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1.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229834, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155188

RESUMO

MPV17 is described as a mitochondrial inner membrane channel. Although its function remains elusive, mutations in the MPV17 gene result in hepato-cerebral mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome in humans. In this study, we show that MPV17 silencing does not induce depletion in mitochondrial DNA content in cancer cells. We also show that MPV17 does not control cancer cell proliferation despite the fact that we initially observed a reduced proliferation rate in five MPV17-silenced cancer cell lines with two different shRNAs. However, shRNA-mediated MPV17 knockdown performed in this work provided misguiding results regarding the resulting proliferation phenotype and only a rescue experiment was able to shed definitive light on the implication of MPV17 in cancer cell proliferation. Our results therefore emphasize the caution that is required when scientific conclusions are drawn from a work based on lentiviral vector-based gene silencing and clearly demonstrate the need to systematically perform a rescue experiment in order to ascertain the specific nature of the experimental results.

2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1393, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170132

RESUMO

Predicting drug-induced liver injury in a preclinical setting remains challenging, as cultured primary human hepatocytes (PHHs), pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs), and hepatoma cells exhibit poor drug biotransformation capacity. We here demonstrate that hepatic functionality depends more on cellular metabolism and extracellular nutrients than on developmental regulators. Specifically, we demonstrate that increasing extracellular amino acids beyond the nutritional need of HLCs and HepG2 cells induces glucose independence, mitochondrial function, and the acquisition of a transcriptional profile that is closer to PHHs. Moreover, we show that these high levels of amino acids are sufficient to drive HLC and HepG2 drug biotransformation and liver-toxin sensitivity to levels similar to those in PHHs. In conclusion, we provide data indicating that extracellular nutrient levels represent a major determinant of cellular maturity and can be utilized to guide stem cell differentiation to the hepatic lineage.

3.
J Histochem Cytochem ; : 22155420913534, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32154749

RESUMO

Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-ß-gal) activity assay is commonly used to evaluate the increased beta-galactosidase (ß-gal) activity in senescent cells related to enhanced lysosomal activity. Although the optimal pH for ß-gal is 4.0, this enzymatic activity has been most commonly investigated at a suboptimal pH by using histochemical reaction on fresh tissue material. In the current study, we optimized a SA-ß-gal activity histochemistry protocol that can also be applied on cryopreserved hepatic tissue. This protocol was developed on livers obtained from control rats and after bile duct resection (BDR). A significant increase in ß-gal liver activity was observed in BDR rats vs controls after 2 hr of staining at physiological pH 4.0 (6.98 ± 1.19% of stained/total area vs 0.38 ± 0.22; p<0.01) and after overnight staining at pH 5.8 (24.09 ± 6.88 vs 0.12 ± 0.08; p<0.01). Although we noticed that ß-gal activity staining decreased with cryopreservation time (from 4 to 12 months of storage at -80C; p<0.05), the enhanced staining observed in BDR compared with controls remained detectable up to 12 months after cryopreservation (p<0.01). In conclusion, we provide an optimized protocol for SA-ß-gal activity histochemical detection at physiological pH 4.0 on long-term cryopreserved liver tissue.

4.
Histochem Cell Biol ; 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124009

RESUMO

Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles formed by peroxisome biogenesis (PB). During PB, peroxisomal matrix proteins harboring a peroxisome targeting signal (PTS) are imported inside peroxisomes by peroxins, encoded by PEX genes. Genetic alterations in PEX genes lead to a spectrum of incurable diseases called Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSD). In vitro drug screening is part of the quest for a cure in ZSD by restoring PB in ZSD cell models. In vitro PB evaluation is commonly achieved by immunofluorescent staining or transient peroxisome fluorescent reporter expression. Both techniques have several drawbacks (cost, time-consuming technique, etc.) which we overcame by developing a third-generation lentiviral transfer plasmid expressing an enhanced green fluorescent protein fused to PTS1 (eGFP-PTS1). By eGFP-PTS1 lentiviral transduction, we quantified PB and peroxisome motility in ZSD and control mouse and human fibroblasts. We confirmed the stable eGFP-PTS1 expression along cell passages. eGFP signal analysis distinguished ZSD from control eGFP-PTS1-transduced cells. Live eGFP-PTS1 transduced cells imaging quantified peroxisomes motility. In conclusion, we developed a lentiviral transfer plasmid allowing stable eGFP-PTS1 expression to study PB (deposited on Addgene: #133282). This tool meets the needs for in vitro PB evaluation and ZSD drug discovery.

