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Nano Lett ; 21(21): 8970-8978, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676752


We report the observation of an anomalous nonlinear optical response of the prototypical three-dimensional topological insulator bismuth selenide through the process of high-order harmonic generation. We find that the generation efficiency increases as the laser polarization is changed from linear to elliptical, and it becomes maximum for circular polarization. With the aid of a microscopic theory and a detailed analysis of the measured spectra, we reveal that such anomalous enhancement encodes the characteristic topology of the band structure that originates from the interplay of strong spin-orbit coupling and time-reversal symmetry protection. The implications are in ultrafast probing of topological phase transitions, light-field driven dissipationless electronics, and quantum computation.

Rev Sci Instrum ; 92(12): 123907, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972440


In photoelectron spectroscopy, the measured electron momentum range is intrinsically related to the excitation photon energy. Low photon energies <10 eV are commonly encountered in laser-based photoemission and lead to a momentum range that is smaller than the Brillouin zones of most materials. This can become a limiting factor when studying condensed matter with laser-based photoemission. An additional restriction is introduced by widely used hemispherical analyzers that record only electrons photoemitted in a solid angle set by the aperture size at the analyzer entrance. Here, we present an upgrade to increase the effective solid angle that is measured with a hemispherical analyzer. We achieve this by accelerating the photoelectrons toward the analyzer with an electric field that is generated by a bias voltage on the sample. Our experimental geometry is comparable to a parallel plate capacitor, and therefore, we approximate the electric field to be uniform along the photoelectron trajectory. With this assumption, we developed an analytic, parameter-free model that relates the measured angles to the electron momenta in the solid and verify its validity by comparing with experimental results on the charge density wave material TbTe3. By providing a larger field of view in momentum space, our approach using a bias potential considerably expands the flexibility of laser-based photoemission setups.

Faraday Discuss ; 194: 369-405, 2016 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27722584


High harmonic generation (HHG) spectroscopy has opened up a new frontier in ultrafast science, where electronic dynamics can be measured on an attosecond time scale. The strong laser field that triggers the high harmonic response also opens multiple quantum pathways for multielectron dynamics in molecules, resulting in a complex process of multielectron rearrangement during ionization. Using combined experimental and theoretical approaches, we show how multi-dimensional HHG spectroscopy can be used to detect and follow electronic dynamics of core rearrangement on sub-laser cycle time scales. We detect the signatures of laser-driven hole dynamics upon ionization and reconstruct the relative phases and amplitudes for relevant ionization channels in a CO2 molecule on a sub-cycle time scale. Reconstruction of channel-resolved complex ionization amplitudes on attosecond time scales has been a long-standing goal of high harmonic spectroscopy. Our study brings us one step closer to fulfilling this initial promise and developing robust schemes for sub-femtosecond imaging of multielectron rearrangement in complex molecular systems.

J Pept Sci ; 20(6): 446-50, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24733719


The vast potential applications of biomolecules that bind inorganic surfaces led mostly to the isolation of short peptides that target selectively specific materials. The demonstrated differential affinity toward certain surfaces created the impression that the recognition capacity of short peptides may match that of rigid biomolecules. In the following, we challenge this view by comparing the capacity of antibody molecules to discriminate between the (100) and (111A) facets of a gallium arsenide semiconductor crystal with the capacity of short peptides to do the same. Applying selection from several peptide and single chain phage display libraries, we find a number of antibody molecules that bind preferentially a given crystal facet but fail to isolate, in dozens of attempts, a single peptide capable of such recognition. The experiments underscore the importance of rigidity to the recognition of inorganic flat targets and therefore set limitations on potential applications of short peptides in biomimetics.

Anticorpos/química , Arsenicais/química , Gálio/química , Oligopeptídeos/química , Anticorpos/imunologia , Arsenicais/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Gálio/imunologia , Semicondutores , Propriedades de Superfície
Nature ; 485(7398): 343-6, 2012 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22596157


The tunnelling of a particle through a barrier is one of the most fundamental and ubiquitous quantum processes. When induced by an intense laser field, electron tunnelling from atoms and molecules initiates a broad range of phenomena such as the generation of attosecond pulses, laser-induced electron diffraction and holography. These processes evolve on the attosecond timescale (1 attosecond ≡ 1 as = 10(-18) seconds) and are well suited to the investigation of a general issue much debated since the early days of quantum mechanics--the link between the tunnelling of an electron through a barrier and its dynamics outside the barrier. Previous experiments have measured tunnelling rates with attosecond time resolution and tunnelling delay times. Here we study laser-induced tunnelling by using a weak probe field to steer the tunnelled electron in the lateral direction and then monitor the effect on the attosecond light bursts emitted when the liberated electron re-encounters the parent ion. We show that this approach allows us to measure the time at which the electron exits from the tunnelling barrier. We demonstrate the high sensitivity of the measurement by detecting subtle delays in ionization times from two orbitals of a carbon dioxide molecule. Measurement of the tunnelling process is essential for all attosecond experiments where strong-field ionization initiates ultrafast dynamics. Our approach provides a general tool for time-resolving multi-electron rearrangements in atoms and molecules--one of the key challenges in ultrafast science.