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1.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 49(1): 19-25, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to examine sex differences in symptom characteristics and pharmacological responses in post-stroke depressive (PSD) symptoms. METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of EMOTION (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01278498), a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial that examined the efficacy of escitalopram for 3 months on depression in patients with acute stroke. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the 10-item Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Baseline characteristics, clinical variables, and treatment responses to escitalopram were compared between male and female patients. Treatment responses were defined as changes in MADRS (total score and its components) between baseline and 3 months and were compared between the escitalopram and placebo groups within each sex group. The least square mean was calculated to determine the independent effect of escitalopram, of which interaction was evaluated with patient sex. RESULTS: Of the 478 patients (intention-to-treat population), 187 (39%) were female. Female patients were significantly older than male patients and demonstrated more severe depressive symptoms at baseline (male vs. female, MADRS score, mean [SD]: 9.7 ± 8.0 vs. 12.2 ± 8.4, p = 0.001), especially in apparent sadness, reported sadness, and reduced appetite items. These differences were significant after adjustment for age and the severity of neurologic deficits. The female escitalopram group showed a significant 3-month improvement in MADRS scores (placebo [n = 86] vs. escitalopram [n = 101], least square mean [95% CI] -2.7 [-4.1 to -1.2] vs. -5.0 [-6.4 to -3.6], p = 0.007), and this efficacy was prominent in apparent sadness, reported sadness, and pessimistic thoughts items. However, there was no significant effect of escitalopram on depressive symptoms in the male group. The treatment responses of escitalopram tended to be more pronounced in the female group, particularly in alleviating a subset of depressive symptoms such as apparent sadness (p for interaction = 0.009). CONCLUSION: PSD may differ according to sex in its symptom characteristics and treatment responses to escitalopram, and tailored treatment strategies for PSD may therefore be needed.

2.
Neurology ; 94(9): e978-e991, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029544

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Stroke is a devastating and costly disease; however, there is a paucity of information on long-term costs and on how they differ according to 3-month modified Rankin scale (mRS) score, which is a primary outcome variable in acute stroke intervention trials. METHODS: We analyzed a prospective multicenter stroke registry (Clinical Research Collaboration for Stroke in Korea) database through linkage with claims data from the National Health Insurance Service with follow-up to December 2016. Healthcare expenditures were converted into daily cost individually, and annual and cumulative costs up to 5 years were estimated and compared according to the 3-month mRS score. RESULTS: Between January 2011 and November 2013, 11,136 patients were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 68 years, and 58% were men. The median follow-up period was 3.9 years (range 0-5 years). Mean cumulative cost over 5 years was $117,576 (US dollars [USD]); the cost in the first year after stroke was the highest ($38,152 USD), which increased markedly from the cost a year before stroke ($8,718 USD). The mean 5-year cumulative costs differed significantly according to the 3-month mRS score (p < 0.001); the costs for a 3-month mRS score of 0 or 5 were $53,578 and $257,486 USD, respectively. Three-month mRS score was an independent determinant of long-term costs after stroke. CONCLUSIONS: We show that 3-month mRS score plays an important role in the prediction of long-term costs after stroke. Such estimates relating to 3-month mRS categories may be valuable when undertaking health economic evaluations related to stroke care.

3.
Stroke ; 51(4): 1309-1312, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078481

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- We evaluated whether hemoglobin concentration at admission was associated with stroke recurrence and composite vascular events (stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death) in acute ischemic stroke. Methods- We collected data from patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack from a multicenter stroke registry database in Korea. The association of hemoglobin concentration with 1-year stroke recurrence and composite vascular events was evaluated with respect to age, presence of cerebral artery stenosis, stroke severity, and stroke subtype. Results- Hemoglobin levels were inversely associated with stroke recurrence and composite vascular events. One-year rates of stroke recurrence and composite vascular events were significantly higher in patients with anemia or moderate anemia. In multivariable analyses, moderate anemia remained an independent predictor of stroke recurrence (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.16-1.75]) and composite vascular events (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.07-1.48]). Moderate anemia increased the risk of composite vascular events in patients with mild-to-moderate stroke severity (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score <16, P=0.01 for interaction). Conclusions- Hemoglobin concentration could be an independent predictor of stroke recurrence and composite vascular events.

