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1.
Biomimetics (Basel) ; 4(1)2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105203

RESUMO

Antidepressants such as amitryptiline and fluoxetine are on the list of modern essential medicines of the World Health Organization. However, there are growing concerns regarding the ecological impact of these pharmaceuticals, leading to a great need to improve current wastewater treatment procedures. In this contribution, we will report on the use of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for the extraction of antidepressants in water samples. MIPs were developed for fluoxetine and duloxetine, antidepressants belonging to the class of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The binding capacity of these microparticles was evaluated using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. A new high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure coupled to UV detection was developed, which enabled the study of mixtures of fluoxetine and duloxetine with other nitrogen-containing compounds. These results indicate that it is possible to selectively extract SSRIs from complex samples. Therefore, these versatile polymers are a promising analytical tool for the clean-up of water samples, which will benefit aquatic life and reduce the ecological impact of pharmaceuticals.

2.
Brain Behav Immun ; 80: 204-218, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sickness behavioral changes elicited by inflammation may become prolonged and dysfunctional in patients with chronic disease, such as chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Neuroimaging studies show that the basal ganglia and insula are sensitive to systemic inflammation. AIM: To elucidate the clinical and neurobiological aspects of prolonged illnesses in patients with CHC. METHODS: Thirty-five CHC patients not treated with interferon-α or other antiviral therapy, and 30 control subjects matched for age and sex, were evaluated for perceived stress (perceived stress scale; PSS), depression (PHQ-9), fatigue and irritability through a visual analog scale (VAS), as well as serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and oxidative stress markers. Functional MRI was performed, measuring resting-state functional connectivity using a region-of-interest (seed)-based approach focusing on the bilateral insula, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral putamen. Between-group differences in functional connectivity patterns were assessed with two-sample t-tests, while the associations between symptoms, inflammatory markers and functional connectivity patterns were analyzed with multiple regression analyses. RESULTS: CHC patients had higher PSS, PHQ-9 and VAS scores for fatigue and irritability, as well as increased IL-6 levels, PGE2 concentrations and antioxidant system activation compared to controls. PSS scores positively correlated with functional connectivity between the right anterior insula and right putamen, whereas PHQ-9 scores correlated with functional connectivity between most of the seeds and the right anterior insula. PGE2 (positively) and IL-6 (negatively) correlated with functional connectivity between the right anterior insula and right caudate nucleus and between the right ventral putamen and right putamen/globus pallidus. PGE2 and PSS scores accounted for 46% of the variance in functional connectivity between the anterior insula and putamen. CONCLUSIONS: CHC patients exhibited increased perceived stress and depressive symptoms, which were associated with changes in inflammatory marker levels and in functional connectivity between the insula and putamen, areas involved in interoceptive integration, emotional awareness, and orientation of motivational state.

3.
Molecules ; 23(4)2018 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29677123

RESUMO

A catalytic enantioselective addition reaction of alkylzirconium species to aromatic aldehydes is reported. The reaction, facilitated by a chiral nonracemic diol ligand complex with Ti(OiPr)4, proceeds under mild and convenient conditions, and no premade organometallic reagents are required since the alkylzirconium nucleophiles are generated in situ by hydrozirconation of alkenes with the Schwartz reagent. The methodology is compatible with functionalized nucleophiles and a broad range of aromatic aldehydes.


Assuntos
Aldeídos/química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Alcenos/química , Catálise , Estrutura Molecular , Titânio/química
4.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(5): 1100-1107, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28994141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir with or without dasabuvir and with or without ribavirin (OBV/PTV/r ± DSV ± RBV) are common in clinical trials. Our aim was to analyze the prevalence and management of potential DDIs and adverse events (AEs) related to DDIs in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) receiving OBV/PTV/r ± DSV ± RBV in clinical practice. METHODS: 177 CHC patients started OBV/PTV/r ± DSV ± RBV in 4 Spanish hospitals and were screened for potential DDIs using the University of Liverpool database. Patients were classified according to the most serious potential DDIs at baseline and AEs during therapy. RESULTS: At least one potential DDI was found in 110 (62.1%) patients: 100 (56.5%) had at least one manageable potential DDI and 10 (5.6%) at least one contraindicated. Patients with potential DDIs were receiving a higher number of concomitant drugs (4 vs. 2, P < 0.001). Routine medication was modified at baseline due to potential DDIs in 49 (27.7%) patients. During antiviral treatment, 67 (37.9%) patients presented at least one AE. In 9 (4.5%) patients, a DDI was suspected between OBV/PTV/r ± DSV ± RBV and the concomitant drug, requiring antiviral discontinuation in 4 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Potential DDIs are frequent with OBV/PTV/r ± DSV ± RBV, although a change in baseline medication is made in only one-quarter of patients. More than half of potential DDIs were only followed, and only 5% of patients developed AEs in which the implication of DDIs could not be excluded.