5.
J Hepatol ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Mutations in ABCB11 can cause deficiency of the bile salt export pump (BSEP), leading to cholestasis and end-stage liver disease. The rarity of the disease has prevented determination of associations between genotype and either natural history or the effect of surgical biliary diversion (SBD) on long-term outcome (liver transplantation (LTx), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), death). We aimed to determine these associations by assembling the largest genetically defined cohort of severe BSEP deficiency patients to date. METHODS: This multicentre, retrospective cohort study of patients with homozygous or compound heterozygous pathological ABCB11 mutations included 264 patients. Patients were categorized according to genotypic severity (BSEP1, BSEP2, BSEP3). The predicted residual BSEP transport function decreased with each category. RESULTS: Genotype severity was strongly associated with native liver survival (NLS, BSEP1 median 20.4y; BSEP2, 7.0y; BSEP3, 3.5y; P<.001). At age 15y, the proportion of patients with HCC was 4% in BSEP1, 7% in BSEP2 and 34% in BSEP3 (P=0.001). SBD was associated with significantly increased NLS (HR:0.50; 95%CI 0.27-0.94, P=.03) in BSEP1 and BSEP2. A serum bile acid (sBA) concentration below 102 µmol/L and a decrease in sBA by at least 75%, each shortly after SBD, reliably predicted NLS of at least 15 years after SBD (each P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: The genotype of severe BSEP deficiency strongly predicts the long-term native liver survival, the risk to develop hepatocellular carcinoma, and the chance that surgical biliary diversion increases native liver survival. Serum bile acid parameters shortly after surgical biliary diversion allow the reliable identification of patients with long-term native liver survival.

6.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 11(1): 51, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation is a fast-developing therapy in regenerative medicine. However, some concerns have been raised regarding their safety and the infusion-related pro-coagulant activity. The aim of this study is to analyze the induced thrombogenic risk and the safety of adding anticoagulants during intraportal infusions of liver-derived MSCs (HepaStem), in patients with Crigler-Najjar (CN) and urea cycle disorders (UCD). METHODS: Eleven patients (6 CN and 5 UCD patients) were included in this partially randomized phase 1/2 study. Three cell doses of HepaStem were investigated: low (12.5 × 106 cells/kg), intermediate (50 × 106 cells/kg), and high doses (200 × 106 cells/kg). A combination of anticoagulants, heparin (10 I.U./5 × 106cells), and bivalirudin (1.75 mg/kg/h) were added during cell infusions. The infusion-related thrombogenic risk and anticoagulation were evaluated by clinical monitoring, blood sampling (platelet and D-dimer levels, activated clotting time, etc.) and liver Doppler ultrasound. Mixed effects linear regression models were used to assess statistically significant differences. RESULTS: One patient presented a thrombogenic event such as a partial portal vein thrombus after 6 infusions. Minor adverse effects such as petechiae, epistaxis, and cutaneous hemorrhage at the site of catheter placement were observed in four patients. A significant decrease in platelet and increase in D-dimer levels were observed at the end of the infusion cycle, normalizing spontaneously after 7 days. No significant and clinically relevant increase in portal vein pressure could be observed once the infusion cycle was completed. CONCLUSIONS: The safety- and the infusion-related pro-coagulant activity remains a concern in MSC transplantation. In our study, a combination of heparin and bivalirudin was added to prevent the thrombogenic risk induced by HepaStem infusions in 11 patients. A significant decrease in platelet and increase in D-dimer levels were observed, suggesting the activation of coagulation in these patients; however, this was spontaneously reversible in time. We can conclude that adding this combination of anticoagulants is safe and limits infusion-related thrombogenesis to subclinical signs in most of the patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01765283-January 10, 2013.

