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1.
Lung Cancer ; 162: 79-85, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741886

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The LUX-Lung 8 randomized trial (LL8) demonstrated a prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung after treatment with afatinib compared with erlotinib. A secondary analysis of the LL8 reported that the presence of rare HER2/HER4 mutations may be partly responsible for this result. Patients with HER2 (hazard ratio [HR] 0.06/p-value 0.02) or HER4 (HR 0.21/p-value unreported) mutations had longer PFS after treatment with afatinib. However, the biological function of these mutations is unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten HER2 and 13 HER4 point mutations that were detected in the secondary analysis were transduced into the mouse pro-B cell line (Ba/F3) to determine changes in interleukin-3 (IL-3) dependence and sensitivity to six EGFR or pan-HER tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), including afatinib and erlotinib. The efficacy of the six TKIs was compared using a sensitivity index, defined as the 50% inhibitory concentration divided by trough concentration of each drug at clinically recommended doses. RESULTS: Seven out of 10 Ba/F3 clones expressing HER2 mutations and all 13 Ba/F3 clones expressing HER4 mutations did not grow in the absence of IL-3, indicating these mutations were non-oncogenic. Three Ba/F3 clones expressing the HER2 mutations E395K, G815R, or R929W acquired IL-3-independent growth. The sensitivity indices for afatinib were ≤ one-fifth of those for erlotinib in all three lines. Other second/third-generation (2G/3G) TKIs showed high efficacy against clones expressing these HER2 mutations. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of HER2/4 mutations detected in lung SCC from LL8 were not oncogenic in the Ba/F3 models, suggesting that the presence of HER2/4 mutations were not responsible for the superior outcomes of afatinib in the LL8 study. However, SCC of the lung in some patients may be driven by rare HER2 mutations, and these patients may benefit from 2G/3G pan-HER-TKI treatment.

2.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The differential diagnosis of a solitary solid-type lung nodule is diverse. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) has a high sensitivity in the diagnosis of solid-type lung cancers; however, PET-negative, solid-type lung cancers are rarely observed. In this study, we analyzed the clinical/genetic features and prognosis of PET-negative, solid-type lung cancers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between January 2007 and February 2020, 709 patients with solid-type lung cancers (tumor size ≥2.0 cm) underwent pulmonary resection. Clinical, genetic, and prognostic features were evaluated in 27 patients (3.8%) with tumors showing negative PET results defined as SUVmax <2.0. RESULTS: All 27 patients had lung adenocarcinoma; 23 had invasive adenocarcinomas and 4 had invasive mucinous adenocarcinomas. The PET-negative group showed high frequencies of females and never-smokers. Recurrence-free survival was significantly better in the PET-negative group compared with PET-positive counterparts extracted using propensity score matching from patients who underwent pulmonary resection during the same period (P = .0052). Furthermore, 83% of PET-negative, solid-type invasive lung adenocarcinoma patients harbored EGFR mutation, which was significantly higher than that of PET-positive, solid-type invasive lung adenocarcinoma patients (38%, n = 225) who received EGFR mutation testing in our cohort (P < .0001). PET-negative, solid-type lung adenocarcinoma patients with EGFR mutations had significantly better recurrence-free survival compared with PET-positive, solid-type lung adenocarcinoma patients with EGFR mutations extracted using propensity score matching (P = .0030). CONCLUSION: PET-negative, solid-type lung cancers are characterized with a high incidence of EGFR mutation and a better prognosis compared with PET-positive, solid-type lung cancer.