Assuntos
Anilidas/efeitos adversos , Carbamatos/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Macrocíclicos/efeitos adversos , Ribavirina/efeitos adversos , Ritonavir/efeitos adversos , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Uracila/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anilidas/administração & dosagem , Carbamatos/administração & dosagem , Interações Medicamentosas , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Compostos Macrocíclicos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ribavirina/administração & dosagem , Ritonavir/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Uracila/administração & dosagem , Uracila/efeitos adversos
5.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0188303, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29190670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients require long-term nucleos(t)ide analogues(NAs) because loss of surface antigen (HBsAg) is unusual. Low quantitative HBsAg (qHBsAg) levels can identify patients with higher probability of seroclearance. The aim of our study was to evaluate qHBsAg in HBeAg-negative patients receiving NAs to predict a reduction of HBsAg levels and seroclearance. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of qHBsAg in HBeAg-negative patients before and at years 1, 3, 5, 8 and over of NAs treatment. RESULTS: From 1999 to 2015, HBsAg was quantified in 358 serum samples from 95 HBeAg-negative patients. Low qHBsAg (<120 IU/mL) was identified at baseline or during follow-up in 14% of patients and HBsAg loss in 4%. No baseline variables predicted seroclearance and only treatment duration predicted low qHBsAg. The annual decline of qHBsAg was -0.102 log IU/mL and the median time to HBsAg loss was 6.04 years. The decline was greater in patients achieving low HBsAg levels (-0.257) than in those who did not (-0.057)(p<0.001). The diagnostic accuracy (ROC curve, 95%CI) of qHBsAg delta at year 3 was 0.89 (0.81-0.97), with cut-off >0.3 log IU/mL showing a positive and negative predictive value of 42% and 100% to identify patients achieving low levels of HBsAg. CONCLUSIONS: Reduction of qHBsAg is slow in HBeAg-negative patients receiving NAs, although low levels or faster qHBsAg decline may occur in 14%. A qHBsAg reduction >0.3 log IU/mL at year 3 can identify patients with a higher probability of achieving low levels and HBsAg seroclearance.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0187893, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29135988

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to describe the evolution of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections since 2004 and to determine its associated factors. Acute HCV infections diagnosed in Barcelona from 2004 to 2015 were included. Incidence ratios (IR) were then estimated for sex and age groups. Cases were grouped between 2004-2005, 2006-2011 and 2012-2015, and their incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated. In addition, risk factors for acute HCV infection were identified using multinomial logistic regression for complete, available and multiple imputed data. 204 new HCV cases were identified. Two peaks of higher IR of acute HCV infection in 2005 and 2013 were observed. Men and those aged 35-54 had higher IR. IRR for men was 2.9 times greater than in women (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.8 ‒ 4.7). Factors related to the period 2012-2015 (versus 2006-2011) were: a) sexual risk factor for transmission versus nosocomial (relative-risk ratio (RRR): 13.0; 95% CI: 2.3 ‒ 72.1), b) higher educated versus lower (RRR: 5.4; 95% CI: 1.6 ‒ 18.7), and c) HIV co-infected versus not HIV-infected (RRR: 53.1; 95% CI: 5.7 ‒ 492.6). This is one of the few studies showing IR and RRRs of acute HCV infections and the first focused on a large city in Spain. Sexual risk for transmission between men, higher educational level and HIV co-infection are important factors for understanding current HCV epidemic. There has been a partial shift in the pattern of the risk factor for transmission from nosocomial to sexual.