4.
Radiology ; 294(3): 638-644, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990267

RESUMO

Background Identifying the presence and extent of infarcted brain tissue at baseline plays a crucial role in the treatment of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Patients with extensive infarction are unlikely to benefit from thrombolysis or thrombectomy procedures. Purpose To develop an automated approach to detect and quantitate infarction by using non-contrast-enhanced CT scans in patients with AIS. Materials and Methods Non-contrast-enhanced CT images in patients with AIS (<6 hours from symptom onset to CT) who also underwent diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI within 1 hour after AIS were obtained from May 2004 to July 2009 and were included in this retrospective study. Ischemic lesions manually contoured on DW MRI scans were used as the reference standard. An automatic segmentation approach involving machine learning (ML) was developed to detect infarction. Randomly selected nonenhanced CT images from 157 patients with the lesion labels manually contoured on DW MRI scans were used to train and validate the ML model; the remaining 100 patients independent of the derivation cohort were used for testing. The ML algorithm was quantitatively compared with the reference standard (DW MRI) by using Bland-Altman plots and Pearson correlation. Results In 100 patients in the testing data set (median age, 69 years; interquartile range [IQR]: 59-76 years; 59 men), baseline non-contrast-enhanced CT was performed within a median time of 48 minutes from symptom onset (IQR, 27-93 minutes); baseline MRI was performed a median of 38 minutes (IQR, 24-48 minutes) later. The algorithm-detected lesion volume correlated with the reference standard of expert-contoured lesion volume in acute DW MRI scans (r = 0.76, P < .001). The mean difference between the algorithm-segmented volume (median, 15 mL; IQR, 9-38 mL) and the DW MRI volume (median, 19 mL; IQR, 5-43 mL) was 11 mL (P = .89). Conclusion A machine learning approach for segmentation of infarction on non-contrast-enhanced CT images in patients with acute ischemic stroke showed good agreement with stroke volume on diffusion-weighted MRI scans. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Nael in this issue.

5.
Radiology ; 294(3): 628-637, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990269

RESUMO

Background The decision to perform endovascular treatment (EVT) for stroke related to vertebrobasilar occlusion (VBO) remains controversial. Purpose To identify preprocedural predictors of good outcomes and to develop a model to aid patient selection for VBO. Materials and Methods For this retrospective study using a Korean multicenter registry, a predictive model for good outcomes (modified Rankin scale score, 0-2) was generated based on a derivation sample of patients with VBO (January 2011-February 2016). Preprocedural parameters, including onset-to-puncture time, infarct volume, occlusion type as a surrogate marker of intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis-related occlusion or embolic occlusion (truncal-type occlusion vs branching site occlusion), and collateral status, were analyzed. Continuous variables were dichotomized based on receiver operating characteristic analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to generate a predictive model. The model was internally validated with the bootstrap method and was externally validated with a single-center sample (April 2016-December 2018). Results A predictive model was generated from 71 patients (mean age, 67 years ± 11 [standard deviation]; 41 [58%] men) and was externally validated in 32 patients (mean age, 72 years ± 13; 19 [59%] men). The composite of initial DW imaging volume of less than 10 mL (odds ratio [OR], 19.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.0, 126.4; P = .002), onset-to-puncture time of less than 8 hours (OR, 8.7; 95% CI: 1.8, 42.0; P = .007), and branching-site occlusion (OR, 6.1; 95% CI: 1.5, 26.0; P = .01) could be used to predict good outcomes, with a median area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.86 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.77-0.95; bootstrap optimism-corrected C statistic, 0.837) in the derivation sample and 0.78 (IQR, 0.62-0.95) in the validation sample. Results failed to show an association between collateral status and outcome (P = .67). Conclusion When selecting patients with vertebrobasilar occlusion for endovascular treatment, the combination of onset-to-puncture time of less than 8 hours, initial infarct volume of less than 10 mL, and presence of branching-site occlusions is indicative of a good outcome. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