3.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MET exon 14 skipping mutation is a driver mutation in lung cancer and is highly enriched in pulmonary pleomorphic carcinomas (PPCs). Whether there is intratumor or intertumor heterogeneity in MET exon 14 skipping status or in co-occurring genetic alterations in lung cancers driven by MET exon 14 skipping is unknown. METHODS: We analyzed tumor specimens obtained from 23 PPC patients (10 autopsied and 13 surgically resected). MET exon 14 skipping was detected by RT-PCR. For patients with MET exon 14 skipping mutation, further analyses were performed. Genomic DNA (gDNA) was extracted from various histological components for each patient who underwent surgical resection (to assess intratumor heterogeneity). In autopsied patients, gDNA and total RNA were extracted from all metastatic lesions (to assess intertumor heterogeneity). RESULTS: MET exon 14 skipping mutation was detected in 4 patients (4/23, 17.4%): two surgically resected and two autopsied patients. We found no intratumor or intertumor heterogeneity in MET exon 14 skipping mutation status in these patients. We observed intratumor and intertumor heterogeneity in the copy number variations and/or mutational status of cancer-related genes; some of these differences may have an impact on MET tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) efficacy. CONCLUSION: In our exploratory analysis of four cases, we observed that MET exon 14 skipping mutations are distributed homogeneously throughout histological components and between metastatic lesions. Our results also suggest that there is marked intertumor and intratumor heterogeneity in co-occurring genetic alterations, and therapeutic implications of such heterogeneity should be evaluated in future studies.

4.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 10(8): 3659-3670, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584864

RESUMO

Background: HER2 (ERBB2) activating mutations are present in 2-3% of lung adenocarcinomas; however, no targeted therapy is approved for HER2-altered lung cancers. A novel pan-HER inhibitor, tarloxotinib, is designed to release the active form (tarloxotinib-E) under hypoxic conditions in tumor tissues after being administered as a prodrug. Following the evaluation of the in vitro activity of tarloxotinib-E in HER2-mutant cells, we explored the mechanisms of resistance to tarloxotinib-E in these cells. Methods: Growth inhibitory assays were performed with tarloxotinib-E and its prodrug using Ba/F3 cells expressing one of six HER2 mutations or wild-type (WT) HER2, in addition to H1781 cells with HER2 exon 20 insertions. Resistant clones were established from N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-treated HER2-mutant Ba/F3 cells and H1781 cells by chronic exposure to tarloxotinib-E. Results: Tarloxotinib-E showed potent activity against HER2-mutant Ba/F3 cells and H1781 cells. Furthermore, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of tarloxotinib (inactive form) for WT HER2 was 180 times higher than that of tarloxotinib-E, indicating a wide therapeutic window of tarloxotinib. We established 30 resistant clones with secondary mutations of HER2 by ENU mutagenesis, all of which harbored C805S in exon 20. In the analysis of H1781 cells that acquired resistance to tarloxotinib-E, we found that increased HER3 expression was the molecular mechanism of tarloxotinib-E resistance. Conclusions: Tarloxotinib-E exhibited potent activity against cell line models with HER2 mutations. We identified a secondary C805S HER2 mutation and HER3 overexpression as the mechanisms of acquired resistance to tarloxotinib-E.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439189

RESUMO

The emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has dramatically changed the treatment landscape for patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). These achievements inspired investigators and pharmaceutical companies to conduct clinical trials in patients with early-stage NSCLC because both adjuvant and neoadjuvant platinum-based doublet chemotherapies (PT-DCs) showed only a 5% improvement in 5-year overall survival. IMpower010, a phase 3 trial (P3), showed that adjuvant PT-DC followed by maintenance atezolitumab significantly prolonged disease-free survival over adjuvant PT-DC alone (hazard ratio, 0.79; stage II to IIIA). Since conventional therapies, including chemotherapy and radiotherapy, can promote immunogenic cell death, releasing tumour antigens from dead tumour cells, ICI combination therapies with conventional therapies are widely proposed. The Checkmate 816 trial (P3) indicated a significantly higher pathological complete response rate of neoadjuvant nivolumab/PT-DC combination therapy than of neoadjuvant PT-DC alone (odds ratio, 13.9, for stage IB to IIIA). Detection of circulating tumour DNA is highly anticipated for the evaluation of minimal residual disease. Multimodal approaches and new ICI agents are being attempted to improve the efficacy of ICI treatment in phase 2 trials. This review presents the development of perioperative treatment using ICIs in patients with NSCLC while discussing problems and perspectives.