Assuntos
Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Adulto , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
7.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 32(10): 1746-1753, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28201854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Transient elastography is the reference method for liver stiffness measurement (LSM) in the general population, having lower applicability in obese patients. We evaluated the applicability and diagnostic accuracy of the M and XL probes in overweight/obese patients to establish the most appropriate approach. METHODS: From May 2013 to March 2015, we evaluated patients with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 28 kg/m2 . We constructed an algorithm with variables independently related to unreliable LSM with the M probe. RESULTS: A total of 1084 patients were evaluated. M and XL probe applicability was 88.8% and 98%, respectively. Waist circumference (WC) (OR; 95% CI; P) (0.97; 0.94-0.99; P < 0.001) and skin-capsule distance (SCD) (0.83; 0.79-0.87; P < 0.001) were independently related to unreliable LSM (M probe). The SCD was > 25 mm in 5.5% of individuals with a BMI ≤ 35 kg/m2 and a WC ≤ 117 cm, with LSM (M probe) applicability rising to 94.3%. In contrast, 36.9% of patients with a BMI > 35 kg/m2 and/or a WC > 117 cm presented an SCD > 25 mm, with M probe applicability being 73.1%. The diagnostic accuracy (area under the receiver operator characteristic) using the M probe to identify significant steatosis (0.76), fibrosis (0.89), and cirrhosis (0.96) was very high in patients with a BMI ≤ 35 kg/m2 and a WC ≤ 117 cm. CONCLUSIONS: The applicability and accuracy of the FibroScan® M probe to identify fibrosis and steatosis was excellent in overweight and obesity grade I (BMI ≤ 35 kg/m2 ) with a WC ≤ 117 cm. The XL probe increased the applicability of transient elastography in obesity grade II-III (BMI > 35 kg/m2 ).


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Fígado Gorduroso/diagnóstico , Fígado/patologia , Obesidade/patologia , Sobrepeso/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 11(12): e0164883, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27984583