6.
Stroke ; 51(3): 931-937, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856691

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Although cilostazol has shown less hemorrhagic events than aspirin, only marginal difference was observed in hemorrhagic stroke events among patients at high risk for cerebral hemorrhage. To identify patients who would most benefit from cilostazol, this study analyzed interactions between treatment and subgroups of the PICASSO trial (Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Asian Ischemic Stroke Patients With High Risk of Cerebral Hemorrhage). Methods- Ischemic stroke patients with a previous intracerebral hemorrhage or multiple microbleeds were randomized to treatment with cilostazol or aspirin and followed up for a mean 1.8 years. Efficacy, defined as the composite of any stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death, and safety, defined as the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke, were analyzed in the 2 groups. Interactions between treatment and age, sex, presence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, index of high-risk cerebral hemorrhage, and white matter lesion burden were analyzed for primary and key secondary outcomes. Changes in vital signs and laboratory results were compared in the 2 groups. Results- Among all 1534 patients enrolled, a significant interaction between treatment group and index of high risk for cerebral hemorrhage on hemorrhagic stroke (P for interaction, 0.03) was observed. Hemorrhagic stroke was less frequent in the cilostazol than in the aspirin group in patients with multiple microbleeds (1 versus 13 events; hazard ratio, 0.08 [95% CI, 0.01-0.61]; P=0.01). A marginal interaction between treatment group and white matter change on any stroke (P for interaction, 0.08) was observed. Cilostazol reduced any stroke significantly in patients with mild (5 versus 16 events; hazard ratio, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.13-0.97]; P=0.04)-to-moderate (16 versus 32 events; hazard ratio, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.29-0.92]; P=0.03) white matter changes. Heart rate and HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol level were significantly higher in the cilostazol group than in the aspirin group at follow-up. Conclusions- Cilostazol may be more beneficial for ischemic stroke patients with multiple cerebral microbleeds and before white matter changes are extensive. Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01013532.

7.
Stroke ; 50(11): 3147-3155, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587655

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel plus aspirin (DAPT) with that of aspirin monotherapy (AM) in patients with acute, nonminor, and noncardioembolic stroke. Methods- Using a prospective, nationwide, multicenter stroke registry database, acute (within 24 hours of onset), nonminor (baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 4-15), and noncardioembolic stroke patients were identified. Propensity scores using inverse probability of treatment weighting were used to adjust baseline imbalances between the DAPT and AM groups. A primary outcome measure was a composite of all types of stroke (ischemic and hemorrhagic), myocardial infarction, and all-cause mortality within 3 months of stroke onset. Results- Among the 4461 patients meeting the eligibility criteria (age, 69±13 years; men, 57.7%), 52.5% (n=2340) received AM, and 47.5% (n=2121) received DAPT. The primary outcome event was not significantly different between the DAPT group and the AM group (20.9% versus 22.6%, P=0.13). The event rates of all types of stroke were also not different between the 2 groups (19.3% versus 20.1%, P=0.35), while all-cause mortality was significantly lower in the DAPT group than in the AM group (3.4% versus 4.9%, P=0.02). In the propensity-weighted Cox proportional hazards models with robust estimation, DAPT did not reduce the risk of the primary outcome event (hazards ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.79-1.04) but did reduce the risk of all-cause mortality (0.69; 0.49-0.97). There was no treatment heterogeneity among the predefined subgroups, although the potential benefits of DAPT were suggested in subpopulations of moderate-to-severe relevant arterial stenosis and relatively severe deficits (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 12-15). Conclusions- Compared to AM, clopidogrel plus aspirin did not reduce the risk of the primary outcome event during the first 3 months after a nonminor, noncardioembolic, ischemic stroke.