6.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 506, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this multicenter, randomized phase II study was to analyze the feasibility and safety of alternate-day S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine, for adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with completely resected pathological stage I (tumor diameter > 2 cm) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to receive adjuvant chemotherapy for 1 year comprising either alternate-day oral administration of S-1 (80 mg/m2/day) for 4 days a week (Group A) or a 2-week oral administration of S-1 (80 mg/m2/day) followed by 1 week of rest (Group B). The primary endpoint was feasibility, which was defined as the proportion of patients who completed the allocated intervention for 6 months with a relative dose intensity (RDI) of 70% or more. RESULTS: Ninety-three patients were enrolled of whom 90 patients received S-1 treatment. Median follow-up was 66.9 months. The treatment completion rate based on an RDI of 70% or more for 6 months was 84.4% (95%CI; 70.5-93.5%) in group A and 64.4% (95%CI; 48.8-78.1%) in group B. There were no grade 4 adverse events in either group. Moderate or severe adverse events (grade 2 or grade 3) were significantly more frequent in group B (67%) compared with group A (29%, P = 0.001). The 5-year relapse-free survival rate was 87.0 and 80.9% for group A and B, respectively (P = 0.451). The 5-year overall survival rate for all patients (n = 93) was 100 and 89.4% for group A and B, respectively (P = 0.136). CONCLUSION: Alternate-day oral administration of S-1 for 1 year as adjuvant chemotherapy was demonstrated to be feasible with low toxicity in completely resected stage I (tumor diameter > 2 cm) NSCLC. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration number: UMIN000011994 . Date of registration: 10/8/2013.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Oxônico/administração & dosagem , Tegafur/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Esquema de Medicação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Ácido Oxônico/efeitos adversos , Tegafur/efeitos adversos
7.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 22(6): 596-600, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034990

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We describe our ongoing multicenter, prospective, single-arm, phase II trial of neoadjuvant concurrent chemo-immuno-radiation therapy followed by surgical resection and adjuvant immunotherapy for resectable stage IIIA-B (discrete N2) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (registered at the Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center, Clinical Trials Information-195069). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Key inclusion criteria include (1) clinical T1-3/T4 (tumor size) N2 stage IIIA-B NSCLC, and (2) pathologically confirmed N2 without extranodal invasion (based on diagnostic imaging). Patients will receive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (carboplatin [area under the curve = 2] and paclitaxel [40 mg/m2] on days 1, 8, 15, 22, and 29, with involved-field radiation therapy [RT] [dose 50 Gy] on days 1-25) and neoadjuvant immunotherapy (durvalumab [1500 mg] on days 1 and 29). Surgical resection with mediastinal lymph node dissection is performed within 2 to 6 weeks after RT. Consolidation therapy with durvalumab is administered for up to 1 year after surgery. The primary endpoint is major pathologic response (MPR) (≤10% residual viable tumor) according to the central pathological assessment. Secondary endpoints are progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. The sample size is planned to be 31 patients based on the exact binomial distribution with a 1-sided significance level of 5% and a power of 80%, and assuming a threshold MPR rate of 40% and an expected MPR rate of 65%. CONCLUSION: This trial will help establish a novel treatment strategy for resectable N2-positive NSCLC.

8.
J Thorac Oncol ; 16(8): 1321-1332, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971321

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: KRAS mutations have been recognized as undruggable for many years. Recently, novel KRAS G12C inhibitors, such as sotorasib and adagrasib, are being developed in clinical trials and have revealed promising results in metastatic NSCLC. Nevertheless, it is strongly anticipated that acquired resistance will limit their clinical use. In this study, we developed in vitro models of the KRAS G12C cancer, derived from resistant clones against sotorasib and adagrasib, and searched for secondary KRAS mutations as on-target resistance mechanisms to develop possible strategies to overcome such resistance. METHODS: We chronically exposed Ba/F3 cells transduced with KRASG12C to sotorasib or adagrasib in the presence of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea and searched for secondary KRAS mutations. Strategies to overcome resistance were also investigated. RESULTS: We generated 142 Ba/F3 clones resistant to either sotorasib or adagrasib, of which 124 (87%) harbored secondary KRAS mutations. There were 12 different secondary KRAS mutations. Y96D and Y96S were resistant to both inhibitors. A combination of novel SOS1 inhibitor, BI-3406, and trametinib had potent activity against this resistance. Although G13D, R68M, A59S and A59T, which were highly resistant to sotorasib, remained sensitive to adagrasib, Q99L was resistant to adagrasib but sensitive to sotorasib. CONCLUSIONS: We identified many secondary KRAS mutations causing resistance to sotorasib, adagrasib, or both, in vitro. The differential activities of these two inhibitors depending on the secondary mutations suggest sequential use in some cases. In addition, switching to BI-3406 plus trametinib might be a useful strategy to overcome acquired resistance owing to the secondary Y96D and Y96S mutations.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Piperazinas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Piridinas , Pirimidinas
9.
Acta Med Okayama ; 75(1): 91-94, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649619