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION & AIMS: Cryopreservation of serum samples is a standard procedure for biomedical research in tertiary centers. However, studies evaluating the long-term biological stability of direct liver fibrosis markers using cryopreserved samples are scarce. METHODS: We compared the stability of hyaluronic acid (HA), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1) and amino-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) in 225 frozen serum samples of HCV-infected patients with a paired liver biopsy for up to 25 years (1990-2014). Moreover, we assessed the diagnostic accuracy (AUROC) of the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis (ELF®) score to identify significant fibrosis (F2-4) and its predictive capacity to identify clinical events during follow-up. RESULTS: Seventy-six patients (39,8%) had mild fibrosis (F0-1) and 115 (60,2%) significant fibrosis (F2-4). HA, PIIINP and TIMP-1 values remained stable during the period from 1995 to 2014 while those of 1990-94 were slightly higher. We did not find significant differences in the median ELF® values during the 20-year period from 1995-2014 in patients with mild (from 8,4 to 8,7) and significant fibrosis (from 9,9 to 10,9) (p = ns between periods and fibrosis stages). The AUROCs of ELF® to identify significant fibrosis were high in all the periods (from 0,85 to 0,91). The ELF® score showed a good predictive capability to identify clinical events during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The biological stability of direct serum markers (HA, PIIINP and TIMP-1) using HCV-infected samples cryopreserved for 20 years is good. Therefore, the diagnostic accuracy of the ELF® score to identify significant fibrosis and clinical events during follow-up is very high.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Ácido Hialurônico/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Pró-Colágeno/sangue , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criopreservação , Feminino , Hepatite C Crônica/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 50(9): 779-89, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27332746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cases of renal tubular dysfunction have been reported in patients with hepatitis B and in patients with human immunodeficiency virus who are undergoing tenofovir treatment. However, little is known about the impact on tubular function in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) under long-term use of entecavir (ETV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). We evaluated markers of renal tubular function and bone turnover in patients with CHB treated with ETV or TDF. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was performed on markers of renal tubular function and bone turnover in hepatitis B virus-monoinfected patients on long-term treatment with Entecavir or Tenofovir (the MENTE study). The analyzed parameters were: retinol-binding protein/creatinine, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin/creatinine, excretion of phosphates, uric acid excretion, glomerular filtrate, protein/creatinine, albumin/creatinine, serum creatinine, phosphate, CTX, P1NP, vitamin D, and parathormone. RESULTS: A total of 280 patients (ETV: 89, TDF: 69, control: 122) were included in this study. The TDF group was associated with altered levels of retinol-binding protein (RBP)/creatinine (TDF 25% vs. 7% ETV and control; P<0.001). Protein/creatinine, uric acid excretion, P1NP1, and parathormone were higher in the TDF group. The proportion of patients with serum phosphate <2.5 mg/dL was higher in both the ETV and the TDF groups compared with the control. The multivariate analysis showed that the use of TDF was independently associated with a higher risk of altered excretion of RBP/creatinine (4.4; interquartile range: 1.4 to 14; P=0.013). CONCLUSIONS: We found an independent association between TDF use and altered RBP excretion. This finding indicates subclinical tubular damage. Because tubular dysfunction can precede the decline of renal function, close monitoring of RBP levels in patients with CHB on nucleos(t)ide analog treatment must be performed for early detection of TDF-related renal toxicity. In this study, these differences in tubular function were not associated with concomitant changes in markers of bone turnover.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Túbulos Renais Proximais/fisiopatologia , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Creatinina/urina , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Guanina/efeitos adversos , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Guanina/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B Crônica/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nucleosídeos/efeitos adversos , Nucleosídeos/uso terapêutico , Nucleotídeos/efeitos adversos , Nucleotídeos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Ligação ao Retinol/urina , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha , Tenofovir/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 10(3): e0122613, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25826755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Virological response to peginterferon + ribavirin (P+R) at week 4 can predict sustained virological response (SVR). While patients with rapid virological response (RVR) do not require triple therapy, patients with a decline <1 log10 IU/ml HCVRNA (D1L) should have treatment discontinued due to low SVR rate. AIM: To develop a tool to predict first 4 weeks' viral response in patients with hepatitis C genotype 1&4 treated with P+R. METHODS: In this prospective and multicenter study, HCV mono-infected (n=538) and HCV/HIV co-infected (n=186) patients were included. To develop and validate a prognostic tool to detect RVR and D1L, we segregated the patients as an estimation cohort (to construct the model) and a validation cohort (to validate the model). RESULTS: D1L was reached in 509 (80.2%) and RVR in 148 (22.5%) patients. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that HIV co-infection, Forns' index, LVL, IL28B-CC and Genotype-1 were independently related to RVR as well as D1L. Diagnostic accuracy (AUROC) for D1L was: 0.81 (95%CI: 0.76 ̶ 0.86) in the estimation cohort and 0.71 (95%CI: 0.62 ̶ 0.79) in the validation cohort; RVR prediction: AUROC 0.83 (95%CI: 0.78 ̶ 0.88) in the estimation cohort and 0.82 (95%CI: 0.76 ̶ 0.88) in the validation cohort. Cost-analysis of standard 48-week treatment indicated a saving of 30.3% if the prognostic tool is implemented. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of genetic (IL28B polymorphism) and viral genotype together with viral load, HIV co-infection and fibrosis stage defined a tool able to predict RVR and D1L at week 4. Using this tool would be a cost-saving strategy compared to universal triple therapy for hepatitis C.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/administração & dosagem , Interferon-alfa/química , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Estudos Prospectivos , Ribavirina/administração & dosagem
11.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 27(1): 46-54, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25341057