8.
Neurology ; 93(21): e1955-e1963, 2019 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645472

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of induced hypertension in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: In this multicenter randomized clinical trial, patients with acute noncardioembolic ischemic stroke within 24 hours of onset who were ineligible for revascularization therapy and those with progressive stroke during hospitalization were randomly assigned (1:1) to the control and intervention groups. In the intervention group, phenylephrine was administered intravenously to increase systolic blood pressure (SBP) up to 200 mm Hg. The primary efficacy endpoint was early neurologic improvement (reduction in NIH Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score of ≥2 points during the first 7 days). The secondary efficacy endpoint was a modified Rankin Scale score of 0 to 2 at 90 days. Safety outcomes included symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage/edema, myocardial infarction, and death. RESULTS: In the modified intention-to-treat analyses, 76 and 77 patients were included in the intervention and control groups, respectively. After adjustment for age and initial stroke severity, induced hypertension increased the occurrence of the primary (odds ratio 2.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25-4.96, p = 0.010) and secondary (odds ratio 2.97, 95% CI 1.32-6.68, p = 0.009) efficacy endpoints. Sixty-seven (88.2%) patients of the intervention group exhibited improvements in NIHSS scores of ≥2 points during induced hypertension (mean SBP 179·7 ± 19.1 mm Hg). Safety outcomes did not significantly differ between groups. CONCLUSION: Among patients with noncardioembolic stroke who were ineligible for revascularization therapy and those with progressive stroke, phenylephrine-induced hypertension was safe and resulted in early neurologic improvement and long-term functional independence. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT01600235. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that for patients with acute ischemic stroke, therapeutic-induced hypertension increases the probability of early neurologic improvement.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Circulação Colateral , Hipertensão , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema Encefálico/epidemiologia , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Feminino , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Neurointervention ; 14(2): 107-115, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315390

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Emergent intracranial occlusions causing acute ischemic stroke are often related to extracranial atherosclerotic stenosis. This study aimed to investigate the association between post-procedure intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and emergent extracranial artery stenting and assess their effects on clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients undergoing hyperacute endovascular treatment for cervicocephalic vascular occlusion in three Korean hospitals between January 2011 and February 2016. Patients who had extracranial artery involvement and were treated from 24 hours of symptom onset to puncture were included in this study, and they were divided into the extracranial stenting (ES) and non-ES groups. Any type of petechial hemorrhages and parenchymal hematoma was defined as ICH for the current study. RESULTS: In total, 76 patients were included in this study. Among them, 56 patients underwent ES, and 20 patients did not. Baseline characteristics, risk factors, laboratory data, treatment methods, successful reperfusion rates, and baseline stenotic degrees of extracranial internal carotid artery did not differ between these two groups. However, atrial fibrillation was more frequent in patients without than with ES (P=0.002), and post-procedure ICH was more frequent in patients with than without ES (P=0.035). Logistic regression models revealed that ES was independently associated with post-procedure ICH (odds ratio [OR], 7.807; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.213-50.248; P=0.031), and ICH was independently associated with poor clinical outcomes (OR, 0.202; 95% CI, 0.054-0.759; P=0.018); however, ES itself was not associated with clinical outcomes (OR, 0.530; 95% CI, 0.117-2.395; P=0.409). Notably, ICH and ES had interaction for predicting good outcomes (P=0.041). CONCLUSION: Post-procedure ICH was associated with ES and poor clinical outcomes. Therefore, ES should be cautiously considered in patients with hyperacute stroke.

10.
Stroke ; 50(8): 2093-2100, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221054

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Bridging therapy with low-molecular-weight heparin reportedly leads to a worse outcome for acute cardioembolic stroke patients because of a higher incidence of intracerebral bleeding. However, this practice is common in clinical settings. This observational study aimed to compare (1) the clinical profiles of patients receiving and not receiving bridging therapy, (2) overall group outcomes, and (3) outcomes according to the type of anticoagulant prescribed. Methods- We analyzed data of patients from the prospective RAF and RAF-NOACs studies. The primary outcome was defined as the composite of ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, systemic embolism, symptomatic cerebral bleeding, and major extracerebral bleeding observed at 90 days after the acute stroke. Results- Of 1810 patients who initiated oral anticoagulant therapy, 371 (20%) underwent bridging therapy with full-dose low-molecular-weight heparin. Older age and the presence of leukoaraiosis were inversely correlated with the use of bridging therapy. Forty-two bridged patients (11.3%) reached the combined outcome versus 72 (5.0%) of the nonbridged patients (P=0.0001). At multivariable analysis, bridging therapy was associated with the composite end point (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.4-3.7; P<0.0001), as well as ischemic (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.9; P=0.005) and hemorrhagic (odds ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2-4.9; P=0.01) end points separately. Conclusions- Our findings suggest that patients receiving low-molecular-weight heparin have a higher risk of early ischemic recurrence and hemorrhagic transformation compared with nonbridged patients.