RESUMO

Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a severe complication following lung resection. We present the case of a patient with a history of advanced lung cancer, who had undergone induction chemoradiotherapy followed by right middle and lower lobectomy, and who developed BPF after completion right pneumonectomy. Although we had covered the bronchial stump with an omental pedicled flap, BPF was found on postoperative day 19. We covered the fistula with n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) using bronchoscopy. Although we had to repeat the NBCA treatment, we ultimately cured the patient's BPF and no recurrence was observed up to 15.2 months after surgery.


Assuntos
Fístula Brônquica/terapia , Embucrilato/uso terapêutico , Pneumonectomia/efeitos adversos , Fístula Brônquica/diagnóstico por imagem , Fístula Brônquica/etiologia , Broncoscopia , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia
10.
Thorac Cancer ; 12(10): 1511-1516, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 10% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) that harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations have in-frame insertions in exon 20 of the EGFR gene. These tumors do not usually respond to currently available EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Tarloxotinib is a novel hypoxia-activated prodrug that releases a potent, irreversible pan-ERBB TKI (tarloxotinib-E) under solid tumor hypoxia. METHODS: We examined the efficacy of tarloxotinib-E against several types of Ba/F3 cells with introduced EGFR exon 20 mutations (EGFR A763insFQEA, V769insASV, D770insSVD, H773insH and H773insNPH mutations). We assayed growth inhibition for tarloxotinib (prodrug), tarloxotinib-E (active form), poziotinib, afatinib, and osimertinib in Ba/F3 cells with each EGFR exon 20 mutation. We also explored acquired resistance mechanisms to tarloxotinib-E by establishing cells with resistance to tarloxotinib-E via chronic drug exposure after N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis treatment. RESULTS: Among all tested Ba/F3 cell lines, IC50 was ≥72.1 times higher for tarloxotinib than for tarloxotinib-E, which implies a wide therapeutic window with this prodrug strategy. Tarloxotinib-E was efficacious against all tested Ba/F3 cells except for H773insH, which was less sensitive to all tested EGFR-TKIs. As acquired resistance mechanisms to tarloxotinib-E, we identified either T790M or C797S secondary mutations, depending on the original EGFR exon 20 mutation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that tarloxotinib-E could be effective for NSCLC with EGFR exon 20 mutations. Our results also show that T790M or C797S mutations can confer acquired resistance to tarloxotinib-E; and suggest that resistance mechanisms are influenced by the baseline EGFR exon 20 mutations.

11.
Surg Today ; 51(10): 1610-1618, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582840

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The prognostic nutritional index (PNI), calculated based on the serum albumin levels and the total lymphocyte count, has been identified as a predictor of clinical outcomes in various fields of surgery. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the PNI and the lung allocation score (LAS) as well as the impact of the PNI on the outcomes of both cadaveric lung transplantation (CLT) and living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT). METHODS: We reviewed retrospective data for 127 recipients of lung transplantation (LT), including 71 recipients of CLT and 56 recipients of LDLLT. RESULTS: The PNI was correlated significantly and negatively with the LAS (r = - 0.40, P = 0.0000037). Multivariate analysis revealed that age (P = 0.00093), BMI (P = 0.00087), and PNI (P = 0.0046) were independent prognostic factors of a worse outcome after LT. In a subgroup analysis, survival after both CLT (P = 0.015) and LDLLT (P = 0.041) was significantly worse in the low PNI group than in the high PNI group. CONCLUSION: Preoperative nutritional evaluations using the PNI can assist with the assessment of disease severity in LT recipients and may predict survival after both CLT and LDLLT.