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of entecavir monotherapy in nucleos(t)ide-naive chronic hepatitis B patients and to analyse the influence of the comorbidity burden on therapy outcome. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed data from 237 nucleos(t)ide-naive chronic hepatitis B white patients treated with entecavir (0.5 mg/day) at 23 Spanish centres. For the efficacy and safety analyses, patients were grouped according to their baseline comorbidities. RESULTS: The mean age of the cohort was 43 years (range: 19-82 years); 73% were male, 83% were white, and 33% were hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive. At baseline, the median hepatitis B virus DNA level was 6.20 log10 IU/ml. Of the patients, 18% had cirrhosis, 9.7% had diabetes, 16.3% had hypertension, and 15.7% had obesity; 13.4% of patients had more than one comorbid condition. Virological and biochemical responses at month 36 were obtained independently of the patients' baseline comorbid condition. Of 10 HBeAg-positive patients who discontinued treatment after HBeAg seroconversion, those who had not also cleared HBsAg (six) experienced virological recurrence in a median 5.6 months. There were no treatment discontinuations due to adverse events. Three patients were diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma at months 12, 30 and 54, and six experienced hepatic decompensation during follow-up. The median serum creatinine levels did not increase after 36 months of treatment, even in patients with comorbidities. CONCLUSION: Entecavir is safe, well tolerated, and highly effective, even in patients with comorbid condition(s). Discontinuation of treatment in patients who have not been cleared of HBsAg may lead to virological recurrence.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Creatinina/sangue , DNA Viral/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Seguimentos , Guanina/efeitos adversos , Guanina/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Liver Int ; 35(5): 1557-65, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25385188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The first generation protease inhibitors, boceprevir (BOC) and telaprevir (TVR), are both CYP3A4 inhibitors, which predispose drug-drug interactions (DDIs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of potential DDIs, the management of outpatient medication and its impact on adherence and efficacy to antiviral treatment in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-monoinfected and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-coinfected patients receiving BOC and TVR. METHODS: The usual medication starting with BOC or TVR was screened by the pharmacist of the multidisciplinary support programme (MSP) for potential DDIs. Recommendations were made to avoid significant DDIs, and changes in the baseline medication were recorded. Adherence to antiviral treatment was considered as 80/80/95% of total doses. Sustained virological response was assessed at week 12 (SVR12). RESULTS: At least one potential DDI was found in 70 (64.8%) patients, 45 (54.2%) being HCV-monoinfected and 25 (100%) HIV/HCV-coinfected (P < 0.01). Baseline treatment modifications were required in 38 (35.2%) patients. Adherence and SVR12 were higher in patients without DDIs (86.8%) and (67.6%) compared to those with DDIs (62.8%) (P = 0.021) and (47.2%) (P = 0.097) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: More than half of the patients were at risk of presenting DDIs, leading to changes in the baseline medication in one-third of the patients. Drug interactions are frequent in patients with lower adherence.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Oligopeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Prolina/análogos & derivados , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Interações Medicamentosas , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Hepacivirus , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Prolina/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico
13.
Liver Int ; 35(1): 90-100, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25113158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The addition of protease inhibitors (PIs) changed the hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment standards and improved sustained viral response (SVR) rates in patients with genotype 1 HCV infection. METHODS: Prospective, multicentre, national registry that includes naïve and treatment-experienced patients with HCV genotype 1 infection, who had bridging fibrosis or cirrhosis and were treated with triple therapy (peginterferon alfa-2a or alfa-2b, ribavirin and boceprevir) as compassionate use, and in accordance with the Summary of Product Characteristics. RESULTS: Most of the patients (68.2%) were male, with a mean age of 53 years, 75% (n = 128) had HCV 1b genotype and baseline viral load of 6.2 log. According to prior treatment, 20% of patients were treatment-naïve and 80% had received prior treatment. Approximately 36.5% of patients (n = 62) reported at least one serious adverse events (SAEs) (total SAEs = 103). The most common SAEs were neutropenia (57.6%), anaemia (47.6%) and grade 3 thrombopenia (25.9%). Patients with albumin <3.5 g/dl and bilirubin >2 mg/dl had an increased relative risk (greater than one-fold) for SAEs, including infections and hepatic decompensation. In the intent-to-treat analysis (n = 170), the overall percentage of patients with SVRw12 was 46.5%. In patients with 1 log decrease at week 4 (lead-in phase), the overall SVRw12 rate was 67.0%. In the patients initiating triple therapy with boceprevir (n = 139), the global response rate was 56.4%. In a multivariate analysis, an increased probability of achieving SVR was associated with response to prior treatment (relapsers), >1 log decrease in viral load in the lead-in phase and baseline albumin >3.5 g/dl. CONCLUSIONS: Triple therapy in patients with severe fibrosis/cirrhosis is associated with a higher rate of SAE and a lower rate in comparison with patients with mild disease. However, for patients with intact liver function, it could be considered as a treatment option, when other alternatives would not be available.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Prolina/análogos & derivados , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Ensaios de Uso Compassivo , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/genética , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/efeitos adversos , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polietilenoglicóis/efeitos adversos , Prolina/efeitos adversos , Prolina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores de Proteases/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Ribavirina/efeitos adversos , Espanha
14.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 75(10): e1113-21, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25373120