11.
Stroke ; 50(8): 2168-2174, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234756

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Despite treatment with oral anticoagulants, patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) may experience ischemic cerebrovascular events. The aims of this case-control study in patients with AF were to identify the pathogenesis of and the risk factors for cerebrovascular ischemic events occurring during non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) therapy for stroke prevention. Methods- Cases were consecutive patients with AF who had acute cerebrovascular ischemic events during NOAC treatment. Controls were consecutive patients with AF who did not have cerebrovascular events during NOACs treatment. Results- Overall, 713 cases (641 ischemic strokes and 72 transient ischemic attacks; median age, 80.0 years; interquartile range, 12; median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale on admission, 6.0; interquartile range, 10) and 700 controls (median age, 72.0 years; interquartile range, 8) were included in the study. Recurrent stroke was classified as cardioembolic in 455 cases (63.9%) according to the A-S-C-O-D (A, atherosclerosis; S, small vessel disease; C, cardiac pathology; O, other causes; D, dissection) classification. On multivariable analysis, off-label low dose of NOACs (odds ratio [OR], 3.18; 95% CI, 1.95-5.85), atrial enlargement (OR, 6.64; 95% CI, 4.63-9.52), hyperlipidemia (OR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.83-3.16), and CHA2DS2-VASc score (OR, 1.72 for each point increase; 95% CI, 1.58-1.88) were associated with ischemic events. Among the CHA2DS2-VASc components, age was older and presence of diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, and history of stroke or transient ischemic attack more common in patients who had acute cerebrovascular ischemic events. Paroxysmal AF was inversely associated with ischemic events (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.33-0.61). Conclusions- In patients with AF treated with NOACs who had a cerebrovascular event, mostly but not exclusively of cardioembolic pathogenesis, off-label low dose, atrial enlargement, hyperlipidemia, and high CHA2DS2-VASc score were associated with increased risk of cerebrovascular events.

12.
Eur Stroke J ; 4(1): 55-64, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165095

RESUMO

Background: The relationship between different patterns of atrial fibrillation and early recurrence after an acute ischaemic stroke is unclear. Purpose: In a prospective cohort study, we evaluated the rates of early ischaemic recurrence after an acute ischaemic stroke in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation or sustained atrial fibrillation which included persistent and permanent atrial fibrillation. Methods: In patients with acute ischaemic stroke, atrial fibrillation was categorised as paroxysmal atrial fibrillation or sustained atrial fibrillation. Ischaemic recurrences were the composite of ischaemic stroke, transient ischaemic attack and symptomatic systemic embolism occurring within 90 days from acute index stroke. Results: A total of 2150 patients (1155 females, 53.7%) were enrolled: 930 (43.3%) had paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and 1220 (56.7%) sustained atrial fibrillation. During the 90-day follow-up, 111 ischaemic recurrences were observed in 107 patients: 31 in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (3.3%) and 76 with sustained atrial fibrillation (6.2%) (hazard ratio (HR) 1.86 (95% CI 1.24-2.81)). Patients with sustained atrial fibrillation were on average older, more likely to have diabetes mellitus, hypertension, history of stroke/ transient ischaemic attack, congestive heart failure, atrial enlargement, high baseline NIHSS-score and implanted pacemaker. After adjustment by Cox proportional hazard model, sustained atrial fibrillation was not associated with early ischaemic recurrences (adjusted HR 1.23 (95% CI 0.74-2.04)). Conclusions: After acute ischaemic stroke, patients with sustained atrial fibrillation had a higher rate of early ischaemic recurrence than patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. After adjustment for relevant risk factors, sustained atrial fibrillation was not associated with a significantly higher risk of recurrence, thus suggesting that the risk profile associated with atrial fibrillation, rather than its pattern, is determinant for recurrence.