7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 181, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus is one of the leading causes of chronic liver disease and liver-related deaths worldwide. The estimated prevalence of chronic hepatitis C viral infection among the general Belgian population was 0.57% (n = 64,000) in 2015. Although Belgium has had a 'Hepatitis C Plan' since 2014, elimination efforts are unclear. This study employs the best available data and modelling estimates to define the burden of hepatitis C viral infection among key subgroups in Belgium, identify information gaps and propose potential approaches to screening, linkage to care and treatment, and cure. METHODS: We examined the peer-reviewed and grey literature since 2012 for data on the prevalence of hepatitis C viral infection in Belgium in key subgroups identified by national experts and in the literature. Ultimately, this research is primarily based on data provided by the key stakeholders themselves due to a lack of reliable data in the literature. Based on this, we modelled the treatment rates required to reach elimination of hepatitis C in several subgroups. RESULTS: Eleven potential subgroups were identified. There were no data available for two subgroups: generational cohorts and men who have sex with men. In six subgroups, fewer than 3000 people were reported or estimated to have hepatitis C infection. Migrants and people who inject drugs were the most affected subgroups, and children were the least affected subgroup. Only two subgroups are on target to achieve elimination by 2030: patients living with haemophilia and transplant recipients. CONCLUSIONS: Removing Belgian treatment reimbursement restrictions in January 2019 was a big step towards eliminating HCV. In addition, increasing surveillance, including with a national registry, treatment prescription by other health-care providers and availability of treatment in local pharmacies are central to improving the current situation and getting on track to reach the 2030 WHO hepatitis C elimination targets in Belgium.

8.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 70(4): 527-538, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977956

RESUMO

Reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a known complication of immune-suppressive, cytotoxic, and biological modifier therapies in patients currently infected with HBV or who have had past exposure to HBV. Nowadays, newer and emerging forms of targeted biologic therapies are available for the management of rheumatologic conditions, malignancies, inflammatory bowel disease, dermatologic conditions and solid-organ, bone marrow, or haematologic stem cell transplant but there is currently a lack of a systematic approach to the care of patients with or at risk of HBV reactivation. The Hepatology Committee of the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) together with a working group of ESPGHAN members with clinical and research expertise in viral hepatitis developed an evidence-based position paper on reactivation of HBV infection in children identifying pertinent issues addressing the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of this condition. Relevant clinical questions were formulated and agreed upon by all the members of the working group. Questions were answered and positions were based on evidence resulting from a systematic literature search on PubMed and Embase from their inception to July 1, 2019. A document was produced and the working group and ESPGHAN Hepatology Committee members voted on each recommendation, using a formal voting technique. A recommendation was accepted provided upon agreement by at least 75% of the working group members. This position paper provides a comprehensive update on the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of HBV reactivation in children.

9.
Hepatology ; 71(1): 31-43, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222783

RESUMO

Currently, the only approved hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment for children aged <12 years is pegylated interferon plus ribavirin. In an open-label study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for 12 weeks in children aged 3 to <12 years chronically infected with genotype 2 or for 24 weeks in patients with genotype 3. Patients aged 3 to <6 years weighing <17 kg received sofosbuvir 150 mg, and patients aged 3 to <6 years weighing ≥17 kg and all patients aged 6 to <12 years received sofosbuvir 200 mg once daily. Intensive pharmacokinetic sampling conducted in each age group confirmed the appropriateness of sofosbuvir doses. For all patients, ribavirin dosing was determined by baseline weight (up to 1,400 mg/day, two divided doses). The primary efficacy endpoint was sustained virologic response 12 weeks after therapy (SVR12). Fifty-four patients were enrolled (41 aged 6 to <12 years and 13 aged 3 to <6 years). Most were treatment naïve (98%) and infected perinatally (94%). All but one patient achieved SVR12 (53/54, 98%; 95% confidence interval, 90%-100%). The patient who did not achieve SVR12 was a 4-year-old who discontinued treatment after 3 days because of "abnormal drug taste." The most commonly reported adverse events in patients aged 6 to <12 years were vomiting (32%) and headache (29%), and those in patients aged 3 to <6 years were vomiting (46%) and diarrhea (39%). One 3-year-old patient had a serious adverse event of accidental ribavirin overdose requiring hospitalization for monitoring; this patient completed treatment and achieved SVR12. Conclusion: Sofosbuvir plus ribavirin was well tolerated and highly effective in children aged 3 to <12 years with chronic HCV genotype 2 or 3 infection.