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of prophylactic administration of antidepressants in preventing a major depressive episode during antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C. DATA SOURCES: A computerized literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov to locate articles published in any language from the earliest available online year until October 2012, using the following phrase and Boolean logic algorithm: "hepatitis and c and (interferon-alpha OR peginterferon OR (pegylated and interferon)) and (depression OR mood) and (prevention OR prophylactic OR prophylaxis OR antidepressant)." STUDY SELECTION: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials using antidepressants prophylactically before starting antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C were included. At baseline, none of the patients in the trials presented depression (DSM-IV-TR criteria). Using keywords and cross-referenced bibliographies, 144 studies were identified and examined in depth. 137 articles were rejected because inclusion criteria were not met. Finally, 7 studies were included. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were extracted independently by 2 investigators. The primary outcome measure was the onset of a major depressive episode during the antiviral treatment. Depressive symptoms, other side effects, and sustained virologic response were also examined. A full review and meta-analysis were performed. Odds ratios (ORs), mean differences, and estimated numbers needed to treat (NNTs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: 591 patients were randomly assigned to antiviral treatment and another intervention: escitalopram (n = 197), paroxetine (n = 42), citalopram (n = 53), or placebo (n = 299). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), as a group, reduced the incidence of a major depressive episode during antiviral treatment (OR = 0.53; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.84). The NNT was 12 (95% CI, 7.0 to 37.9). SSRIs reduced depressive symptoms at 24 weeks of treatment (mean difference -2.18; 95% CI, -4.25 to -0.10). With regard to side effects, only dizziness was associated with administration of antidepressants (OR = 2.65; 95% CI, 1.46 to 4.80). There were no differences in sustained virologic response (OR = 1.22; 95% CI, 0.58 to 2.57). CONCLUSIONS: Administration of SSRIs before starting antiviral treatment reduces the incidence of interferon-induced depression, with a relatively moderate prophylactic impact and good tolerability.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Interferons/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/farmacologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/administração & dosagem
15.
Chemistry ; 20(32): 10153-9, 2014 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25043481

RESUMO

A highly efficient and straightforward aminoxylation of titanium(IV) enolates from (S)-N-acyl-4-benzyl-5,5-dimethyl-1,3-oxazolidin-2-ones with TEMPO has been developed. A wide array of functional groups on the acyl moiety, including alkyl and aryl substituents, olefins, esters, or α-cyclopropyl, as well as α-trifluoromethyl groups, are well tolerated. This transformation can therefore produce the α-aminoxylated adducts in excellent yields with high diastereomeric ratios (d.r.). In turn, parallel additions to the α,ß-unsaturated N-acyl counterparts give the corresponding γ-adducts with complete regioselectivity in moderate to good yields. Removal of the piperidinyl moiety or the chiral auxiliary converts the resultant adducts into enantiomerically pure α-hydroxy carboxyl derivatives, alcohols, or esters in high yields under mild conditions. Finally, a new mechanistic model based on the biradical character of the titanium(IV) enolates has been proposed.

16.
Gastroenterol. hepatol. (Ed. impr.) ; 37(supl.1): 23-36, jul. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-145997

RESUMO

El plan de tratamiento de la hepatitis crónica C en las poblaciones especiales varía en función de la comorbilidad y las evidencias de tratamiento existentes. En los pacientes con coinfección por virus de la hepatitis C y virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, los resultados del tratamiento con biterapia (interferón pegilado más ribavirina) son pobres. En los pacientes infectados por virus de genotipo 1, la terapia triple (biterapia más boceprevir o telaprevir) ha duplicado la tasa de respuesta, pero los inhibidores de la proteasa pueden interactuar con algunos fármacos antirretrovirales y provocan más efectos adversos. Estos inconvenientes no los presentan los nuevos antivirales directos de segunda generación. En los pacientes candidatos a trasplante hepático o portadores ya de un trasplante hepático, la mejor opción terapéutica actual es combinar los nuevos antivirales, con o sin ribavirina y sin interferón. El tratamiento de los enfermos en hemodiálisis por enfermedad renal crónica continúa siendo la biterapia (en muchos casos, con dosis reducidas de interferón pegilado y ribavirina), pues no se dispone todavía de suficiente información sobre la triple terapia ni los nuevos antivirales. En la crioglobulinemia mixta, aunque existe poca experiencia, la triple terapia parece ser superior a la biterapia y puede rescatar pacientes que no responden a la biterapia; pero siempre debe decidirse si el tratamiento antiviral debe asociarse o posponerse al tratamiento inmunosupresor (AU)