13.
J Korean Med Sci ; 34(22): e164, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients who survive an acute phase of stroke are at risk of falls and fractures afterwards. However, it is largely unknown how frequent fractures occur in the Asian stroke population. METHODS: Patients with acute (< 7 days) ischemic stroke who were hospitalized between January 2011 and November 2013 were identified from a prospective multicenter stroke registry in Korea, and were linked to the National Health Insurance Service claim database. The incidences of fractures were investigated during the first 4 years after index stroke. The cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) were estimated by the Gray's test for competing risk data. Fine and Gray model for competing risk data was applied for exploring risk factors of post-stroke fractures. RESULTS: Among a total of 11,522 patients, 1,616 fracture events were identified: 712 spine fractures, 397 hip fractures and 714 other fractures. The CIFs of any fractures were 2.63% at 6 months, 4.43% at 1 year, 8.09% at 2 years and 13.00% at 4 years. Those of spine/hip fractures were 1.11%/0.61%, 1.88%/1.03%, 3.28%/1.86% and 5.79%/3.15%, respectively. Age by a 10-year increment (hazard ratio [HR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-1.30), women (HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.54-1.97), previous fracture (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.54-1.92) and osteoporosis (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.27-1.63) were independent risk factors of post-stroke fracture. CONCLUSION: The CIFs of fractures are about 8% at 2 years and 13% at 4 years after acute ischemic stroke in Korea. Older age, women, pre-stroke fracture and osteoporosis raised the risk of post-stroke fractures.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/complicações , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/complicações , Fraturas do Quadril/diagnóstico , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/complicações , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
14.
Stroke ; 50(6): 1504-1509, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043151

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Several studies have reported partial reversal of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesions after acute stroke reperfusion treatment. However, factors associated with DWI reversal have not yet been systematically investigated. We evaluated the factors associated with DWI reversal after endovascular treatment (EVT). Methods- We retrospectively analyzed consecutively encountered patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent EVT at 3 comprehensive stroke centers in Korea from January 2011 to February 2016. Patients who received EVT within 24 hours of anterior circulation infarction and had both baseline and follow-up DWIs were included. DWI reversal was defined as a decrease in DWI volume from baseline to follow-up. We compared the characteristics and outcomes between patients with and without DWI reversal and assessed independent factors associated with DWI reversal. Results- Of 720 patients encountered during the time period, 404 patients (56.1%) met the study criteria, with 63 patients (15.5%) showing DWI reversal after EVT. The mean time interval between baseline and follow-up DWI was 4.7±2.4 days. Mean baseline DWI volumes of patients with and without DWI reversal were 30.1±36.7 versus 22.0±30.7 mL ( P=0.106), and follow-up DWI volumes were 17.8±24.9 versus 68.7±77.5 mL ( P<0.001). Patients with DWI reversal showed better functional outcomes at 3 months than those without DWI reversal (modified Rankin Scale [interquartile range], 1 [0-3] versus 2 [1-4]; P=0.001). In a multivariate analysis, complete reperfusion (odds ratio, 1.954; 95% CI, 1.063-3.582) and shorter time from baseline DWI to final reperfusion (odds ratio, 0.991; 95% CI, 0.983-0.998) were independently associated with DWI reversal. Conclusions- Complete reperfusion and shorter imaging time to recanalization were independently associated with DWI reversal among patients with acute ischemic stroke who received EVT.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Sistema de Registros , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/cirurgia
15.
Ann Neurol ; 86(1): 143-149, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025392

RESUMO

The histological features of thrombus in stroke patients with cancer are not well known. Using immunohistochemical staining of thrombi retrieved during mechanical thrombectomy in stroke patients, thrombus compositions were compared between 16 patients with active cancer, 16 patients with inactive cancer, and 16 patients without any history of cancer. The active cancer group showed higher platelet and lower erythrocyte fractions than the inactive cancer or the control group. Four patients with vegetation showed very high platelet and low erythrocyte fractions. Patients with cryptogenic etiology in the active cancer group showed a similar pattern to those with vegetation. These findings may aid the determination of treatment strategies in cancer-associated stroke. ANN NEUROL 2019.