12.
Surg Today ; 51(9): 1480-1487, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611651

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Few studies have so far focused on the preoperative presence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in lung cancer patients undergoing surgery. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and risk factors for preoperative deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in patients scheduled to undergo lung cancer surgery. METHODS: Between June 2013 and December 2018, 948 consecutive patients underwent lung cancer surgery in Kindai University Hospital. Four patients did not undergo screening for DVT; thus, 944 patients were enrolled in this study. Preoperatively, venous ultrasonography of the lower extremities was performed in patients deemed at risk for DVT, and the prevalence and risk factors for preoperative DVT were examined. RESULTS: Ninety-one patients (9.6%) were diagnosed with preoperative DVT, and postoperative symptomatic pulmonary thromboembolism occurred in one patient (0.11%). A multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that female sex, age ≥ 72 years, history of VTE, a Wells score ≥ 2 points, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lower hemoglobin levels were significantly associated with preoperative DVT. CONCLUSION: Female sex, age ≥ 72 years, history of VTE, Wells score ≥ 2 points, COPD, and lower hemoglobin levels were identified to be independent risk factors for preoperative DVT. Monitoring for these risk factors and management considering them should help improve the outcomes after lung cancer surgery.

13.
Lung Cancer ; 154: 84-91, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631449

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Emergence of acquired resistance is almost inevitable during EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring EGFR mutations. Drug tolerance, a reversible state of drug insensitivity in the early phases of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy, is considered to serve as the basis of recurrent disease. Therefore, it is important to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of drug tolerance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five EGFR-mutated NSCLC cell lines were used in this study. We established drug-tolerant cells (DTCs) via 72 h treatment with osimertinib (600 nM) or afatinib (60 nM). Acquisition of drug tolerance was evaluated by growth inhibitory assay, and the molecular mechanisms of drug tolerance were analyzed by phospho-RTK array. RESULTS: DTCs were successfully induced in PC9, HCC4006, and H1975 cells against osimertinib and in PC9 cells against afatinib. We observed that a high drug concentration was required to induce DTCs, and HCC4006 cells become tolerant when a higher dose of afatinib (>180 nM) was used. In the analysis of HCC4006 DTCs against osimertinib, we observed increased receptor-like tyrosine kinase (RYK) expression, and siRNA-mediated RYK knockdown inhibited the proliferation of DTCs. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that induction of DTCs is dose-dependent, and increased RYK expression was the mechanism of drug tolerance in HCC4006 cells against osimertinib.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Acrilamidas , Compostos de Anilina , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Tolerância a Medicamentos/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases
14.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 10(1): 555-562, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569336

RESUMO

Definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has been a standard of care for patients with unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, locoregional recurrence occurs in about 30% of patients after definitive CRT. Recently, the addition of durvalumab as maintenance therapy has shown to improve the outcome of these patients. However, locoregional recurrence will still remain. "Salvage surgery" has been performed to achieve local control in clinical practice, although its clinical significance is unclear. In this review, we define salvage surgery as lung resection for local control of the tumor which was not planned initially, after failure or insufficient treatment effect of the initial CRT for locally advanced cancer and evaluated nine studies to gain some insights on its role in the treatment of lung cancer. The time from radiotherapy (RT) to salvage surgery varied considerably (range, 3 to 282 weeks). Salvage surgery was performed for persistent disease (47%) and locoregional recurrence (52%). Lobectomy (63%) and mediastinal lymph node dissections (90%) were the most common procedures. However, the rate of pneumonectomy was higher in salvage surgery (28%) compared to that in lung resection in general. The median morbidity was 41% (range, 15% to 62%) and the mortality was 4% (range, 0 to 11%) which appeared acceptable. The median recurrence-free survival and overall survival (OS) after salvage surgery ranged from 10 to 22 months and 13 to 76 months, respectively. Favorable prognostic factors of salvage surgery were longer period from RT to salvage surgery and radiological downstaging. The pathological response was also prognostic, although this information cannot be obtained preoperatively. We conclude that salvage surgery can be considered especially for those with late local recurrence or those with the metabolic response. Given the condition where phase III trials are difficult, the accumulation of real-world evidence in a prospective fashion will be necessary.