The treatment plan for chronic hepatitis C in special populations varies according to comorbidity and the current evidence on treatment. In patients with hepatitis C virus and HIV coinfection, the results of dual therapy (pegylated interferon plus ribavirin) are poor. In patients with genotype 1 infection, triple therapy (dual therapy plus boceprevir or telaprevir) has doubled the response rate, but protease inhibitors can interact with some antiretroviral drugs and provoke more adverse effects. These disadvantages are avoided by the new, second-generation, direct-acting antiviral agents. In patients who are candidates for liver transplantation or are already liver transplant recipients, the optimal therapeutic option at present is to combine the new antiviral agents, with or without ribavirin and without interferon. The treatment of patients under hemodialysis due to chronic renal disease continues to be dual therapy (often with reduced doses of pegylated interferon and ribavirin), since there is still insufficient information on triple therapy and the new antiviral agents. In mixed cryoglobulinemia, despite the scarcity of experience, triple therapy seems to be superior to dual therapy and may be used as rescue therapy in non-responders to dual therapy. However, a decision must always be made on whether antiviral treatment should be used concomitantly or after immunosuppressive therapy (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Hepacivirus/patogenicidade , Hepatite C Crônica/terapia , Coinfecção/terapia , Interferons/uso terapêutico , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Transplante de Fígado
17.
Ann Hepatol ; 13(4): 356-63, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24927606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with a higher prevalence of steatosis compared to the general population. AIM: Our aim was to assess the impact of PNPLA3 rs738409 G-allele on steatosis in HCV patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included 474 HCV patients treated with peginterferon plus ribavirin. PNPLA3 rs738409 was genotyped and patients were classified according to alleles and genotypes. Steatosis was detected in 46.4% (220/474). Fibrosis was assessed by Scheuer score. Gene expression was analyzed in Huh7.5 and Huh7 cells using Real Time-PCR. RESULTS: PNPLA3 allele-G was associated with steatosis [54.1% (126/233) vs. 39% (94/241)] (p = 0.0001). In HCV-1, allele-G was related to steatosis [50.6% (82/162) vs. 32.3% (53/164)] (p = 0.001), but did not in HCV-3 [61.9% (26/42) vs. 62% (31/50)] (p = 0.993). PNPLA3 allele-G was associated with steatosis in patients with IL28B-CT/TT [57.7% (82/142) vs. 37.1% (56/151)] (p = 0.0001), but did not in IL28B-CC [47.8% (43/90) vs. 42% (37/88)] (p = 0.442). Independent variables associated with steatosis were: PNPLA3 G-allele [O.R. 1.84 (CI95%: 1.06-3.21); p = 0.007], age [O.R. 1.04 (CI95%: 1.01-1.07); p = 0.017], HCV-genotype 3 [O.R. 2.46 (CI95%: 1.30-4.65); p = 0.006], HOMA > 4 [O.R. 2.72 (CI95%: 1.27-5.82); p = 0.010]. Since PNPLA3 RNA could not be detected on PBMC from HCV patients, an in vitro analysis was performed. Huh7.5 cells infected with JFH1 had a decreased PNPLA3 gene expression (fold inhibition = 3.2 ± 0.2), while Huh7 cells presented increased PNPLA3 gene expression (fold induction = 1.5 ± 0.2). CONCLUSION: PNPLA3 allele-G modulated the development of steatosis, particularly in patients with HCV-1 and IL28B-CT/TT genotype, but was not associated with SVR. Metabolic but not viral steatosis seems to be PNPLA3 regulated. Gene interaction may result in differential PNPLA3 gene expression levels in HCV infection.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/genética , Interleucinas/genética , Lipase/genética , Fígado/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Células Cultivadas , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Fígado Gorduroso/virologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Interferon alfa-2 , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Interferons , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Carga Viral
18.
Gastroenterol. hepatol. (Ed. impr.) ; 37(1): 1-8, ene. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-118349

RESUMO

Introduction: Less than half of patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 3 (G3) and high viral load (HVL) without a rapid virological response (RVR) achieve a sustained virological response (SVR) when treated with peginterferon plus ribavirin (RBV).Objectives To assess the impact of high doses of RBV on SVR in patients with G3 and HVL. Methods Ninety-seven patients were randomized to receive peginterferon α-2a+RBV 800mg/day (A; n = 42) or peginterferon α-2a+RBV 1600mg/day+epoetin β 400IU/kg/week SC (B; n = 55). Patients allocated to group B who achieved RVR continued on RBV (800mg/day) for a further 20 weeks (B1; n = 42) while non-RVR patients received a higher dose of RBV (1600mg/day) + epoetin β (B2; n = 13). RESULTS: RVR was observed in 64.3% of patients in A and in 76.4% in B (p = 0.259). Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis showed SVR rates of 64.3% (A) and 61.8% (B), with a reduction of -2.5% (-21.8% to 16.9%) (p = 0.835). The SVR rate was 61.9% in arm B1 and 61.5% in arm B2. No serious adverse events were reported, and the rate of moderate adverse events was < 5%. CONCLUSIONS: G3 patients with high viral load without RVR did not obtain a benefit from a higher dose of RBV. Higher doses of RBV plus epoetin β were safe and well tolerated (Clin Trials Gov NCT00830609)