16.
Stroke ; 50(5): 1184-1192, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932785

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Two large-scale randomized controlled trials of recurrent stroke prevention suggest that dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel plus aspirin is beneficial for prevention of subsequent ischemic events. There is a paucity of data, however, on the efficacy or effectiveness of such an approach in the treatment of stroke patients with symptomatic large artery atherosclerotic occlusive disease. Methods- We used a multicenter stroke registry database (Clinical Research Collaboration for Stroke in Korea) to analyze acute ischemic stroke patients due to large artery atherosclerotic occlusive disease who were treated with aspirin alone or combination of clopidogrel and aspirin from May 2008 to May 2015. The results were analyzed by intention-to-treat, per-protocol, and as-treated methodologies. The primary end point was the 1-year composite outcome of stroke recurrence, myocardial infarction, and all-cause death. To balance the differences between groups, a frailty model using propensity scores and inverse probability of treatment weighting was used. Results- A total of 5934 patients with symptomatic large artery atherosclerotic occlusive disease were treated either with clopidogrel plus aspirin (n=2903, 49%) or aspirin (n=3031, 51%). The frequency of the primary outcome was 12% (n=353) in the clopidogrel-aspirin group and 14% (n=410) in the aspirin group. The hazards of the primary outcome with combination over aspirin only were significantly reduced in the per-protocol and as-treated analyses (hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.57-0.88; P=0.002 and hazard ratio, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.69-0.96; P=0.02, respectively), but there was borderline significance in the intention-to-treat analysis (hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.74-1.01; P=0.06). Combination therapy was beneficial for all-cause death in all analyses but did not reduce recurrent stroke. Conclusions- Compared with patients receiving aspirin monotherapy, the primary outcome seemed to occur less frequently in patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy, which is explained mainly by the decrease of all-cause death. Since this is a nonrandomized, retrospective, observational study, our study should be cautiously interpreted.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Aterosclerose/mortalidade , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade
17.
J Clin Neurosci ; 64: 134-140, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952555

RESUMO

Intravenous tissue-plasminogen activator (IV-TPA) treatment in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients due to small vessel occlusion (SVO) has been debated because of its small expected benefit and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH) risk. Furthermore, data on subgroups of SVO patients are limited. From a prospective multicenter stroke registry database, AIS patients due to SVO within 24 h from onset were selected. Efficacy outcomes were 3-month modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 0-1 proportion and mRS score distribution. Additionally, subgroup analyses were conducted by age, sex, initial National Institute Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, and presenting limb paresis. This study included 2482 patients: 193 in the IV-TPA group and 2289 in the control group. After adjusting covariates, IV-TPA treatment was associated with an increased mRS 0-1 outcome (adjusted OR [95% CI], 1.56 [1.06-2.29]; P = 0.0249), but was not significantly associated with a favorable mRS shift (1.33 [0.98-1.81]; P = 0.0709). SICH and 3-month death occurred in three (1.6%) and none in the IV-TPA group versus one (0.04%) and 16 (0.7%) in the control group. In subgroup analyses, the IV-TPA effect appeared significantly greater in patients aged ≥80 versus <80 for mRS score distribution (Pinteraction = 0.012). This study showed that, in SVO patients, IV-TPA within 4.5 h may improve functional outcome with a low SICH risk. The benefit appeared more substantial in patients aged ≥80.


Assuntos
Infarto Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 11, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Futile reperfusion (poor functional status despite successful reperfusion) was observed in up to 67% of patients enrolled in recent endovascular treatment (EVT) clinical trials. We investigated the impact of baseline stroke severity on both futile reperfusion and therapeutic benefit of successful EVT. METHODS: Using a prospective multicenter stroke registry, we identified consecutive ischemic stroke patients with anterior circulation large artery occlusion, who were reperfused successfully by EVT (Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction grade 2b-3). The rate of futile reperfusion was assessed across the initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores. The frequency of poor outcomes (modified Rankin scale [mRS] 3-6) according to NIHSS scores was compared between patients revascularized successfully by EVT and those who did not receive EVT, after standardizing for age. RESULTS: Among 21,591 patients with ischemic stroke, 972 (4.5%) received EVT within 12 h of onset, including 440 who met study eligibility criteria. Futile reperfusion was observed in 226 of the 440 study-eligible patients (51.4%) and was associated with stroke severity: 20.9% in NIHSS scores ≤5, 34.6% in 6-10, 58.9% in 11-20, and 63.8% in > 20 (p < 0.001). Nonetheless, the therapeutic benefit of EVT also increased with increasing stroke severity (p for interaction < 0.001): 0.1% in NIHSS ≤5, 18.6% in 6-10, 28.7% in 11-20, and 34.3% in > 20. CONCLUSIONS: EVT is more beneficial with increasing stroke severity, although futile reperfusion also increases with higher stroke severity.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Reperfusão/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infarto Cerebral/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Stroke ; 50(2): 365-372, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612537