15.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 112(1): 279-288, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trimodality therapy is a treatment option for patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC). Thoracic radiation has both early (radiation pneumonitis) and late (chronic lung injury [CLI]) adverse effects on the lung. While CLI is expected to result in various problems in long-term survivors, these manifestations have not been precisely investigated. METHODS: We enrolled 112 LA-NSCLC patients who had received induction chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery, and then undergone follow-up computed tomography (CT) every 6 months for greater than 1 year. All chest CT images were reviewed to evaluate any injury of the pulmonary parenchyma. RESULTS: CLI at 1 year after surgery and its progression were observed in 94 (84%) and 38 (34%) patients, respectively. Progressive lung fibrosis as the first manifestation of CLI progression was most frequent after right middle and lower lobectomy. Cavity formation was the subsequent manifestation after progressive lung fibrosis , and chronic infection was the final stage of CLI. The cumulative rate of chronic infection was 76.4% at 10 years in patients with cavity formation. Ten patients with chronic infection included 7 cases of pulmonary aspergillosis and 2 cases of cavity infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Among them, 4 patients required surgical interventions including completion pneumonectomy or fenestration. CONCLUSIONS: CLI is a common incidence after trimodality therapy for LA-NSCLC. CLI frequently results in cavity formation, which is a precursor of highly refractory chronic infections requiring surgical intervention. Appropriate management needs to be established for CLI developing after trimodality therapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Terapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Lesão Pulmonar/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonectomia/efeitos adversos
16.
Surg Today ; 51(1): 127-135, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747982

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sarcomas are among the most refractory malignant tumors and often recur as pulmonary metastasis. Although the presence of a high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been associated with the prognosis of several malignancies, the relationship between the NLR and sarcoma with pulmonary metastasis is unclear. We investigated the impact of the NLR in patients who underwent surgical resection for metastatic lung tumors from various sarcomas. METHODS: The subjects of this retrospective study were 158 patients with metastatic lung tumors from various sarcomas, who underwent initial pulmonary metastasectomy between 2006 and 2015. We examined the clinicopathological variables, including the NLR and the characteristics of surgical procedures. Survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and prognostic factors were evaluated by multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis revealed significantly better survival of the group with an NLR < 2.26 immediately before the most recent pulmonary metastasectomy, in addition to such factors as the largest resected lesion being < 22 mm, a disease-free interval of > 2 years, and 3 or more pulmonary metastasectomies. CONCLUSION: The NLR immediately before the most recent pulmonary metastasectomy is a novel independent prognostic factor, which may be helpful when considering repeated pulmonary metastasectomy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Contagem de Leucócitos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Contagem de Linfócitos , Neutrófilos , Sarcoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonectomia/métodos , Prognóstico , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 22(2): e141-e145, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several clinical and preclinical studies suggest that non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) with EGFR compound mutations were associated with lower efficacies of first-generation EGFR inhibitors than tumors with single EGFR mutation. Some researchers hypothesize that EGFR mutation status is heterogeneous in such tumors and that second-generation EGFR inhibitors may eliminate cancer cells with uncommon EGFR mutations from tumors with EGFR compound mutations. However, this hypothesis is currently unproven; therefore, we performed the current study to determine if tumor cells with EGFR compound mutations are present in heterogeneous or homogeneous manners. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Multiregion analysis was performed for surgically resected primary NSCLC tumors with EGFR compound mutations to examine the intratumor heterogeneity of EGFR compound mutations. In addition, we evaluated the intertumor heterogeneity of EGFR compound mutations using 2 pleural disseminations obtained from a patient with NSCLC at exploratory thoracotomy and 9 primary or metastatic lesions obtained from 2 autopsied NSCLC patients. Digital polymerase chain reaction, target sequencing, or direct sequencing were used to detect EGFR mutations. RESULTS: This study included 5 NSCLC cases; their compound mutations were L858R+S768I, G719X+S768I, G719A+R776H, L858R+E709G, and L858R+I759M. Noncancerous pulmonary tissues from each patient did not harbor EGFR mutations, which revealed that all mutations were somatic. We did not detect any intra- or intertumor heterogeneity in these EGFR compound mutations. CONCLUSION: No intra- or intertumor heterogeneity was observed for EGFR compound mutations. Our results indicate that both EGFR mutations were truncal and selective elimination of cancer cells with uncommon EGFR mutations is unrealistic.

