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Life (Basel) ; 12(3)2022 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35330123


Triticum aestivum L., also known as common wheat, is affected by many biotic stresses. Root diseases are the most difficult to tackle due to the complexity of phenotypic evaluation and the lack of resistant sources compared to other biotic stress factors. Soil-borne pathogens such as the root-lesion nematodes caused by the Pratylenchus species and crown rot caused by various Fusarium species are major wheat root diseases, causing substantial yield losses globally. A set of 189 advanced spring bread wheat lines obtained from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) were genotyped with 4056 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers and screened for root-lesion nematodes and crown rot resistance. Population structure revealed that the genotypes could be divided into five subpopulations. Genome-Wide Association Studies were carried out for both resistances to Pratylenchus and Fusarium species. Based on our results, 11 different SNPs on chromosomes 1A, 1B, 2A, 3A, 4A, 5B, and 5D were significantly associated with root-lesion nematode resistance. Seven markers demonstrated association with P. neglectus, while the remaining four were linked to P. thornei resistance. In the case of crown rot, eight different markers on chromosomes 1A, 2B, 3A, 4B, 5B, and 7D were associated with Fusarium crown rot resistance. Identification and screening of root diseases is a challenging task; therefore, the newly identified resistant sources/genotypes could be exploited by breeders to be incorporated in breeding programs. The use of the identified markers in marker-assisted selection could enhance the selection process and cultivar development with root-lesion nematode and crown rot resistance.

Int J Mol Sci ; 19(9)2018 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30205560


Crown rot (CR), caused by various Fusarium species, is a major disease in many cereal-growing regions worldwide. Fusarium culmorum is one of the most important species, which can cause significant yield losses in wheat. A set of 126 advanced International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) spring bread wheat lines were phenotyped against CR for field crown, greenhouse crown and stem, and growth room crown resistance scores. Of these, 107 lines were genotyped using Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers to identify quantitative trait loci linked to CR resistance by genome-wide association study. Results of the population structure analysis grouped the accessions into three sub-groups. Genome wide linkage disequilibrium was large and declined on average within 20 cM (centi-Morgan) in the panel. General linear model (GLM), mixed linear model (MLM), and naïve models were tested for each CR score and the best model was selected based on quarantine-quarantine plots. Three marker-trait associations (MTAs) were identified linked to CR resistance; two of these on chromosome 3B were associated with field crown scores, each explaining 11.4% of the phenotypic variation and the third MTA on chromosome 2D was associated with greenhouse stem score and explained 11.6% of the phenotypic variation. Together, these newly identified loci provide opportunity for wheat breeders to exploit in enhancing CR resistance via marker-assisted selection or deployment in genomic selection in wheat breeding programs.

Fusarium/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Resistência à Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Melhoramento Vegetal
Breed Sci ; 62(1): 38-45, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23136512


Aegilops tauschii Coss. is the D-genome donor to hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and is the most promising wild species as a genetic resource for wheat breeding. To study the population structure and diversity of 81 Ae. tauschii accessions collected from various regions of its geographical distribution, the genomic representation of these lines were used to develop a diversity array technology (DArT) marker array. This Ae. tauschii array and a previously developed DArT wheat array were used to scan the genomes of the 81 accessions. Out of 7500 markers (5500 wheat and 2000 Ae. tauschii), 4449 were polymorphic (3776 wheat and 673 Ae. tauschii). Phylogenetic and population structure studies revealed that the accessions could be divided into three groups. The two Ae. tauschii subspecies could also be separately clustered, suggesting that the current taxonomy might be valid. DArT markers are effective to detect very small polymorphisms. The information obtained about Ae. tauschii in the current study could be useful for wheat breeding. In addition, the new DArT array from this Ae. tauschii population is expected to be an effective tool for hexaploid wheat studies.

Breed Sci ; 61(4): 347-57, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23136471


Few genes are available to develop drought-tolerant bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. One way to enhance bread wheat's genetic diversity would be to take advantage of the diversity of wild species by creating synthetic hexaploid wheat (SW) with the genomic constitution of bread wheat. In this study, we compared the expression of traits encoded at different ploidy levels and evaluated the applicability of Aegilops tauschii drought-related traits using 33 Ae. tauschii accessions along with their corresponding SW lines under well-watered and drought conditions. We found wide variation in Ae. tauschii, and even wider variation in the SW lines. Some SW lines were more drought-tolerant than the standard cultivar Cham 6. Aegilops tauschii from some regions gave better performing SW lines. The traits of Ae. tauschii were not significantly correlated with their corresponding SW lines, indicating that the traits expressed in wild diploid relatives of wheat may not predict the traits that will be expressed in SW lines derived from them. We suggest that, regardless of the adaptability and performance of the Ae. tauschii under drought, production of SW could probably result in genotypes with enhanced trait expression due to gene interactions, and that the traits of the synthetic should be evaluated in hexaploid level.

Pak J Biol Sci ; 10(15): 2490-4, 2007 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19070120


Estimation of genetic diversity of Brassica germplasm provides the basis for rapeseed/mustard genetic improvement. Studies were undertaken to estimate the genetic diversity of 30 lines of Brassica napus using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers. A total of 30 B. napus genotypes of local and exotic origin were characterized using molecular markers. Four RAPD primers were used to estimate the genetic distances among the genotypes in all the possible combinations. The genetic diversity study revealed different levels of genetic polymorphism for RAPD primers GLA05, GLA07, GLA09 and GLA 10, resulting in amplification of 5.7, 3.5, 3.1 and 5.4 scorable bands (loci) per genotype, respectively. Individual genetic distances observed among B. napus genotypes ranged from 6.5 to 51%. Bivariate data matrix was generated and genetic distances were calculated using Unweighted Pair Group of Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) procedure. The UPGMA cluster analyses revealed maximum genetic dissimilarity for 8966-1 and 8969-1 genotypes, closely followed by Ganyou-5, 89127-1, 89111-2 and Mlep-048. It is recommended that among the thirty B. napus genotypes, genetically distinct lines pointed out in the present study, should be used in future breeding programs for improvement of Brassica napus.

Brassica napus/genética , Variação Genética , Brassica napus/classificação , Genótipo , Filogenia , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico/métodos