10.
Hepatology ; 71(2): 456-462, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254392

RESUMO

The pangenotypic regimen of glecaprevir and pibrentasvir (G/P) is approved to treat adults with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and has yielded high cure rates in adults in clinical trials. Approved treatment options for pediatrics may include ribavirin. A pangenotypic regimen for pediatric patients remains an unmet need. DORA is an ongoing phase 2/3, nonrandomized, open-label study evaluating the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and efficacy of G/P in pediatric patients with chronic HCV. This analysis includes Part 1 of the study, conducted in adolescent patients 12-17 years of age given the adult regimen of G/P (300 mg/120 mg) once daily for 8-16 weeks according to the indication durations used in adults. Patients were either treatment naïve or experienced with interferon-based regimens. The primary PK endpoint was steady-state exposures for glecaprevir and pibrentasvir; the primary efficacy endpoint was sustained virologic response 12 weeks after treatment (SVR12). The secondary efficacy endpoints were on-treatment virologic failure, relapse, and reinfection. Safety and tolerability were monitored. Part 1 enrolled 48 adolescent patients infected with genotypes 1, 2, 3, or 4, of whom 47 were administered G/P. All 47 patients (100%) achieved SVR12. No on-treatment virologic failures or relapses occurred. PK exposures of glecaprevir and pibrentasvir were comparable to exposures in adults. No adverse events (AEs) led to treatment discontinuation, and no serious AEs occurred. Conclusion: Adolescent patients with chronic HCV infection treated with G/P achieved a comparable exposure to adults, 100% SVR12 rate, and safety profile consistent with that in adults. This pangenotypic regimen demonstrated 100% efficacy within the adolescent population in as little as 8 weeks of treatment.

11.
J Immunol Res ; 2019: 8250584, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612154

RESUMO

One of the main challenges in liver cell therapy (LCT) is the induction of a tolerogenic microenvironment to promote graft acceptance in the recipient. Little is known about the immunomodulatory potential of the hepatic cells used in liver cell therapy. In this work, we wanted to evaluate the immunosuppressive properties of human hepatocytes and adult-derived human liver stem/progenitor cells (ADHLSCs), as well as the potential involvement of the immunomodulatory molecule HLA-G. We demonstrated that both cell types were capable of inhibiting the proliferative response of PBMCs to an allogenic stimulus and that the immune inhibitory potential of ADHLSCs, although lower than that of hepatocytes, increased after hepatogenic differentiation. We demonstrated that liver cells express HLA-G and that the immune inhibition pattern was clearly associated to its expression. Interestingly, HLA-G expression increased after the third step of differentiation, wherein oncostatin M (OSM) was added. A 48 hr treatment with OSM was sufficient to induce HLA-G expression in ADHLSCs and result in immune inhibition. Surprisingly, blocking HLA-G partially reversed the immune inhibition mediated by hepatocytes and differentiated ADHLSCs, but not that of undifferentiated ADHLSCs, suggesting that additional immune inhibitory mechanisms may be used by these cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated that both hepatocytes and ADHLSCs present immunomodulatory properties mediated, at least in part, through HLA-G, which can be upregulated following hepatogenic differentiation or liver cell pretreatment with OSM. These observations open up new perspectives for the induction of tolerance following LCT and for potential therapeutic applications of these liver cells.


Assuntos
Antígenos HLA-G/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/imunologia , Células-Tronco/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Diferenciação Celular , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Antígenos HLA-G/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunossupressão , Técnicas In Vitro , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oncostatina M/farmacologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
13.
Cells ; 8(10)2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569696

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are currently studied and used in numerous clinical trials. Nevertheless, some concerns have been raised regarding the safety of these infusions and the thrombogenic risk they induce. MSCs express procoagulant activity (PCA) linked to the expression of tissue factor (TF) that, when in contact with blood, initiates coagulation. Some even describe a dual activation of both the coagulation and the complement pathway, called Instant Blood-Mediated Inflammatory Reaction (IBMIR), explaining the disappointing results and low engraftment rates in clinical trials. However, nowadays, different approaches to modulate the PCA of MSCs and thus control the thrombogenic risk after cell infusion are being studied. This review summarizes both in vitro and in vivo studies on the PCA of MSC of various origins. It further emphasizes the crucial role of TF linked to the PCA of MSCs. Furthermore, optimization of MSC therapy protocols using different methods to control the PCA of MSCs are described.