Introducción: Menos de la mitad de los pacientes con hepatitis crónica C genotipo 3 (G3) con carga viral elevada y sin respuesta virológica rápida (RVR) alcanzan respuesta virológica sostenida (RVS) con peginterferón y ribavirina (RBV). Objetivos: Evaluar el impacto de altas dosis de RBV sobre la RVS en pacientes con G3 y cargaviral elevada. Métodos: Noventa y siete pacientes recibieron asignación aleatoria para tratamiento con peginterferón α-2a+RBV800mg/día (A; n=42) o peginterferón α-2ª + RBV 1600 mg/día + epoetina β 400UI/kg/semana SC (B; n = 55). Los pacientes asignados al grupo B que alcanzaron RVR continuaron con RBV (800 mg/día) durante 20 semanas más (B1; n = 42) mientras que los que no alcanzaron RVR recibieron una dosis más alta de RBV (1.600 mg/día)+epoetina β (B2; n = 13). Resultados: Se observó RVR en el 64,3% de los pacientes en A y 76,4% en B (p = 0,259). El análisis por intención de tratar(ITT) mostró una tasa de RVS de 64,3% (A) y 61,8% (B), con una reducción de -2,5% (-21,8-16.9%) (p = 0,835). La tasa de RVS fue 61,9% en brazo B1 y 61,5% en brazo B2. No se detectaron efectos adversos graves y la tasa de efectos adversos moderados fue <5%. Conclusiones: Los pacientes G3 con carga viral elevada sin RVR no obtuvieron beneficio de dosis más altas de RBV. Las dosis más altas de ribavirina más epoetina β fueron seguras y bien toleradas. (Clin Trials Gov NCT00830609)


Assuntos
Humanos , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Carga Viral , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 37 Suppl 1: 23-36, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25907435

RESUMO

The treatment plan for chronic hepatitis C in special populations varies according to comorbidity and the current evidence on treatment. In patients with hepatitis C virus and HIV coinfection, the results of dual therapy (pegylated interferon plus ribavirin) are poor. In patients with genotype 1 infection, triple therapy (dual therapy plus boceprevir or telaprevir) has doubled the response rate, but protease inhibitors can interact with some antiretroviral drugs and provoke more adverse effects. These disadvantages are avoided by the new, second-generation, direct-acting antiviral agents. In patients who are candidates for liver transplantation or are already liver transplant recipients, the optimal therapeutic option at present is to combine the new antiviral agents, with or without ribavirin and without interferon. The treatment of patients under hemodialysis due to chronic renal disease continues to be dual therapy (often with reduced doses of pegylated interferon and ribavirin), since there is still insufficient information on triple therapy and the new antiviral agents. In mixed cryoglobulinemia, despite the scarcity of experience, triple therapy seems to be superior to dual therapy and may be used as rescue therapy in non-responders to dual therapy. However, a decision must always be made on whether antiviral treatment should be used concomitantly or after immunosuppressive therapy.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacocinética , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/farmacocinética , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Comorbidade , Crioglobulinemia/tratamento farmacológico , Crioglobulinemia/etiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Esquema de Medicação , Interações Medicamentosas , Quimioterapia Combinada , Previsões , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/cirurgia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/farmacocinética , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Rim , Transplante de Fígado , Metanálise como Assunto , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Inibidores de Proteases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia
20.
Org Lett ; 16(2): 584-7, 2014 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24372372

RESUMO

Aldol reactions of titanium enolates of lactate-derived ethyl ketone 1 with other ketones proceed in a very efficient and stereocontrolled manner provided that a further equivalent of TiCl4 is added to the reacting mixture. The scope of these reactions encompasses simple ketones such as acetone or cyclohexanone as well as other ketones that contain potential chelating groups such as pyruvate esters or α- and ß-hydroxy ketones.

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