18.
Surg Today ; 51(4): 589-594, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880060

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The scheduled administration of intravenous acetaminophen (scheduled-IV-AcA) is one of the more effective multimodal analgesic approaches for postoperative pain in abdominal/orthopedic surgeries. However, there is little evidence concerning scheduled-IV-AcA after general thoracic surgery, especially when limited to video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). We investigated the efficacy of scheduled-IV-AcA administration in patients after undergoing VATS. METHODS: Ninety-nine patients who underwent VATS lobectomy or segmentectomy via an 8-cm access window and 1 camera port were retrospectively reviewed by categorizing them into groups either with scheduled-IV-AcA (Group AcA: n = 29) or without it (Group non-AcA: n = 70). Group AcA received 1 g of IV-AcA every 6 h from the end of the operation until the end of POD2. Postoperative pain was measured using a numeric rating scale (NRS) three times per day until discharge. RESULTS: NRS scores were significantly lower in Group AcA with motion (on POD1 to the first point of POD2) than in Group non-AcA. Group non-AcA was also more likely to use additional analgesics than Group AcA (39% vs. 17%, p = 0.058). CONCLUSIONS: Scheduled-IV-AcA administration is a safe and effective multimodal analgesic approach in patients undergoing VATS pulmonary resection via an 8-cm access window.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos não Narcóticos/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Pneumonectomia/efeitos adversos , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pneumonectomia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Segurança , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(7): 3884-3890, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary metastasectomy could be considered one of the treatment options for disease control in sarcoma patients with pulmonary metastases; however, there is little consensus regarding the suitable criteria for predicting the likely outcomes in these patients. The aim of this study was to establish a prognostic benefit scoring system based on preoperatively examined prognostic factors for sarcoma patients with pulmonary metastases. METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study conducted in a cohort of 135 sarcoma patients who underwent a first pulmonary metastasectomy at Okayama University Hospital between January 2006 and December 2015. Based on the results of a multivariable logistic regression analysis performed to determine the factors influencing 3-year mortality, a Sarcoma Lung Metastasis Score was created and its correlation with 3-year survival was analyzed. RESULTS: The results of the multivariate analysis revealed significant differences in the disease-free interval (< 2 years vs. ≥ 2 years; odds ratio (OR) 4.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.67-10.70), maximum tumor diameter (≥ 15 mm vs. < 15 mm; OR 3.86, 95% CI 1.75-8.52), and number of pulmonary metastases (≥ 6 vs. < 6; OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.06-6.620). The Sarcoma Lung Metastasis Score, which was defined as the total score of these three factors, reliably predicted 3-year survival (score: 0, 89.5%; 1, 63.2%; 2, 39.0%; 3, 10.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Our newly proposed simple Sarcoma Lung Metastasis Score appears to be a useful prognostic predictor for sarcoma patients with pulmonary metastases, in that it could be helpful for the selection of appropriate treatments for these patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Metastasectomia , Sarcoma , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Pneumonectomia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoma/cirurgia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Curr Opin Oncol ; 33(1): 47-54, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186180

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current status of postoperative adjuvant therapy for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Cisplatin-based postoperative chemotherapy is a current standard of care for patients with stage II-III NSCLC who underwent complete resection. However, its benefit is limited. In these 20 years, the introduction of targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors has dramatically changed the treatment of metastatic lung cancer. The accumulated knowledge is now being applied in the adjuvant setting and many clinical trials are underway. Recently, postoperative osimertinib was shown to greatly prolong disease-free survival of patients with resected, stage II/IIIA NSCLC with EGFR mutation with an unprecedented hazard ratio of 0.17 in ADAURA study. Furthermore, initial results of adjuvant studies of immune checkpoint inhibitors are expected to be reported shortly. SUMMARY: As lung cancer is inherently prone to metastasize even though it looks in its earlier stage, it is essential to develop a newer generation of adjuvant therapies to improve patient outcomes. To this end, international and multidisciplinary collaboration is key to establish a new standard of care. It is anticipated that the treatment algorithm of early-stage lung cancer will be completely revised in 5 years using a more individualized approach.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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