14.
Cells ; 8(8)2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394759

RESUMO

The efficacy of mesenchymal stem cell infusion is currently tested in numerous clinical trials. However, therapy-induced thrombotic consequences have been reported in several patients. The aim of this study was to optimize protocols for heterologous human adult liver-derived progenitor cell (HHALPC) infusion, in order to eliminate acute thrombogenesis in liver-based metabolic or acute decompensated cirrhotic (ADC) patients. In rats, thrombotic effects were absent when HHALPCs were infused at low cell dose (5 × 106 cells/kg), or at high cell dose (5 × 107 cells/kg) when combined with anticoagulants. When HHALPCs were exposed to human blood in a whole blood perfusion assay, blocking of the tissue factor (TF) coagulation pathway suppressed fibrin generation and platelet activation. In a Chandler tubing loop model, HHALPCs induced less explosive activation of coagulation with blood from ADC patients, when compared to blood from healthy controls, without alterations in coagulation factor levels other than fibrinogen. These studies confirm a link between TF and thrombogenesis, when TF-expressing cells are exposed to human blood. This phenomenon however, could be controlled using either a low, or a high cell dose combined with anticoagulants. In clinical practice, this points to the suitability of a low HHALPC dose infusion to cirrhotic patients, provided that platelet and fibrinogen levels are monitored.

15.
J Diabetes Res ; 2019: 2813489, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467926

RESUMO

While the autoimmune character of T1D (type 1 diabetes) is being challenged, it is currently recognized that inflammation plays a key role in its development. We hypothesized that glucotoxicity could contribute to ß-cell mass destruction through participation in islet inflammation. We evaluated the potential of empagliflozin (EMPA) and GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) to protect ß-cell mass against glucotoxicity and to increase ß-cell mass after diagnosis of T1D. Empagliflozin is a SGLT2 (sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter) inhibitor which thereby blocks glucose recapture by the kidney and promotes glucose excretion in urine. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter, which stimulates α-to-ß cell transdifferentiation. In streptozotocin-treated mice, empagliflozin and/or GABA were delivered for a period of five days or three weeks. As compared to untreated T1D mice, EMPA-treated T1D mice had decreased FFA (free fatty acid) levels and improved glucose homeostasis. EMPA-treated T1D mice had higher islet density, with preserved architecture, compared to T1D mice, and EMPA-treated T1D mice also differed from T1D mice by the total absence of immune cell infiltration within islets. Islets from EMPA-treated mice were also less subjected to ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress and inflammation, as shown by qPCR analysis. Glucose homeostasis parameters and islet area/pancreas area ratio improved, as compared to diabetic controls, when T1D mice were treated for three weeks with GABA and EMPA. T1D EMPA+GABA mice had higher glucagon levels than T1D mice, without modifications of glucagon area/islet area ratios. In conclusion, empagliflozin and GABA, used in monotherapy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, have positive effects on ß-cell mass preservation or proliferation through an indirect effect on islet cell inflammation and ER stress. Further research is mandatory to evaluate whether empagliflozin and GABA may be a potential therapeutic target for the protection of ß-cell mass after new-onset T1D.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacologia , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/farmacologia , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/administração & dosagem , Glicemia/metabolismo , Contagem de Células , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Intervenção Médica Precoce , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Glucosídeos/administração & dosagem , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Células Secretoras de Insulina/citologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/fisiologia , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/citologia , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Estreptozocina , Fatores de Tempo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/administração & dosagem
16.
Stem Cells Int ; 2019: 8129797, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281385

RESUMO

Background: Cell transplantation is in clinical development for the treatment of various ailments including acquired and inborn hepatic diseases. Detection and quantification of the donor cells after infusion remain difficult. Traditional methods (sex-based FISH, HLA mismatch, and Short Tandem Repeat PCR) can only achieve low levels of sensitivity (1%) and therefore are seldom used. The use of a droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay based on mismatch of null alleles is a promising alternative. Methods: We selected genes with a high frequency of null genotype in the general population (SRY, RHD, TRY6, LEC3C, GSTM1, and GSTT1) and investigated their expression by liver progenitor cell donors and liver cell therapy recipients, in order to identify genes of interest for each donor/recipient couple. We first validated the detection of microchimerism by ddPCR and then used these assays to detect and quantify microchimerism in pre- and postinfusion liver biopsies. Results: We validated the ddPCR detection of the selected genes based on linearity, precision, lack of inhibition, and accuracy, and we established limits of blank, limits of detection, and limits of quantification to ensure the reliability of the results. After genotyping donors and recipients, we were able to identify at least one gene of interest for each donor/recipient couple. We detected donor cells in the three patients posttransplantation. However, analysis of several biopsies taken at the same timepoint revealed a heterogeneous cell distribution. In addition, the values obtained remained below the limit of quantification. Therefore, the actual quantification of microchimerism may not be entirely accurate. Conclusions: Overall, our study demonstrates that the detection of microchimerism post-liver cell transplantation can be performed using ddPCR amplification of null allele genes expressed by the donor but absent from the recipient. However, this technique can be extended to other cell types and target organs in cell transplantation.