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Randomized trials comparing the use of multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to multimodal computed tomography (CT)/ CT angiography (CTA) for selecting candidates for endovascular therapy (EVT) have not been reported. This study aimed to elucidate whether MRI-based selection for EVT is safe and effective within and after a 6-hour time window compared with conventional CTA-based selection. Methods- Data from a prospective, nationwide, multicenter stroke registry were analyzed. Workflow timelines were compared between patients selected for EVT based on MRI (the MRI group) and CTA (the CTA group). Multivariable ordinal and binary logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the relationships between decision imaging for EVT and clinical outcomes, including good and excellent outcomes (modified Rankin Scale scores of 0-2 and 0-1, respectively) at 3-month, modified Rankin Scale score distributions and safety outcomes (symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage [SICH] and mortality). Results- Ultimately, 1265 patients (age, 69±12 yrs; men, 55%) were enrolled in this study. The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 15 (11-19). All workflow time metrics were significantly delayed in the MRI group compared with the CTA group. There was no difference in good 3-month outcomes in patients arriving within 6 hours of onset between the MRI and CTA groups (38.1% versus 38.5%), but SICH and mortality rates were lower in the MRI group than the CTA group (3.8% versus 7.7%, P=0.01 for SICH; 15.4% versus 20.9%, P=0.04 for mortality). In the multivariable analysis, decision imaging was not significantly associated with 3-month functional outcomes (all P>0.1) or mortality ( P=0.051); however, the MRI group was less likely to develop SICH than the CTA group ( P=0.01; odds ratio, 0.34 [95% CI, 0.17-0.77]). Conclusions- Our study found MRI-based selection for EVT was not associated with improving functional outcome compared with CT-based selection, but may be better at reducing the risk of SICH, despite the delays in all workflow time metrics.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Sistema de Registros , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
20.
Stroke ; : STROKEAHA118022691, 2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580722

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel-aspirin to that of aspirin monotherapy in patients with acute minor cerebral ischemia using a prospective, nationwide, multicenter, stroke registry database in South Korea. Methods- CHANCE trial (Clopidogrel in High-Risk Patients With Acute Nondisabling Cerebrovascular Events)-like patients who met eligibility criteria modeled on the CHANCE trial eligibility criteria, including (1) acute minor ischemic stroke defined as National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≤3 or lesion positive transient ischemic attack within 24 hours of onset and (2) noncardioembolic stroke mechanism. Propensity scores using the inverse probability of treatment weighting was used to adjust for baseline imbalances. The primary outcome was the composite of all stroke (ischemic and hemorrhagic), myocardial infarction, and vascular death by 3 months. Results- Among 5590 patients meeting the eligibility criteria, age was 64±13 year and 62.6% were male. Aspirin and combination of clopidogrel-aspirin were administered in 66.1% and 33.9% of patients, respectively. In unadjusted analysis, rates of the 3-month primary vascular event outcome were lower with clopidogrel-aspirin versus aspirin, 9.9% versus 12.2% (hazard ratio, 0.79 [0.67-0.95]). In propensity-weighted Cox proportional hazards regression with robust estimation, clopidogrel-aspirin was associated with a lower risk of the primary vascular event outcome (hazard ratio, 0.76 [0.63-0.92]) and all stroke events (hazard ratio, 0.74 [0.61-0.90]). Among 6 predefined subgroup analyses, 3 showed potential modification of treatment effect, with lesser benefit associated with the absence of prior antiplatelet use ( Pinteraction=0.01) and younger age (<75 years, Pinteraction=0.07), and absence of benefit associated with small vessel occlusion subtype ( Pinteraction=0.08). Conclusions- Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel was associated with reduced stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death in the 3 months following a presenting minor, noncardioembolic ischemic stroke. Benefits may be particularly magnified in patients with a history of prior antiplatelet therapy, older age, and nonsmall vessel disease stroke mechanism.

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