982201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) is a specific form of wheat allergy caused by the combination of wheat ingestion and physical exercise and has been reported in other parts of Asia. At present, there are no published reports of WDEIA in Singapore. The objective of this study is to characterise the common local clinical and laboratory manifestations of WDEIA. METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study of all WDEIA who presented to a tertiary Singaporean Hospital over a 5-year-period from 1 January 2009 to 30 June 2013. RESULTS: Eight patients aged 9-41 years old were characterised. Six were males and the majority (5) was of Chinese ethnicity. An atopic history was found in four patients. The symptoms of anaphylaxis included cutaneous manifestations such as urticaria (n=7), angioedema (n=6), respiratory symptoms of dyspnoea and wheezing (n=5) and hypotension (n=5). The symptoms occurred 20-75 min after consumption of wheat-based products, often upon cessation of exercise [running (n=3), walking (n=4) and swimming (n=1)]. The WDEIA was recurrent in seven patients. The skin prick tests were positive to wheat in seven patients, and ω-5 gliadin test to wheat was positive in five patients. CONCLUSIONS: With the emergence of wheat allergy in East Asian countries, WDEIA has become an important condition for physicians and Singapore is no exception. Under-recognition combined with life-threatening symptoms warrants better public awareness measures. In addition, further studies are necessary to identify possible unique genetic and environmental exposures that could explain the inter-regional differences of WDEIA.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia/diagnóstico , Exercício , Gliadina/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade a Trigo/diagnóstico , Anafilaxia/epidemiologia , Anafilaxia/etiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Aconselhamento Diretivo , Feminino , Gliadina/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Singapura/epidemiologia , Testes Cutâneos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Hipersensibilidade a Trigo/complicações , Hipersensibilidade a Trigo/epidemiologia
14.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 35(1): e1-8, 2014 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24433589

RESUMO

Asthma is the most common chronic disorder of childhood. The aim of this study was to assess prescription trends of asthma medications to provide a measure to evaluate treatment practices and compliance with established international practice guidelines. A retrospective study of data obtained from outpatient prescription databases (2001-2010) of the University Children's Medical Institute for children aged 0-18 years was performed. The following drugs were included: short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs), long-acting beta-agonists in combination with inhaled corticosteroids (LABA-ICSs), ICS, and leukotriene receptor antagonists. Statistical analysis of prescription trends was performed with linear regression to determine the trends in prescription of controller medications. From 2001 to 2010, the number of patients who were prescribed SABA increased significantly by 72% (p = 0.016). The increases in ICS patient numbers and ICS/SABA drug unit ratios were significant only in the school-going (>5 years) age group. There was a trend away from the use of nebulized SABA and ICS, although this was statistically insignificant. LABA-ICS patient numbers decreased significantly by 32.4% (p = 0.003), especially in preschoolers (1-5 years). There was a corresponding rise in montelukast patient numbers by 194.6% (p = 0.009) and montelukast/SABA ratio by 345.3% (p = 0.032) in preschoolers (aged 1-5 years). Montelukast patient numbers, but not the montelukast/SABA ratio, increased in school-going children. The move away from LABA-ICS combination especially in younger children and a tendency toward more montelukast usage is a reflection of practice preferences in accordance with current international guidelines in young children.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos , Asma/epidemiologia , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Vias de Administração de Medicamentos , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Antagonistas de Leucotrienos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sons Respiratórios/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
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