18.
J Cell Physiol ; 234(11): 21145-21152, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041809

RESUMO

Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs) hold the promise of achieving successful immunotherapeutic results due to their ability to regulate different T-cell fate. ASCs also show significant adaptability to environmental stresses by modulating their immunologic profile. Cell-based therapy for inflammatory diseases requires a detailed understanding of the molecular relation between ASCs and Th17 lymphocytes taking into account the influence of inflammation and cell ratio on such interaction. Accordingly, a dose-dependent increase in Th17 generation was only observed in high MSC:T-cell ratio with no significant impact of inflammatory priming. IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) expression by T cells was not modulated by ASCs when compared to levels in activated T cells, while ROR-γt expression was significantly increased reaching a maximum in high (1:5) unprimed ASC:T-cell ratio. Finally, multiplex immunoassay showed substantial changes in the secretory profile of 15 cytokines involved in the Th17 immune response (IL-1ß, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, IL-21, IL-23, IL-25, IL-31, IL-33, IFN-γ, sCD40, and TNF-α), which was modulated by both cell ratio and inflammatory priming. These findings suggest that Th17 lymphocyte pathway is significantly modulated by ASCs that may lead to immunological changes. Therefore, future ASC-based immunotherapy should take into account the complex and detailed molecular interactions that depend on several factors including inflammatory priming and cell ratio.

19.
Pediatr Transplant ; 23(4): e13390, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888111

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cirrhotic children wait-listed for liver transplant are prone to bleeding from gastrointestinal varices. Grade 2-3 esophageal varices, red signs, and gastric varices are well-known risk factors. However, the involvement of hemostatic factors remains controversial because of the rebalanced state of coagulation during cirrhosis. METHODS: Children suffering from decompensated cirrhosis were prospectively included while being on waitlist. Portal hypertension was assessed by ultrasound and endoscopy. Coagulopathy was evaluated through conventional tests, thromboelastometry, and platelet function testing. The included children were followed up until liver transplantation, and all bleeding episodes were recorded. Children with or without bleeding were compared according to clinical, radiological, endoscopic, and biological parameters. In addition, validation of a predictive model for risk of variceal bleeding comprising of grade 2-3 esophageal varices, red spots, and fibrinogen level <150 mg/dL was applied on this cohort. RESULTS: Of 20 enrolled children, 6 had upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Significant differences were observed in fibrinogen level, adenosine diphosphate, and thrombin-dependent platelet aggregation. The model used to compute the upper gastrointestinal bleeding risk had an estimated predictive performance of 81.0%. Platelet aggregation analysis addition improved the estimated predictive performance up to 89.0%. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated an association between hemostatic factors and the upper gastrointestinal bleeding risk. A low fibrinogen level and platelet aggregation dysfunction may predict the risk of bleeding in children with decompensated cirrhosis. A predictive model is available to assess the upper gastrointestinal bleeding risk but needs further investigations. Clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT03244332.

20.
Nature ; 566(7744): 403-406, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728499

RESUMO

Most tumours have an aberrantly activated lipid metabolism1,2 that enables them to synthesize, elongate and desaturate fatty acids to support proliferation. However, only particular subsets of cancer cells are sensitive to approaches that target fatty acid metabolism and, in particular, fatty acid desaturation3. This suggests that many cancer cells contain an unexplored plasticity in their fatty acid metabolism. Here we show that some cancer cells can exploit an alternative fatty acid desaturation pathway. We identify various cancer cell lines, mouse hepatocellular carcinomas, and primary human liver and lung carcinomas that desaturate palmitate to the unusual fatty acid sapienate to support membrane biosynthesis during proliferation. Accordingly, we found that sapienate biosynthesis enables cancer cells to bypass the known fatty acid desaturation pathway that is dependent on stearoyl-CoA desaturase. Thus, only by targeting both desaturation pathways is the in vitro and in vivo proliferation of cancer cells that synthesize sapienate impaired. Our discovery explains metabolic plasticity in fatty acid desaturation and constitutes an unexplored metabolic rewiring in cancers.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Ácidos Oleicos/metabolismo , Palmitatos/metabolismo , Ácidos Palmíticos/metabolismo , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo
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